When calcium absorption is chronically low, because of low intakes, poor bioavailability, or conditions that impair intestinal absorption, there is a decrease in the serum ionized calcium concentration. This in turn stimulates the release of PTH, which returns serum calcium to normal by increasing renal calcium reabsorption, stimulating the renal production of 1,25(OH)2D3, and inducing bone reabsorption. The result of long-term calcium deficiency is accelerated bone loss in older individuals or the inability to fully achieve peak bone mass in younger individuals.
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