SPECULATIVE FAMILY TREE shows the variety of hominid species that have populated the planet—some identified by only a fragment, others known to exist for a specific time period (solidlines). The emergence of H. sapiens has not been a single, linear transformation of one species into another but rather a meandering, multifaceted evolution.

Sahelanthropus tchadensis (Chad)

in similar ways despite their anatomical differences. And as long as they did so, they somehow contrived to share the Levantine environment.

The situation in Europe could hardly be more different. The earliest H. sapiens sites there date from only about 40,000 years ago, and just 10,000 or so years later the formerly ubiquitous Ne-andertals were gone. Significantly, the H. sapiens who invaded Europe brought with them abundant evidence of a fully formed and unprecedented modern sensibility. Not only did they possess a new "Upper Paleolithic" stoneworking technology based on the production of multiple long, thin blades from cylindrical cores, but they made tools from bone and antler, with an exquisite sensitivity to the properties of these materials.

Even more significant, they brought with them art, in the form of carvings, engravings and spectacular cave paintings; they kept records on bone and stone plaques; they made music on wind instruments; they crafted intricate personal adornments; they afforded some of their dead elaborate burials with grave goods (hinting at social stratification in addition to belief in an afterlife, for not all burials were equally fancy); and their living sites were highly organized, with evidence of sophisticated hunting and fishing. The pattern of intermittent technological innovation was gone, replaced by constant refinement. Clearly, these people were us.

Competing Scenarios

IN ALL THESE WAYS, early Upper Paleolithic people contrasted dramatically with the Neandertals. Some Neandertals in Europe seem to have picked up new ways of doing things from the arriving H. sapiens, but we have no direct clues as to the nature of the interaction between the two species. In light of the Neandertals' rapid disappearance and of the appalling subsequent record of H. sapiens, though, we can reasonably surmise that such interactions were rarely happy for the former. Certainly the repeated pattern found at archaeological sites is one of short-term replacement, and there is no convincing biological ev-

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