A patient's fluid intake and output should be considered when determining fluid requirements. Urinary losses, along with other losses such as diarrhea, nasogastric suction, emesis, fistula, or other drainage losses, can significantly increase the patient's need for additional fluid. In general, adult patients will need approximately 30 ml/kg body weight daily to meet volume requirements. Monitoring should include adequate urine output, skin turgor, and adequate mucous membrane hydration. Fluid overload in conditions such as compromised cardiac, hepatic, or renal function may dictate use of volume-concentrated formulations.
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