Alanine

Alanine and glutamine are the principal amino acid substrates for hepatic gluconeogenesis and ureagen-esis. Alanine is produced in peripheral tissues in transamination processes with glutamate, branched chain amino acids, and other amino acids; following its release in the systemic circulation, alanine is predominantly taken up by the liver and to a lesser extent by the kidney. Here, alanine can be deami-nated to yield pyruvate and an amino group, which can be used for transamination processes, ureagen-esis, or can be excreted in urine. Thus, the alanine released from peripheral tissues may be converted to glucose in the liver or kidney and eventually become a substrate for peripheral (mainly muscular) glycolysis. This so-called glucose-alanine cycle may be especially relevant during metabolic stress and critical illness when the endogenous alanine release from peripheral tissues is increased. Simultaneously, alanine serves as a nitrogen carrier in this manner. Alanine is often used as the second amino acid in glutamine dipeptides that are applied to increase solubility and stability of glutamine in nutritional solutions.

Breaking Bulimia

Breaking Bulimia

We have all been there: turning to the refrigerator if feeling lonely or bored or indulging in seconds or thirds if strained. But if you suffer from bulimia, the from time to time urge to overeat is more like an obsession.

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