Abnormalities in Acid Base Balance

Disturbances in acid-base balance are classified as either 'acidosis,' indicating an excess of H+ ions in the blood (reduced pH) or alkalosis, indicating the opposite. In practice, acidosis is the more common, varied, and serious problem. Disturbances in acid-base balance are usually labeled according to their origin. For example, respiratory acidosis reflects a primary problem in gas exchange with impaired excretion of CO2, whereas metabolic acidosis reflects the over-production of fixed acid or loss of bicarbonate. Compensation refers to the body's ability to offset the primary problem. Thus, the response to a primary metabolic acidosis is to increase the excretion of CO2 - respiratory compensation. If the pH returns to normal the problem is said to be 'fully compensated' whereas most disturbances tend to be only partially compensated (Table 3).

Table 3 Changes in blood and ECF during acid-base disturbance, the mechanism and degree of compensation

Problem

H]

[HCO3-]

PCo2 Compensation

Metabolic

Acidosis

Î

1°#

2°#

Partial respiratory

Alkalosis

#

1°Î

2°"

Partial respiratory

Respiratory

Acidosis

Î

1°Î

Complete renal

Alkalosis

#

2°#

1°#

Complete renal

Î, Increase;

#, decrease

; 1°, primary;

2°,

secondary.

Breaking Bulimia

Breaking Bulimia

We have all been there: turning to the refrigerator if feeling lonely or bored or indulging in seconds or thirds if strained. But if you suffer from bulimia, the from time to time urge to overeat is more like an obsession.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment