Conclusion Of

The measurement of body composition allows for the estimation of body tissues, organs, and their distributions in living persons without inflicting harm. It is important to recognize that there is no single measurement method in existence that allows for the measurement of all tissues and organs and no method is error free. Furthermore, bias can be introduced if a measurement method makes assumptions related to body composition proportions and characteristics that are inaccurate across different populations. The clinical significance of the body compartment to be measured should first be determined before a measurement method is selected since the more advanced techniques are less accessible and more costly.

Table 4 REE prediction equations based on anthropometrics or body composition

Authors Subjects/gender/nation Weight status Age (years)

Table 4 REE prediction equations based on anthropometrics or body composition

Authors Subjects/gender/nation Weight status Age (years)

Harris & Benedict (1919)

239/M-F/USA

NW

29± 14 (X±SD)

Robertson & Reid (1952)

2310/M-F/UK

NS

Range (3-80)

Altman & Dittmer (1968)

>200/M-F/USA

NW

Range (3-16)

Dore et al. (1982)

140/F/UK

NW,

OW,

OB

Variable

Bernstein (1983)

202/M(154)/USA

OW,

OB

40± 12 (X±SD)

Garrow & Webster (1985)

104/F/UK

NW,

OW,

OB

Variable

Joint FAO/WHO/UN (1985)

11 000/M-F/Multi

NW,

OW,

OB

Variable

Schofield (1985)

7549/M-F/UK

NW,

OW,

OB

Range (<3 to >6

Owen (1986)

44/F/USA

NW,

OW,

OB

29± 14 (X±SD)

Owen (1987)

60/M/USA

NW,

OW,

OB

29± 14 (X±SD)

Owen (1988)

104/M-F/USA

NW,

OW,

OB

29± 14 (X±SD)

Ravussin & Bogardus(1989)

249/M-F/USA

NW,

OW,

OB

Variable

Maffeis et al. (1990)

130/M-F/ltaly

NW,

OW,

OB

Range (6-10)

Mifflin et al. (1990)

498/M-F/USA

NW,

OW,

OB

F: BMR = 9.5 wt (kg) + 1.9ht (cm) -4.7 age (years) + 655 M: BMR = 13.8wt (kg) + 5.0 ht (cm)-6.8 age (years) + 66 RMR = BSA (m2) x 24 x age-specific value F: REE = 0.778wt (kg) + 24.11 M: REE = 0.815 wt (kg) + 21.09

REE = 8.24 wt (kg) + 0.02 FFM (kg)-3.25 age (years) + 712 RMR = 7.48wt (kg)-0.42ht (cm)-3.0 age (years) + 844 REE = 22 FFM (kg) + 6.4 FM (kg) -2.1 age (years) + 251 REE = 24.2 FFM (kg) + 5.8 (% fat) + 310

3-10years F: REE = 22.5wt (kg) + 499 3-10years M: REE = 22.7wt (kg) + 495 10-18years F: REE = 17.5 wt (kg) + 651 10-18years M: REE = 12.2wt (kg) + 746 18-30years F: BMR = 55.6wt (kg) + 1397.4ht (m) + 146 30-60years F: BMR = 36.4 wt (kg) - 104.6ht (m) + 3619 18-30years M: BMR = 64.4 wt (kg) - 113.0ht (m) + 3000 30-60years M: BMR = 47.2wt (kg) + 66.9 ht (m) + 3769 Under 3years F: BMR = 0.068wt (kg) + 4.281 ht (m) - 1.730 Under 3years M: BMR = 0.0007 wt (kg) + 6.349 ht (m) - 2.584 3-10years F: BMR = 0.071 wt (kg) + 0.677 ht (m) + 1.553 3-10years M: BMR = 0.082wt (kg) + 0.545ht (m) + 1.736 10-18years F: BMR = 0.035wt (kg) + 1.948ht (m) + 0.837 10-18years M: BMR = 0.068wt (kg) + 0.574 ht (m) + 2.157 18-30years F: BMR = 0.057wt (kg) + 1.184ht (m) + 0.411 18-30years M: BMR = 0.063wt (kg)-0.042ht (m) + 2.953 30-60years F: BMR = 0.034wt (kg) + 0.006ht (m) + 3.530 30-60years M: BMR = 0.048wt (kg)-0.011 ht (m) + 3.670 Over 60years F: BMR = 0.033 wt (kg) + 1.917ht (m) + 0.074 Over 60years M: BMR = 0.038wt (kg) + 4.068ht (m) -3.491 F: RMR = 7.18wt (kg) + 795 M: RMR = 10.2wt (kg) + 879 REE = 23.6 FFM (kg) + 186 REE = 21.8 FFM (kg) + 392

F: REE = (35.8wt (kg) + 15.6ht (cm)-36.3 age (years) + 1552)/4.18 M: REE = (28.6wt (kg) + 23.6ht (cm)-69.1 age (years) + 1287)/4.18

F: RMR = 9.99 wt (kg) + 6.25 ht (cm)-4.92 age (years)-161 M: RMR = 9.99 wt (kg) + 6.25 ht (cm) -4.92 age (years) + 5 REE = 19.7 FFM (kg) + 413

Table 4 Continued

Cunningham (1991)

Meta-analysis

NW,

OW,

OB

REE = 21.6 FFM (kg) + 370

Hayter & Henry (1994)

2999/M/UK

NW,

OW,

OB

Range (18-30)

M: RMR = 51.0wt (kg) + 3500

Piers etal. (1997)

van der Ploeg et ai. (2001)

39/M/Australia 38/M/Australia

NW, NW,

OW OW

Range (18-30) 24.3 ±3.3 (X±SD)

18-30years M: RMR = 48.2wt (kg) + 25.8ht (cm)-49.6 age (years) + 113 18-30years M: RMR = 21.0wt (kg)-56.2 age (years) + 76.1 FFM 4C (kg) + 2202

van der Ploeg et ai. (2002)

41/M/Australia

NW,

OW

44.8 ±8.6 (X±SD)

30-60years M: RMR = 41.92wt (kg) + 13.79 ht (cm) -14.89 age (years) + 1939 30-60years M: RMR = 91.85 FFM 4C (kg) + 1463

Siervo et ai. (2003)

157/F/ltaly

NW,

OW,

OB

23.8 ±3.8 (X±SD)

F: RMR = 11.5 wt (kg) + 542.2

M, male; F, female; NS, not specific; NW, normal weight; OW, overweight; OB, obesity; X, mean; SD, standard deviation; BSA, body surface area; wt, weight; ht, height; BMR, basal metabolic rate; RMR, resting metabolic rate; REE, resting energy expenditure; FFM, fat-free mass; FFM 4C, fat-free mass via the four-compartment body composition model; FM, fat mass.

Adapted from the following references: Altman P and Dittmer D (1968) Metabolism. Bethesda: Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology; Bernstein RS, Thornton JC, Yang MU et ai. (1983) Prediction of the resting metabolic rate in obese patients. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 37: 595-602; Cunningham J J (1991) Body composition as a determinant of energy expenditure: a synthetic review and a proposed general prediction equation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54: 963-969; Dore C, Hesp R, Wilkins D, and Garrow JS (1982) Prediction of requirements of obese patients after massive weight loss. Human Nutrition Clinical Nutrition 36C: 41-48; Garrow JS and Webster J (1985) Are pre-obese people energy thrift? Lancet 1: 670-671; Harris JA and FG Benedict (1919) A Biometric Study of Basal Metabolism in Man, pp. 1-266. Washington DC: Carnegie Institution; Hayter JE and Henry CJK (1994) A re-examination of basal metabolic rate predictive equations: the importance of geographic origin of subjects in sample selection. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48: 702-707; Joint FAO/WHO/UN Expert Consultation (1985) Energy and Protein Requirements. Technical Reports Series 724. Geneva: World Health Organization; Maffeis C, Schutz Y, Micciolo R Zoccante L, and Pinelli L (1993) Resting metabolic rate in six- to ten-year-old obese and non-obese children. Journal of Pediatrics 122: 556-562; Mifflin MD, St Jeor TS, Hill LA et ai. (1990) A new predictive equation for resting energy expenditure in healthy individuals. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51: 241-247; Owen OE (1988) Resting metabolic requirements of men and women. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 63: 503-510; Owen OE, Holup JL, D'Allessio DA et ai. (1987) A reappraisal of the caloric requirements of men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 46: 875-885; Owen OE, Kavle E, Owen RS et ai. (1986) A reappraisal of caloric requirements in healthy women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 44: 1-19; Piers LS, Diffey B, Soares MJ et ai. (1997) The validity of predicting the basal metabolic rate of young Australian men and women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51: 333-337; Ravussin E and Bogardus C (1989) Relationship of genetics, age, and physical fitness to daily energy expenditure and fuel utilization. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49: 968-975; Robertson JD and Reid DD (1952) Standards for the basal metabolism in normal people in Britain. Lancet 1: 940-943; Schofield WN (1985) Predicting basal metabolic rate, new standards and review of previous work. Human Nutrition Clinical Nutrition 39C: 5-41; Siervo M, Boschi V, and Falconi C (2003) Which REE prediction equation should we use in normal-weight, overweight and obese women? Clinical Nutrition 22: 193-204; van der Ploeg and Withers RT (2002) Predicting the metabolic rate of 30-60-year-old Australian males. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56: 701-708; van der Ploeg GE, Gunn SM, Withers RT, Modra AC, Keeves JP, and Chatterton BE (2001) Predicting the resting metabolic rate of young Australian males. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55: 145-152.

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