The cartilaginous fishes include the sharks and rays, whose flesh is rich in connective tissue and relatively low in fat, although they do accumulate oils in their livers. The concentrations of vitamins and minerals are very similar to those in white fish. These fishes contain urea in relatively large amounts, and so protein values based on total nitrogen are overestimated. The ammonia smell of cooked sharks and rays is not an indication that the fish is spoiled but rather is the result of enzymatic degradation of urea.
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