Factors that influence a nutritional decline during a period of diarrhea include reduced food intake, diminished nutrient absorption due to malabsorption of macro- and micronutrients and shorter intestinal transit time, direct loss of protein and other nutrients, and an increase in the body's demand for nutrients. In addition, diarrhea of infectious origins causes cytokine-induced malnutrition, which results from the action of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor and inter-leukin-1, -6, and -8.
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