A second major class of famine comprises those precipitated or triggered by declared war or armed insurgency, leading to a siege or food blockade by a foreign power (e.g., Allied blockade of Germany in 1915-18; Nazi blockade of Holland precipitating the Dutch Winter Famine of 1944-45, and the Nazi siege of Lenningrad in 1942-44) or, as occurring more in recent years, severe civil war that disrupts normal markets as well as emergency food delivery systems (e.g., the Somalian civil war and famine of 1991-92). Armed conflict can incapacitate or destroy a country's ability to govern, develop, produce and feed itself domestically or through food aid, as scores of people become displaced, destitute, starve and die from severe malnutrition and epidemic illness. The famine in Somalia in the early 1990s exemplifies the rapid emergence of military conflict as a precipitating cause of famine. With significant transfers of weaponry to rogue vigilante groups and increased deployments of land mines in other poor, warring countries in recent years, civil violence and lawlessness also pose a major hindrance to the effective provision of short-term relief during the acute phase of famine and to subsequent economic recovery.
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