Effects of Processing

Vitamin and mineral contents may be profoundly influenced by processing. Vitamins and minerals are found at the highest concentrations in the outer bran layers. Comparison of the various whole-grain and milled products in Tables 10-12 shows that bran is richer in vitamins and minerals, while flour and meal fractions are depleted. Sodium may be substantially increased by the addition of salt (Tables 10-12), leavening agents, or other additives. Other minerals and vitamins are often added as fortification to replace, standardize, or augment the levels naturally present. Although white bread made from fortified flour has a lower mineral and vitamin content than wholemeal bread (Table 11), wholemeal bread contains higher levels of phytic acid, which will influence availability (see below). Cornflour contains low levels of minerals and only traces of vitamins. Cornflakes are fortified with a number of minerals and vitamins, including vitamins B12 and D (Table 10). The fortification of breads and other cereal foodstuffs with folic acid has recently become increasingly common.

Table 10 Mineral and vitamin contents of rice and maize (corn) products; representative values per 100 g fresh weight (water contents as per Table 3)

Brown rice,

White rice,

Brown rice,

White rice,

White rice,

Maize

Cornflakesb

uncooked

uncooked

boileda

boileda

flour

meal

Sodium (mg)

3

6

1

2

5

40

1110

Potassium (mg)

250

110

99

38

76

350

100

Calcium (mg)

10

4

4

1

10

20

15

Magnesium (mg)

110

13

43

4

35

140

14

Phosphorus (mg)

310

100

120

34

98

290

38

Iron (mg)

1.4

0.5

0.5

0.2

0.4

3

6.7

Zinc (mg)

1.8

1.3

0.7

0.5

0.8

2

0.3

Copper (mg)

0.85

0.18

0.33

0.06

0.13

0.40

0.03

Manganese (mg)

2.30

0.87

0.90

0.30

1.20

0.60

0.08

Vitamin E (mg)

0.80

0.10

0.30

0.02

0.13

0.50

0.40

Thiamin (mg)

0.59

0.08

0.14

0.01

0.14

0.40

1.00

Riboflavin (mg)

0.07

0.02

0.02

0.01

0.02

0.11

1.50

Niacin (mg)

5.3

1.5

1.3

0.3

2.6

2.2

16.0

Vitamin B6 (mg)

0.70

0.30

0.30

0.10

0.44

0.53

1.80

Pantothenate (mg)

1.2

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.8

0.6

0.3

Folate (mg)

40

20

10

3

4

40

250

Biotin (mg)

7

3

2

1

n/a

10

2

aUnsalted water. bReady-to-eat cereal, fortified. n/a, no data available.

aUnsalted water. bReady-to-eat cereal, fortified. n/a, no data available.

Table 11 Mineral and vitamin content of wheat products; representative values per 100 g fresh weight (water contents as per Table 4)

Wholemeal

White

Bran

White

Wholemeal

Uncooked

Boiled pastac,d

floura

floura

breadb

breada

pastac

Sodium (mg)

3

3

28

520

550

8

1

Potassium (mg)

340

130

1160

110

230

237

24

Calcium (mg)

38

15

110

110

54

24

6

Magnesium (mg)

120

31

520

24

76

52

14

Phosphorus (mg)

320

120

1200

91

200

190

45

Iron (mg)

3.9

1.5

12.9

1.6

2.7

1.8

0.5

Zinc (mg)

2.9

0.9

16.2

0.6

1.8

1.5

0.5

Copper (mg)

0.45

0.18

1.34

0.20

0.26

0.30

0.09

Manganese (mg)

3.14

0.68

9.00

0.45

1.90

0.87

0.25

Vitamin E (mg)

1.40

0.30

2.60

trace

0.20

trace

trace

Thiamin (mg)

0.50

0.10

0.90

0.21

0.34

0.30

0.03

Riboflavin (mg)

0.09

0.03

0.36

0.06

0.09

0.05

0.01

Niacin (mg)

5.7

0.7

29.6

1.7

4.1

2.8

0.5

Vitamin B6 (mg)

0.50

0.15

1.38

0.07

0.12

0.13

0.01

Pantothenate (mg)

0.8

0.3

2.4

0.3

0.6

0.3

trace

Folate (mg)

57

22

260

30

40

30

4

Biotin (mg)

7

1

45

1

6

1

bMade from UK fortified white flour containing 140mg calcium, 2.1 mg iron, 0.32mg thiamin, 2.0mg niacin per 100g. cMeans of lasagne, macaroni, and white spaghetti. dUnsalted water.

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