The author thanks The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and The World Cancer Research Fund International for financially supporting this work.

See also: Antioxidants: Diet and Antioxidant Defense. Further Reading

Ames BN and Wakimoto P (2002) Are vitamin and mineral deficiencies a major cancer risk? Nature Reviews 2: 694-704.

Asplund K (2002) Antioxidant vitamins in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review. Journal of Internal Medicine 251: 372-392. Benzie IFF (2003) Evolution of dietary antioxidants. Journal of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 136A: 113-126.

Block G, Norkus E, Hudes M, Mandel S, and Helzlsouer K (2001) Which plasma antioxidants are most related to fruit and vegetable consumption? American Journal of Epidemiology 154: 1113-1118. Brigelius-Flohe R, Kelly FJ, Salonen JT et al. (2002) The European perspective on vitamin E: current knowledge and future research. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 76: 703-716.

Clarkson PM and Thompson HS (2000) Antioxidants: what role do they play in physical activity and health? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72: 637S-646S. Duthie GG, Gardner PT, and Kyle JAM (2003) Plant polyphenols: are they the new magic bullet? Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 62: 599-603. Gey KF (1998) Vitamins E plus C and interacting co-nutrients required for optimal health: a critical and constructive review of epidemiology and supplementation data regarding cardiovascular disease and cancer. Biofactors 7: 113-175. Grundman M and Delaney P (2002) Antioxidant strategies for Alzheimer's disease. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 61: 191-202.

Khaw KT, Bingham S, Welch A et al. (2001) Relation between plasma ascorbic acid and mortality in men and women in EPIC-Norfolk prospective study: a prospective population study. Lancet 357: 657-663.

Lindsay DG and Clifford MN (eds.) (2000) Critical reviews within the EU Concerted Action 'Nutritional enhancement of plant-based food in European trade' ('NEODIET') Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 80: 793-1137.

McCall MR and Frei B (1999) Can antioxidant vitamins materially reduce oxidative damage in humans? Free Radical Biology and Medicine 26: 1034-1053.

Mensink RP and Plat J (2002) Post-genomic opportunities for understanding nutrition: the nutritionist's perspective. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 61: 404-463.

Padayatty SJ, Katz A, Wang Y et al. (2003) Vitamin C as an antioxidant: evaluation of its role in disease prevention. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 22: 18-35.

Pryor WA (2000) Vitamin E and heart disease: basic science to clinical intervention trials. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 28: 141-164.

World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research (1997) Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington DC: American Institute for Cancer Research.

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