Cognitive and Social Cues

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s a large number of behavioral studies examined the effect of cognitive and social cues (perceived energy content of foods, salience of cues, eating behavior of others present) on feeding in relation to the externality hypothesis. While a large number of studies found that so-called external cues do relate to short-term feeding behavior, a large number of others did not. However, the presence of external cues alone does not reliably predict how much food people will eat. Neither does the presence of external cues always relate to lean-obese differences in feeding patterns. Some of these differences in relation to cognitive and social cues are better explained in relation to dietary restraint. 'Restraint' is a term used to describe people who are attempting to limit or reduce their body weight by means of cognitive energy restriction (dieting). In doing so it is proposed that they are placing their motivation in relation to feeding at odds with physiological feeding stimuli. Placing

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