Phases of Poisoning

Homotoxicology defines disease processes either as the organism's general defence reactions to poisons or as an expression of damage through poisons.728 According to Reckeweg the extent of the poisoning depends on whether the poison is outside the cell or has penetrated it.729 He presented a six-phase model to illustrate the body's attempts at maintaining or restoring the flow balance that had become unbalanced by homo-toxins.730 In the first three phases (humoral phases excretion phase,...

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Schulz Rule.600 The fact aside that very highly dosed stimulants tended to damage or completely paralyze vital processes, he thought, that it was rather difficult to find laws of overall validity where the effects of poisons were concerned.601 The observations made by Arndt and Schulz only related to certain medicinal drugs, certainly not to all of them. Even with trials carried out by Schulz, which seemed to confirm the law, one could not say that the converse effects worked on the organ, i.e....

Syntheses of the Healing Methods

The history of medicine shows that the alternative approaches to healing were competing with one another as much as with orthodox medicine. Although they kept their distance or fulminated against each other, there were also frequent attempts at bringing the healing methods together and taking medicine further. It was Emanuel Felke who united the fundamental principles of two alternative healing systems and pleaded for the synthesis of different methods. Hahnemann had not restricted himself...

Pathological Concepts

Classical naturopathy was inspired by humoral pathology,307 but its concept was based on the idea that the body takes in substances from the outside and uses them before excreting them in a modified form. Metabolism, according to this theory, served the constant restoration of the body which it compared to a machine that was continuously maintaining and renewing itself.308 The Dresden naturopath Friedrich Eduard Bilz (1842-1922) was of the opinion that the body's building blocks completely...

Felkes Pathological Concept

Felke's pathological concept was founded on classical naturopathy which means that he was convinced that almost all diseases were caused by foreign substances that did not belong to the body.334 The stronger the 328 Schlau (1963), pp. 14-27. Felke envisaged that the human being should advance to the point that, at least from the age of forty, he could be his own physician and healer. Kramer (1986), p. 9. 329 Brauchle Alfred, Naturheilkunde in Lebensbildern, Leipzig 1937. Quoted from Kramer...

Homoeopathy and Homotoxicology

Already before World War II Reckeweg had tried to find out why, under the influence of homoeopathic remedies, one disease disappeared while another one emerged instead.732 He was not convinced by Hahnemann's explanation that the actual disease was eliminated by the secondary disease which was artificially induced by the homoeopathic remedy, and thought that the scientific insights of chemistry, physiology and medicine had progressed beyond that.733 He explained the effect mechanism of...

Naturopathy

Next to homoeopathy, naturopathy established itself at the beginning of the 19th century and has, just like Hahnemann's doctrine, remained a popular alternative approach to healing right up to the present time.293 It developed out of the old hydrotherapy.294 In contrast to the modern notion of natural medicine which is more comprehensive, the 19 th century saw it merely as a regime for the prevention and cure of diseases that was based on the healing influence of water, light and air as well...

Sitzbaths

From one of Felke's prefaces we learn that his first addition to homoeopathy were the cold sitzbaths.354 Hydrotherapy was the beginning of classical naturopathy which, during the 19th century, found more and more followers.355 At the beginning of the 19th century Vinzenz Priessnitz (1799-1851) had developed a complex water therapy system which resulted in a new height of popularity for hydro- 351 A homoeopathic remedy, he argued, could change the mood of a bad-tempered curmudgeon and induce him...

The Crisis of Orthodox Medicine

As described above homoeopathy looks back on a history of more than 200 years and is older than the cellular pathology developed by Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) in the 1840s.413 Similarly, bacteriology, antisepsis, chemotherapy, serotherapy and radiology only began to flourish when homoeopathy had long been discovered.414 The development of chemistry and physics into empirical experimental sciences had decisively shaped the cognitive advancement of medicine from the second half of the 19th...

Schwabe

The name Schwabe is very closely linked with the history of homoeopathy.197 In 1865, pharmacist Willmar Schwabe (1839-1917) founded the Hom opathische Centralofficin Dr. Willmar Schwabe in Leipzig which 197 For Schwabe's biography and his business strategy cf. Michalak (1991), pp. 147-151, 101-134 as well as J ger (1991), pp. 171-188. The founder of the company Dr. Willmar Schwabe (1839-1917) The founder of the company Dr. Willmar Schwabe (1839-1917) specialised in wholesale and export.198 From...

Reckeweg

Like the Madaus brothers Hans-Heinrich Reckeweg (1905-1985) and his siblings, two of whom also founded a pharmaceutical company after World War II, had been aware of homoeopathy through their parents from early childhood.173 Their father, Heinrich Reckeweg (1877-1944), who was born in L hne and moved to Herford in 1903, had been an elementary school teacher until he fell ill. He was mostly interested in alternative medicine which was partly due to his recurring illness. A chronic kidney...

Arthur Lutzes Views on Drug Mixtures

Authority when they advertised the drug mixtures, he voiced his disapproval in 1857 and again in 1865 in the Allgemeine Hom opathische Zeitung declaring that the use of double remedies must not become the norm and that their application constituted abuse.37 Hahnemann was concerned, on the one hand, that the introduction of the double remedy would bring him close to the allopaths whose mixtures could be made up of up to 30 substances and even more, and, on the other hand, that the use of double...

Complex Remedies in Europe

The interest in complex remedies was not restricted to Germany alone. There was awareness of the development of complex homoeopathy also abroad and similar experiments were conducted there as well as in the homeland of homoeopathy. Around 1840, Dr Molin, of Spain, hoped that new and important impulses would arise for homoeopathy from the combination of different substances which he had tested on the healthy subject.61 Molin had conducted tests on five volunteers using Nux vomica 58 Quoted from...

Nutrition and Exercise

Felke thought that many diseases were caused by eating the wrong foods. The diets he prescribed were meant to help the diseased organism to cleanse itself,383 but he did not generally insist on a vegetarian diet or on abstention from alcohol or tobacco, only with particular illnesses or special treatments.384 Vegetables, fruit and salads ranked first in Felke's dietetics as they had more goodness and energies than meat due to the mineral salts and vitamins they contained.385 Next on the list...

Establishing Homoeopathy at the University of Berlin

It was thanks to August Bier's efforts that a chair for homoeopathy was established at Berlin's Friedrich Wilhelm University in 1927 and a homeopathic polyclinic in 1929.659 But he does not seem to have been personally involved in the debate about the academic establishment of homoeopathy.660 The German Central Association of Homoeopathic Physicians had tried before to obtain a statement regarding a professorship from the Prussian universities. They decided unanimously against it, however, and...

Drug Proving

Bier was also convinced of the importance and ir-replaceability of drug proving on the healthy person as postulated by Hahnemann, because it was the only way to learn something about the physiological effect of medicinal substances.575 In the long term, pharmacology could not forbear from recognizing what homoeopathy had established and what the stimulant therapy had confirmed that many substances provoked different effects in the healthy and the sick person, and, with the latter the effect...

Mattei

Electro-homoeopathy was developed on the basis of spagyrics and goes back to the Italian duke Cesare Mattei (1809-1896).216 Its beginnings date back to the 1850s. Mattei had manufactured remedies in his castle in Bologna very successfully without revealing their composition and he sold them later through the Consortium for Electro-homoeopathy in Regens-burg.217 Although Mattei also consulted Hahnemann's doctrine he thought it was in need of further development. In his electro-homoeopathy he saw...

August Bier and the Worlds Biggest Natural Healing Institute

August Bier was not only attacked by orthodox physicians for his attitude towards homoeopathy, but also for introducing naturopathy into his clinic.641 Among the treatments favoured by him were therapies that used light, air, water and physical exercise. The establishment of non-surgical specialist fields within the surgery department was also based on his motto of bringing opposites together to create harmony. In order to bridge and connect the polarities of the specialist fields Bier wanted...

Sonntag

JSO complex healing is a medicinal method which is also based on Hahnemann's simile principle, but does not use substances of organic chemical, mineral or animal origin.281 The names of Theodor Krauss and Johann Sonntag are closely linked to the JSO healing method. On 1 November 1891 the Engel Apotheke in Regensburg passed into the ownership of pharmacist Johannes Sonntag (1863-1945), who managed it until his death.282 In the drawers of a desk or cupboard he found a homoeopathic compartment...

Complex Remedies as a Compromise

Apart from the strict single remedy homoeopaths there was also a school of thought that was open to compromise in exceptional cases. If the symptom complex could not be covered by one single substance, this group would permit the prescription of complex remedies, just as in Aegidi's times. Another group accepted preparations mixed by homoeopaths while rejecting those that were ready-made.104 The physician Karl Stauffer (1870-1930) remained on the fence he did not deny complex homoeopathy its...

Madaus

A woman also made her mark in the field of complex homoeopathy at the beginning of the 20th century. Magdalene Madaus (1857-1925), the wife of Lutheran pastor Heinrich Pieter Madaus (1853-1915) from Radevormwald, had consulted Emanuel Felke in his Fountain of Youth health clinic in Repelen on the Lower Rhine when her youngest son contracted polio and also because of her own health problems. With the help of iridology Felke diagnosed pelvic inflammation in her case which he was able to cure.152...

Zimpel

Among the most important representatives of spa-gyrics was Carl (Charles) Friedrich Zimpel (1801 18 7 8).253 He created his own healing system while adhering to Hahnemann's simile principle. In his view, no healing system whatever its name was perfect, each had its own advantages and drawbacks.254 But although no medical system could be seen as complete, homoeopathy and allopathy together, he suggested, constituted a perfect whole. Zimpel had met homoeopathy in Vienna in 1838 through a Baron...

Single Remedy Homoeopathy

Classical homoeopaths continued to insist that no proper homoeopathic physician would ever revert to drug mixtures. They held on to the principle that Hahnemann's pure homoeopathy was the most efficacious.85 While they rejected the substance mixtures that practitioners prepared individually for their patients, the orthodox homoeopaths found this more valuable than feeding them with mass-produced complexes that were aimed at the names of diseases8 Pharmaceutical companies such as Madaus who...

Fever and Inflammation

Just like Bier, the founder of homotoxicology did not see fever or inflammations as futile reactions, but as signs of a heightened defence reaction.721 According to Reckeweg the connective tissue plays a central part in inflammations after having been broken up in the intestines and absorbed into the blood stream, numerous homotoxic substances, nutrients in particular, are deposited, first in the liver and then mostly in the connective tissue where they can remain for a long period of time...

Homoeopathy as the Mother of Medicine

Just like homoeopathy, antihomotoxic medicine postulates the setting up of an overall treatment plan in order to be able to select the right homoeopathic remedy or remedies in a given case, the toxin situation had to first be established in detail. Thorough case taking was part of this as it took into account previous illnesses, how they were treated and how the diseased organism had reacted to the treatment.810 The symptom picture needed to be clearly delineated and the course of the present,...

Light Air and Sun Baths

Having introduced hydrotherapy Felke complemented his healing system by offering light and air baths.361 While travelling in the German Harz region in 1898 he had visited Adolf Just's (1859-1936) Jungborn (fountain of youth) and became so enthused with the therapies applied there that he introduced them in his sanatorium in Repelen which opened its doors that same year.362 As mentioned above the skin as the main organ of perspiration was for Felke of central importance. If toxins could not be...

Hans Heinrich Reckewegs Pathology and Therapy Concept

After the war Hans-Heinrich Reckeweg (1905-1985) was among the physicians who advocated a holistic medical concept.702 He, on the one hand, intensely researched and collected a vast amount of scientific material thus laying the foundation for a synthesis and, on the other hand, applied alternative healing methods, homoeopathy in particular, in his therapies. He amalgamated the insights of generations of scientists, as Karl Kotschau (1892-1982) expressed it with reference to August Bier, into a...

Clinical Homoeopathy109

The question now arises whether and to what extent single and complex remedies were prescribed in hospitals. In 1926 Ernst Bastanier (1870-1953) had taken up a clear position. This was two years before he was assigned a lectureship at the University of Berlin and three years before he was made director of the Berlin Polyclinic which had been set up with private funds from Madaus and Schwabe to train physicians and students.110 In Bastanier's view, complex homoeopathy was allopathy with...

Hahnemanns Dietetics

Contrary to common belief Hahnemann did not advocate an exclusive but a pluralistic approach to healing next to his pharmacology, dietetics - the promotion of a moderate lifestyle - played an important part.395 In his writings we find instructions regarding nutrition, exercise, sleep and digestion based on the dietary concept of antiquity generally favoured at the time.396 His treatment system also included fashionable therapies such as mesmerism, magnet therapy and hydrotherapy.397 He also...

Krauss

Electro-homoeopathy owed its dissemination in Germany also to Theodor Krauss (1884-1924), who was born in Bohemia and whose grandfather had been a pupil of Hahnemann's. To start with, Krauss practised under the guidance of his grandfather, but after the latter's death he deepened his knowledge by working with the physician Franz Pesendorfer (life dates unknown) in Gmunden Austria, who was considered an authority in the field of homoeopathy. As part of his research Krauss had also intensely...

Homoeopathic Medicine

Complex Homoeopathy in its relationship to homoeopathy, naturopathy and conventional medicine Translated from the German by Margot M. Saar Institute for the History of Medicine Robert Bosch Foundation StrauRweg 17 70184 Stuttgart Germany ISBN 978-3-642-14970-2 Springer Medizin Verlag Heidelberg Bibliografische Information der Deutschen Bibliothek The Deutsche Bibliothek lists this publication in Deutsche Nationalbibliographie detailed bibliographic data is available in the internet at http...

Nutrition and Sutoxins

The concept of homotoxicology implies the necessity for a poison-free lifestyle to remain healthy. This means, among other things, that one should not take in poisonous substances (homotoxins) with one's food. Reckeweg studied nutrition in depth and it ranked highly in his therapy system.796 He advocated a biologically sensible diet. In his Ordinatio Antihomotoxica et Materia Medica he recommended a mixed diet as most suitable for humans.797 Apart from avoiding harmful substances one should pay...

Sauter

The Genevan pharmacist Albert Sauter (life dates unknown) assumed sole agency for Mattei's products in 1876.242 He signed a contract which made him administrator of the Mattei depot and publisher of his textbooks. Due to internal conflicts this contract was dissolved two years later with the consequence that Sauter developed his own healing system in 1879 which he named Sauters hom opathische Sternmittel Sauters homoeopathic star remedies .243 In 1891, he founded his own electro-homoeopathic...

Emanuel Felke and his Therapeutic Concept Homoeopathy and Naturopathy

The German Protestant pastor Emanuel Felke (1856-1926) broke new ground at the end of the 19th century by bringing together homoeopathy and 315 Quoted from Heyll (2006), p. 63 (Rausse (1859) vol. 3, pp. 7-9). naturopathy.316 From a very early age he had witnessed severe illness in his family. As his father had generally treated him and his siblings successfully with homoeopathic remedies Felke had always been enthusiastic about Hahnemann's methods. Throughout his life Felke remained devoted to...

The Controversy About the Double Remedy During Hahnemanns Lifetime

Karl Trinks

Homoeopathy has developed in many different ways over the last 200 years. Next to what is known as classical homoeopathy another approach was already established in Samuel Hahnemann's (1755-1843) lifetime. This method experimented with and used double remedies and, in doing so, went against Hahnemann's fundamental principle of single remedy treatment. The homoeopathic double remedy can be said to have originated in 1831 32 which indicates that the history of the homoeopathic drug mixtures is...