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Altucci L and Gronemeyer H (2001) Nuclear receptors in cell life and death. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 12: 460-468.

Collins MD and Mao GE (1999) Teratology of retinoids. Annual Reviews of Pharmacology and Toxicology 39: 399-430.

De Luca LM, Kosa K, and Andreola F (1997) The role of vitamin A in differentiation and skin carcinogenesis. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 8: 426-437.

Harrison EH and Hussain MM (2001) Mechanisms involved in the intestinal digestion and absorption of dietary vitamin A. Journal of Nutrition 131: 1405-1408.

Li E and Tso P (2003) Vitamin A uptake from foods. Current Opinions in Lipidology 14: 241-247.

Institute of Medicine (2000) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids, ch. 8. Washington: National Academy Press.

Noy N (2000) Retinoid-binding proteins: mediators of retinoid action. Biochemical Journal 348: 481-495.

Institute of Medicine (2001) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc, ch. 4. Washington: National Academy Press.

Ross AC (1996) Vitamin A deficiency and retinoid repletion regulate the antibody response to bacterial antigens and the maintenance of natural killer cells. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 80(supplement): S36-S72.

Ross AC (1999) Vitamin A and retinoids. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M et al. (eds.) Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th edn, pp. 305-327. Baltimore: William & Wilkins.

Ross AC (2003) Retinoid production and catabolism: Role of diet in regulating retinol esterification and retinoic acid oxidation. Journal of Nutrition 133(suppl): 291S-296S.

Ross AC, Zolfaghari R, and Weisz J (2001) Vitamin A: recent advances in the biotransformation, transport, and metabolism of retinoids. Current Opinions in Gastroenterology 17:184-192.

Olson JA (1984) Serum level of vitamin A and carotenoids as reflectors of nutritional status. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 73: 1439-1444.

Saari JC (2000) Biochemistry of visual pigment regeneration: the Friedenwald lecture. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 41: 337-348.

Sommer A and West KP Jr (1996) Vitamin A Deficiency: Health, Survival, and Vision New York: Oxford University Press.

Soprano DR and Blaner WS (1994) Plasma retinol-binding protein. In: Sporn MB, Roberts AB, and Goodman DS (eds.) The Retinoids: Biology, Chemistry and Medicine, 2nd edn., pp. 257-281. New York: Raven Press.

Stephensen CB (2001) Vitamin A, infection, and immune function. Annual Reviews of Nutrition 21: 167-192.

Stoltzfus RJ and Humphrey JH (2002) Vitamin A and the nursing mother-infant dyad: evidence for intervention. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 503: 39-47.

Tanumihardjo SA (2002) Influencing the conversion of carotenoids to retinol: bioavailability to bioconversion to bioefficacy. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research 72: 40-45.

Underwood BA and Smitasiri S (1999) Micronutrient malnutrition: Policies and programs for control and their implications. Annual Reviews of Nutrition 19: 303-324.

van het Hof KH, West CE, Weststrate JA et al. (2000) Dietary factors that affect the bioavailability of carotenoids. Journal of Nutrition 130: 503-506.

Von Reinersdorff D, Green MH, and Green JB (1998) Development of a compartmental model describing the dynamics of vitamin A metabolism in men. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 445: 207-223.

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