Further Reading

Ames BN, Gold LS, and Willett WC (1995) The causes and prevention of cancer. Proceedings of the National Academy of-Sciences USA 92: 5258-5265. Armstrong B and Doll R (1975) Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices. International Journal of Cancer 15: 617-631.

Colditz GA and Willett W (1991) Epidemiologic approaches to the study of diet and cancer. In: Alfin-Slater RB and Kritchevsky D (eds.) Cancer and Nutrition. New York: Plenum.

Doll R and Peto R (1981) The causes of cancer: Quantitative estimates of avoidable risks in the United States today. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 66: 1191-1308.

Giovannucci E, Stampher MJ, Colditz GA et al. (1993) A comparison of prospective and retrospective assessments of diet in the study of breast cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology 137: 502-511.

Seow A, Duffy SW, McGee MA et al. (1996) Breast cancer in Singapore: Trends in incidence 1968-1992. International Journal of Epidemiology 25: 40-45. Trichopoulos D, Li FP, and Hunter DJ (1996) What causes cancer?

Scientific American 275: 80-87. Trichopoulos D and Willett WC (eds.) (1996) Nutrition and cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 7: 3-180. Willett WC (1989) Nutritional Epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford

University Press. Willett WC, Colditz GA, and Mueller NE (1996) Strategies for minimizing cancer risk. Scientific American 275: 88-95. Wydner EL, Yasuyuki F, Harris RE et al. (1991) Comparative epidemiology of cancer between the United States and Japan. Cancer 67: 746-763.

Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Cancers Other Than Colorectal Cancers

H-Y Huang, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA

© 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

This article addresses the epidemiology of esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer, and small intestine cancer. People with any of these cancers are often diagnosed at 60-80 years of age. The incidences are higher among men than among women and vary widely with geographic location and population, suggesting that environmental factors are important in the development of these cancers.

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

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