Further Reading

Alves-Rodrigues A and Shao A (2004) The science behind lutein. Toxicology Letters 150: 57-83.

Christen WG, Gaziano JM, and Hennekens CH (2000) Design of Physicians' Health Study II - a randomized trial of beta-carotene, vitamins E and C, and multivitamins, in prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and eye disease, and review of results of completed trials. Annals of Epidemiology 10: 125-134.

Giovannucci E (2002) A review of epidemiologic studies of tomatoes, lycopene, and prostate cancer. Experimental Biology of Medicine 227: 852-859.

Hwang ES and Bowen PE (2002) Can the consumption of tomatoes or lycopene reduce cancer risk? Integrative Cancer Therapies 1: 121-132.

Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board (2000) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Johnson EJ (2002) The role of carotenoids in human health. Nutrition in Clinical Care 5: 56-65.

Krinsky NI, Landrum JT, and Bone RA (2003) Biologic mechanisms of the protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the eye. Annual Review of Nutrition 23: 171-201.

Krinsky NI, Mayne SI, and Sies H (eds.) (2004) Carotenoids in Health and Disease. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Mares-Perlman JA, Millen AE, Ficek TL, and Hankinson SE (2002) The body of evidence to support a protective role for lutein and zeaxanthin in delaying chronic disease. Journal of Nutrition 132: 518S-524S.

Rapola JM, Virtamo J, Haukka JK et al. (1996) Effect of vitamin E and beta-carotene on the incidence of angina pectoris. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 275: 693-698.

Tanumihardjo SA (2002) Factors influencing the conversion of carotenoids to retinol: Bioavailability to bioconversion to bioefficacy. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research 72: 40-45.

The Alpha-Tocopherol Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group (1994) The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. New England Journal of Medicine 330: 1029-1035.

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