Further Reading

A.S.P.E.N. (1998) Special report: Safe practices for parenteral nutrition formulations. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 22: 49-66.

A.S.P.E.N. (2002) Nutritional Considerations in the Intensive Care Unit. Silver Spring, MD: American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

A.S.P.E.N. board of directors (1998) Clinical Pathways and Algorithms for Delivery of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Support for Adults. Silver Spring, MD: American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

A.S.P.E.N. board of directors (1999) Standards for home nutrition support. Nutrition in Clinical Practice 14: 151-162.

Jonas CR, Griffiths DP, Bergman GF, Leader LM, and Ziegler TR (2001) Nutrient pharmacotherapy. In: Rolandelli R and Rombeau JL (eds.) Clinical Nutrition: Parenteral Nutrition, vol. 3, pp. 562-579. Philadelphia: WB Saunders.

Lin E, Calvano SE, and Lowry SF (1998) Systemic response to injury. In: Schwartz SI (ed.) Principles of Surgery, 7th edn., pp. 3-51. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Lin E, Goncalves JA, and Lowry SF (1998) Efficacy of nutritional pharmacology in surgical patients. Current Opinion in Nutrition and Metabolic Care 1: 41-50.

Lin E, Kotani J, and Lowry SF (1998) Nutritional modulation of immunity and inflammatory response. Nutrition 14: 545-550.

Lin E and Lowry SF (2002) Substrate metabolism in surgery. In: Norton JA (ed.) Surgery: Scientific Basis and Clinical Evidence, pp. 95-104. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Lord L (1997) Enteral access devices. Nursing Clinics of North America 32(4): 685-704.

Mascioli EA, Lopes SM, Champagne C, and Driscoll DF (1996) Essential fatty acid deficiency and home total parenteral nutrition patients. Nutrition 12: 245-249.

Shils M and Brown RO (1999) Parenteral nutrition. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, and Ross AC (eds.) Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th edn., pp. 1657-1688. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.

Ziegler TR (2001) Fuel metabolism and nutrient delivery in critical illness. In: Becker KL (ed.) Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism, pp. 2102-2107. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott.

Ziegler TR, Bazargan N, Leader LM, and Martindale RG (2000) Glutamine and the gastrointestinal tract. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 3: 355-362.

Ziegler TR, Puckett AB, Griffiths DP, and Galloway JR (1997) Interactions between nutrients and growth factors in cellular growth and tissue repair. In: Ziegler TR, Pierce GF, and Herndon DN (eds.) Growth Factors and Wound Healing: Basic Science and Potential Clinical Applications, pp. 104-150. New York: Springer-Verlag.

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