Carbohydrates

Digestible carbohydrate, in the form of starch, is the major dry-matter component of all cereals (Tables 3-6). Sugars, which usually account for much less than 1% of cereal grain, may be added in processing; cornflakes, for example, have about 7% sugars. Cornflour is a milling product with a very high starch content (Table 3). Most cereal starches are 20-30% amylose, the rest being amylopectin. However, there are types of rice, maize, and barley with up to 80% amylose or with up to 100% amy-lopectin (waxy types). In some cereal products a small proportion of the starch (up to 3%) exists as resistant starch, which resists enzymatic digestion. Digestible starch yields glucose. However, the rate of digestion and absorption is influenced by the degree of processing among other factors. Thus, there can be substantial variations in the post-prandial blood glucose responses following ingestion of equivalent digestible-carbohydrate loads from different cereal products.

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