Anthocyanins are widespread in nature, predominantly in fruits and flower tissues, in which they are responsible for the red, blue, and purple colors. They are also found in leaves, stems, seeds, and root tissue. In plants, they protect against excessive light by shading leaf mesophyll cells. Additionally, they play an important role in attracting pollinating insects. The most common anthocyanins are pelargonidin, cyanidin, delphinidin, peonidin, petunidin, and malvidin, which are predominantly present in plants as sugar conjugates.
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