Amino acids yield 4 kcal/g when oxidized for energy. Nitrogen content varies somewhat, depending on the individual amino acid formulation and mixture of amino acids. Mixtures of buffered essential and nonessential amino acids are available as stock concentrations ranging from 3 to 20%. Specialty amino acid products are also available for specific disease states or pediatric populations. For example, formulations containing a higher concentration of branched-chain amino acids may be considered for patients with hepatic insufficiency with accompanying encephalopathy.
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