Allium Organosulfur Compounds

There is increasing epidemiological evidence that other organosulfur compounds in addition to those derived from glucosinolates can protect against

Table 3 Case-control studies of stomach, colon, and rectal cancer showing inverse, null, or positive associations for the consumption of different types of phytochemical-rich fruit and vegetables

Fruit or vegetable type No. of studies

Table 3 Case-control studies of stomach, colon, and rectal cancer showing inverse, null, or positive associations for the consumption of different types of phytochemical-rich fruit and vegetables

Fruit or vegetable type No. of studies

Stomach cancela

Colon cancel

Rectal cancerc

Inverse

Null

Positive

Inverse

Null

Positive

Inverse

Null

Positive

Fruit

14

3

0

5

2

1

3

0

1

Citrus fruit

11

1

0

2

1

3

4

1

0

Tomatoes

9

1

1

4

0

2

3

2

1

Vegetables

11

0

0

8

0

1

2

0

2

Raw vegetables

10

0

0

3

0

1

Allium vegetables

9

1

1

4

1

1

2

0

1

Cruciferous vegetables

8

3

1

5

0

0

Green vegetables

8

0

0

4

1

0

Legumes

7

0

2

1

2

2

Carrots

7

1

1

4

0

1

aData summarize the results from 31 studies (both statistically significant and nonsignificant results included).

bData summarize the results from 21 studies (both statistically significant and nonsignificant results included).

cData summarize the results from 13 studies (both statistically significant and nonsignificant results included).

Adapted from Steinmetz KA and Potter JD (1996) Vegetables, fruit and cancer prevention: A review. Journal of the American Dietetic

Association 96:1027-1039.

Table 4 Case-control studies of lung, breast, and pancreatic cancer showing inverse, null, or positive associations for the consumption of different types of phytochemical-rich fruit and vegetables

Fruit or vegetable type No. of studies

Table 4 Case-control studies of lung, breast, and pancreatic cancer showing inverse, null, or positive associations for the consumption of different types of phytochemical-rich fruit and vegetables

Fruit or vegetable type No. of studies

Lung cancera

Breast cancel

Pancreatic cancerc

Inverse

Null

Positive

Inverse

Null

Positive

Inverse

Null

Positive

Fruit

8

0

0

3

0

1

6

1

0

Citrus fruit

1

0

2

1

2

0

Tomatoes

4

0

0

Vegetables

7

0

0

5

1

0

Raw vegetables

2

1

0

Green vegetables

9

0

0

5

1

0

aData summarize the results from 13 studies (both statistically significant and nonsignificant results included).

bData summarize the results from 13 studies (both statistically significant and nonsignificant results included).

cData summarize the results from nine studies (both statistically significant and nonsignificant results included).

Adapted from Steinmetz KA and Potter JD (1996) Vegetables, fruit and cancer prevention: A review. Journal of the American Dietetic

Association 96: 1027-1039.

cancer. Allium species such as garlic (Allium sativum) and onions (Allium cepa) are a rich source of organosulfur compounds, such as the diallyl sulfides. There is epidemiological evidence from the Netherlands Cohort Study (120 852 men and women 5569 years of age) for a strong inverse association between onion consumption and incidence of stomach carcinoma. However, the consumption of leeks and the use of garlic supplements were not associated with stomach carcinoma risk. The relative risk for stomach carcinoma in the highest onion consumption category (>0.5 onions/day) was 0.50 (95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.95) compared to the lowest consumption category (no onions/day). However, this study did not support an inverse association between the consumption of onions and leeks and the use of garlic supplements and the incidence of male and female colon and rectal carcinoma. There is only limited epidemiological evidence concerning the beneficial influence of garlic organosulfur compounds on cardiovascular disease.

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