Fat

Cereals are generally very low in fat, most containing only 2-4% (Tables 3-6). However, some types of maize and oats have more than 10% fat. The distribution of fat within the grain is variable. In oats the fat is distributed throughout the endosperm; in maize it is concentrated in the germ, from which it can be extracted after separation, while rice bran contains 15-20% oil depending on production conditions. Fat is often added in processing, for example in baked products.

Fatty acid composition Cereal fat is liquid at room temperature; it is high in unsaturates and is more correctly described as oil. The major fatty acids in cereal oils are oleic acid (monounsaturated), linoleic acid (polyunsaturated), and palmitic acid

Table 8 Amino-acid composition of sorghum and millets; representative values in grams per 100 g protein

Millets

Table 8 Amino-acid composition of sorghum and millets; representative values in grams per 100 g protein

Millets

Amino-acid

Sorghum

Pearl

Foxtail

Proso

Finger

Japanese

Fonio

Essential

Histidine

2.2

2.2

2.3

2.2

2.6

1.9

2.2

Isoleucine

4.1

4.4

5.0

4.5

5.1

4.5

4.1

Leucine

14.6

12.2

13.3

12.9

13.5

11.5

10.8

Lysine

2.2

3.3

2.1

2.2

3.7

1.7

2.2

Methionine

1.4

2.2

2.6

2.0

2.6

1.8

4.3

Cysteine

1.7

1.5

1.4

1.7

1.6

1.5

2.5

Phenylalanine

5.0

5.2

5.3

5.2

6.2

5.9

5.9

Tyrosine

3.2

3.2

2.7

3.9

3.6

2.7

3.7

Threonine

3.3

3.9

3.9

3.4

5.1

2.7

3.7

Tryptophan

1.1

1.6

1.5

0.9

1.3

1.0

1.6

Valine

5.4

5.7

5.2

5.1

7.9

6.1

5.5

Non-essential

Alanine

9.1

8.5

8.9

9.3

8.0

9.2

9.4

Arginine

4.3

4.8

6.1

4.4

5.2

3.2

3.6

Aspartic acid

6.4

8.7

6.9

5.5

7.9

6.3

9.0

Glutamic acid

22.6

21.2

18.8

20.5

27.1

20.7

22.3

Glycine

3.2

3.6

2.9

2.2

4.8

2.7

3.0

Proline

7.6

7.2

10.6

7.2

6.7

10.3

7.2

Serine

4.2

4.9

5.8

6.3

6.9

5.8

5.4

(saturated), and representative values for the fatty-acid compositions of cereals are given in Table 9. Stearic and linolenic acids are present in small but significant amounts, and a range of other fatty acids are present in trace amounts.

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