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Most important, the new dates from eastern Asia show that human-population mobility dates right back to the origins of effectively modern bodily form. Finds from Europe demonstrate that although distinctive regional variants evolved there, the history of occupation of that region may itself not have been at all a simple one. As ever, though, new evidence of the remote human past has served principally to underline the complexity of events in our evolution. We can only hope that an improving fossil record will flesh out the details of what was evidently a richly intricate process of hominid speciation and population movement over the past two million years. S3

Three New Human Skulls from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene Site in Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. J.-L. Arsuaga et al. in Nature, Vol. 362, No. 6420, pages 534-537; April 8, 1993. Age of the Earliest Known Hominids in Java, Indonesia. C. C. Swisher III et al. in Science, Vol. 263, No. 5150, pages 1118-1121; February 25, 1994.

Early Homo and Associated Artefacts from Asia. W. Huang et al. in Nature, Vol. 378, No. 6554, pages 275-278; November 16, 1995.

Whose Teeth? J. H. Schwartz and I. Tattersall in Nature, Vol. 381, No. 6579, pages 201-202; May 16, 1996.

Latest Homo erectus of Java: Potential Contemporaneity with Homo sapiens in Southeast Asia.

C. C. Swisher III et al. in Science, Vol. 274, No. 5294, pages 1870-1874; December 13, 1996. A Hominid from the Lower Pleistocene of Atapuerca, Spain: Possible Ancestor to Neandertals and Modern Humans. J. M. Bermudez de Castro et al. in Science, Vol. 276, pages 1392-1395; May 30, 1997.

Earliest Pleistocene Hominid Cranial Remains from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia: Taxonomy, Geological Setting, and Age. Leo Gabunia et al. in Science, Vol. 288, pages 1019-1025; May 12, 2000.

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