UNICEF is funded entirely through voluntary donations, chiefly from governments but also from private institutions and individuals. In 2001, the total income was $1225 million, of which $990 million was for regular programs (unrestricted plus earmarked resources) and $235 million raised for emergencies (Table 1). Of the total, governments and

Table 1 UNICEF Income, 1999-2001 (in millions of US$)




Regular resources




Other (regular)




Other (emergencies)








intergovernmental organizations contributed 64%, and the National Committees contributed nearly 30%.

Although 152 countries made some contribution to UNICEF in 2001, only 9 contributed more than $40 million from both the governmental and private sectors. The three governments that contributed most in total funds were the United States, Japan, and the United Kingdom. In terms of total funds per head of population, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark contributed most.

UNICEF has developed supportive relationships with international service organizations such as Rotary International, which has contributed more than $462 million for the global eradication of polio (with $167 million directly through UNICEF), and Kiwanis International, which raises funds for the elimination of IDD. Canada and Sweden are also major contributors for such activities.

Regular resources are available for cooperation in country programs approved by the executive board, as well as for programme support and administrative expenditures. Allocations are made to country programs according to three criteria: annual number of deaths of children younger than 5 years per 1000 live births, income level (GNP per caput), and the size of the child population. Thus, most money is allocated to the larger, and poorer, countries. Representatives have the responsibility to negotiate with governments programs of cooperation within these allocations. Such programs may be expanded if other resources become available.

Total expenditure in 2001 was $1246 million— 93% for country programs of cooperation and

6% for management and administration of the organization.

See also: Breast Feeding. Children: Nutritional Requirements; Nutritional Problems. Infants: Nutritional Requirements. Vitamin A: Deficiency and Interventions. World Health Organization.

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