Calcium is a cofactor for a limited number of important enzymes apart from the more familiar actin-myosin complex in muscle; alpha amylase and thermolysin are two of the most familiar. As a free ion or working through calmodulin, calcium is better understood as an activator of enzymes in hormone-dependent cell signaling pathways. Enzymes that have been referred to as Ca-ATPases and H+/Ca-ATPases should not be mistaken for calcium-dependent enzymes. This is a misnomer in that the Ca2+ is the object of the enzyme's action rather than the cofactor for activity. The ATPases comprise a large group of membrane-bound enzymes that either pump Ca2+ from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum or expel calcium from the cell through membrane channels.

Reactivity As a group IIa metal, calcium is limited to a 2+ valence state and serves primarily as a divalent cation in its interactions with enzymes. The role of Ca2+ is limited mainly to structure stability.

Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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