AFB1 is a potent liver carcinogen in many species of animals, including rodents, nonhuman primates, and fish. In appropriate circumstances, dependent on such variables as animal species and strain, dose, route of administration, and dietary factors, significant incidences of tumors have been induced at sites other than the liver, such as kidney and colon. AFB1 has been demonstrated to induce liver tumors in two species of lower primates: the tree shrew (Tupaia glis) and the marmoset (Sagui-nus oedipomidas). All liver tumors of the tree shrew were classified as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and developed in a manner similar to those of the rat. Unlike the case with rats, in the marmoset histologic observation revealed the association of cirrhotic changes with liver tumor development. Rhesus monkeys have also proven to be susceptible to AFB1 carcinogenicity. Data from 47 monkeys, representing three species (rhesus, cynomolgus, and African green), that had received AFB1 have been published. Primary liver tumor incidence was 19% (5/26) in animals surviving for longer than 6 months, and total tumor incidence in these animals was 50% (13/26).
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