Dietary Energy

Dietary energy values are inversely related to water contents and also depend on the relative amounts of the macronutrients (digestible carbohydrate, protein, and fat). Fat has over twice the energy per gram of carbohydrate or protein, and thus differences in dietary energy are largely determined by variations in the levels of fat, water, and indigestible components (principally fiber). Energy values are higher when fat is higher and lower when water or fiber contents are higher (Tables 3-6). Higher fiber contents are found in whole-grain and bran-rich products, while water and fat contents may be changed during processing.

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