References

Agarawal, s. and sharma, r.k. (1990), 'Variability in quality aspect of seed spices and future strategy'. Indian Cocoa, Arecanut and Spices Journal 13 127-9. anuradha, hore (1979), 'Improvement of minor (Umbelliferous) spices in India'. Economic Botany 33(3) 290-7. boelens, man h., valverde, f., sequeiros, l. and jimenez, r. (1989), 'Ten years of hydro diffusion oils'. Proc. of 11th International Congress of Essential Oils, Fragrances and Flavours, New Delhi (India), 121-126. dimri, b.p, khan,...

Quality specifications and adulteration 1361 Specification for whole seed

The quality of Nigella seed mainly depends on appearance matt-black seeds, oily white interior and roughly triangulate, 1.5-3 mm long, uniformity in size, shape and texture. The odour in Nigella seeds when crushed resembles strawberry. Some authors have mentioned its smell is similar to oregano or carrots. The Indian Agmark grade specifications for Nigella seeds with minimum specific quality indices as laid down under the Prevention of Food Adulteration Indian Act (PFA standards) for Nigella...

Black caraway

Black caraway (Bunium persicum Boiss Fed. (syn. Carum bulbocastanum) ) is a perennial aromatic spice belonging to the family Apiaceae. It is a temperate plant, naturally occurring in the dry temperate regions of the northwest Himalayas, where the winter is severe, and the ground is under snow in winter. A long chilling period is essential for germination of seeds. In India the plant occurs in the alpine areas of Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir and Utharanchal. Black caraway is often confused with...

Chemical composition

The essential oils of parsley leaves and seeds have been studied extensively (Garnero and Chretien-Bessiere, 1968 Kasting et al., 1972 Franz and Glasl, 1974 Freeman et al., 1975 Clark and Menary, 1983 Berger et al., 1985 MacLeod et al., 1985 Heide et al., 1986 Shaath et al., 1988 Simon and Quinn, 1988 Srinivas, 1986 Gbolade and Lockwood, 1989 Porter, 1989 Nitz et al., 1989 Kim et al., 1990 Spraul, 1991 Baritaux et al., 1992 Jung et al., 1992 Perineau et al., 1992 Zheng et al., 1992a,b). Parsley...

Cultivation

20.3.1 Climate and soil requirements Vanilla is a tropical crop that thrives best in warm and moist climate. Natural growth is obtained at latitudes 15 and 20 north and south of the equator (Lionnet, 1958). The optimum temperature ranges from 21 to 32 C, with a mean value of 27 C, while the precipitation required falls between 2000 and 2500 mm annually (Purseglove et al., 1981). A dry period of about two months is needed to restrict vegetative growth and induce flowering rainfall in the...

Production and cultivation

14.3.1 Growth habit of wild oregano populations As a perennial species, oregano grows spontaneously in areas across the Mediterranean region, particularly in high locations. In these areas oregano is harvested mainly from wild populations, once or twice a year, at flowering stage. The reported life zone of marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), is 6-28 C with an annual precipitation of 0.5-2.7 m and a soil pH of 4.9-8.7. The plant is adapted to well-drained, fertile loam soils. The cold-sensitive...

Origin and distribution

It is believed that coriander originated from around the Mediterranean. Two species are found only Coriandrum sativum L. is cultivated widely, mainly in the tropics. India has the prime position in the cultivation and production of coriander it is cultivated over an approximate area of 5.25 x 105 hectares with an annual production of 3.10 x 105 tonnes. The main coriander growing states in India are Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh. In addition...

Functional properties

Allspice is not only valued as a spice to add flavour to food but has medicinal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, nematicidal, antioxidant and deodorizing properties. The powdered fruit of allspice is used in traditional medicine to treat flatulence, dyspepsia, diarrhoea and as a remedy for depression, nervous exhaustion, tension, neuralgia and stress. In small doses it can also help to cure rheumatism, arthritis, stiffness, chills, congested coughs, bronchitis, neuralgia and rheumatism. It has...

Introduction and description

Coriander Coriandrum sativum L. is an important spice crop and occupies a prime position in flavouring substances. It was one of the first spices to be used as a common flavouring substance. The stem, leaves and fruits all have a pleasant aromatic odour. The entire plant when young is used in preparing chutneys and sauces, and the leaves are used for flavouring continental curries and soups. The fruits are extensively employed as a condiment in the preparations of curry powder, pickling spices,...

Main uses in food processing

The dried seeds are the only commercially important product and the essential oil is of minor importance. Nigella seeds are used in India and the Middle East as a spice and condiment and occasionally in Europe as both a pepper substitute and a spice. They are widely used in Indian cuisines, particularly in mildly braised lamb dishes such as korma. Nigella is also added to vegetable and dhal (lentil) dishes as well as in chutneys. The seeds are sprinkled on to naan bread before baking. Nigella...

Applications in food systems

There have been relatively few studies of the antimicrobial action of essential oils in model food systems and in real foods (Table 3.5). The efficacy of essential oils in vitro is often much greater than in vivo or in situ, i.e. in foods (Nychas and Tassou, 2000 Davidson, 1997 Skandamis et al., 1999b). For example, the essential oil of mint (Mentha piperita) has been shown to inhibit the growth of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes in culture media for 2 days at 30 C. However,...

Production and trade

Jamaica is the largest producer and exporter of pimento, accounting for 70 of the world trade. The remaining 30 is produced by Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico, Brazil and Belize. The dried mature but unripe berries, berry oleoresin, berry oil and leaf oil are the products of commercial importance obtained from P. dioica and they find varied uses in the food, medicine and perfume industries. Among the pimentos from various geographical locations, Jamaican pimentos are considered to be of high...

Contents

Peter, Kerala Agricultural University, India and K. Nirmal Babu, Indian Institute of Spices Research, India 2 The functional role of herbal spices M. R. Shylaja and K. V. Peter, Kerala Agricultural University, India 2.3 Production, consumption and processing 2.5 Sources of further information 3 Herbs and spices and antimicrobials C. C. Tassou, National Agricultural Research Foundation, Greece, and G.-J. E. Nychas and P. N. Skandamis, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece 3.2 Barriers...

Angelica

The genus Angelica is a unique member of the family Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae), for its pervading aromatic odour, entirely different from other members such as fennel, parsley, anise and caraway here even the roots are aromatic. There are more than 40 species of Angelica, but A. archangelica (syn. A. officinalis Moench Archangelica officinalis (Moench) Hoffm.) is the only one officially used in medicine and as a spice. As the name indicates, the folklore of North European countries and...

Mode of action and development of resistance

In general, the mode of action of essential oils is concentration dependent (Prindle and Wright, 1977). Low concentrations inhibit enzymes associated with energy production while higher amounts may precipitate proteins. However, it is uncertain whether membrane damage is quantitatively related to the amount of active antimicrobial compound to which the cell is exposed, or the effect is such that, once small injuries are caused, the breakdown of the cell follows (Judis, 1963). Essential oils...

Production consumption and processing

Most of the herbal spices originated in Mediterranean countries and have been used since ancient Egyptian and Roman times mainly for the purpose of embalming. Even today, the Mediterranean zone is the major source of herbal spices, and Germany, France and the USA are the major producers of high-quality cultivated herbs. Curly parsley, chives and dill are widely grown in Germany, while flat parsley and tarragon are widely grown in France. The USA has cultivation of high-quality herbs such as...

Quality issues and adulteration

11.6.1 Quality specifications of essential oils of lavender and solvent extracts Boelens (1995) reviewed the chemical and sensory evaluation of Lavandula oils. The true oil is almost colourless and has a sweet, floral, herbaceous, refreshing odour with a pleasant, balsamic-wood undertone and a fruity-sweet top-note. Definition of lavender and lavandula oils The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defines Oil of French Lavender, ISO 3515 as 'The oil obtained by steam...

Production and cultivation 1031 Production

The main producing areas are currently Egypt, China and the Comores, with some recent production from plants grown in India plants were previously grown in southern France, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. Some fine-quality geranium oil is now emerging from new Table 10.1 Physico-chemical characteristics of geranium oils from different sources, their components and their sensitisation potentials Relative density at 20 C Refractive index at 20 C Optical rotation at 20 C Acid value maximum Ester...

Galangal

Galanga or galangal (Kaempferia galanga L.) which should not be confused with the greater galangal (Alpinia galanga), is a perennial aromatic rhizomatous herbaceous plant belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. This genus comprises about 70 species, among which K. galanga and K. rotunda are of economic value. These plants are used for flavouring food and also in medicine. Rhizome and roots are aromatic and are used as spice. The genus is presumably native to tropical Asia and is distributed in...

Toxicology and disease

Rosemary is generally considered safe and devoid of toxic side effects if taken in recommended doses. However, there have been occasional reports of allergic reaction such as skin irritation. Pregnant and lactating women are advised not to use rosemary, as are pepole with epilepsy. Rosemary oil should be used with caution by persons suffering from hypertension, blood pressure or insomnia cfm). In vitro studies of liquid extract of rosemary ('Herbor 025') and a mixed oily extract of herbs such...

Winter savory

Winter savory (S. montana) is a semi-evergreen bushy and woody perennial shrub, with smaller pink or white flowers and a stronger flavour. Essential oil is extracted commercially from this species and other uses are similar to summer savory. The stems are woody at the base, diffuse, much branched. The leaves are oblong, linear and acute, or the lower ones spatulate or wedge-shaped and obtuse. Flowering is in June the flowers are very pale purple, the cymes shortly pedunculate. It is propagated...

Functional properties and toxicity

Nigella seed and oil are known to possess several pharmacological properties such as detergent, sedative, anti-inflammatory and expectorant. From ancient times, Nigella, because of its insect repellent properties, has been used as a seed spread in woollens and silk clothes to protect them from insects and used like moth balls. The presence of the carboxyl compound nigellone and non-carboxyl fractions are reported to protect guinea pigs against histamine-induced broncho-spasm and phenolic...

The structure of this book

This book is the second volume for the series on Herbs and Spices and has two parts. The first part deals with health benefits of herbs and spices and the use of herbs and spices as antimicrobials and antioxidants. The second part deals with detailed information on individual spices. This covers a brief description, classification, production, cultivation, post-harvest handling, uses in food processing, chemical structure and functional properties of important compounds extracted and quality...

Chemical structure

Nigella seeds are aromatic and contain a disagreeable odour. The composition varies with the variety, region and the age of the product. The nutritional constituents of Nigella seed from Europe and Ethiopia are given in Table 13.1. The different chemical constituents present in Nigella seeds are 0.5 volatile oil in seeds and seven main constituents (approx.) are p-cymene 31 , thymoquinone 25 , ethyl linoleate 9 , a-pinene 9 , ethyl hexadecanoate 3 , ethyl oleate 3 and P-pinene 2 (Weiss, 2002)...

Uses of herbs and spices

Herbs and spices have tremendous importance in the way we live, as ingredients in food, alcoholic beverages, medicine, perfumery, cosmetics, colouring and also as garden plants. Spices and herbs are used in foods to impart flavour, pungency and colour. They also have antioxidant, antimicrobial, pharmaceutical and nutritional properties. In addition to the known direct effects, the use of these plants can also lead to complex secondary effects such as salt and sugar reduction, improvement of...

Uses

The world production of sesame seed is almost wholly utilized for culinary purposes. In India, about 78 of sesame produced is used for oil extraction and about 20 is used for domestic purposes such as preparation of sweetmeats and confectionery (Maiti et al., 1988 Weiss, 1983) and about 2 is retained for the next sowing. Dehulled sesame seeds are sweet and oleaginous and are used directly in different types of foods in various parts of the world. They are used in the manufacture of traditional...

References Of Taylor 1989 About Medicinal Plant

Abd-elgawad m.m. and omer e.a. (1995), 'Effect of essential oils of some medicinal plants on phytonematodes', Anz. Sch dlingskd. Pfl., 68, 82-4. afnor association fran aise de normalisation (1999), Huiles Essentielles. Vol. 2 Specifications, Huile essentielle de thym thymol (Thymus zygis (Loefl.) L. type Espagne, NF ISO 14715, November, AFNOR, Paris. agarwal i. and mathela c.s. (1979), 'Study of antifungical activity of some terpenoids', Indian Drugs Pharm. Ind., 14, 19-21. agarwal i., mathela...

Supercritical Satta King

Amer s.a.a., refaat a.m. and mamen f.m. (2001), Repellent and oviposition deterring activity of rosemary and sweet marjoram on the spider mites Tetranychus urticae and Eutetranychus orientalis (Acari. Tetranychidae). Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica, Hungaria, 36(1-2), 155-64. anuradha m.n., farooqi a.a., vasundhara m., kathiresan c. and srinivasappa k.n. (2002), Effect of biofertilizers on the growth, yield and essential oil content in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L). Proc. National...

Improving production of natural vanillin

The vanilla flavouring market is dominated by synthetic vanillin more than 90 of the US market and 50 of the French market (the lowest national share) (RAP Market Information Bulletin, 2002). The reason for such a huge market share is two-fold. Considering flavour strength, 100 g of synthetic vanillin approximately yields the same flavouring power of 13 l of natural vanilla extract. The price of synthetic vanillin is only about one-hundredth that of derived from cured beans. The high cost of...

Quality specifications and issues 1961 Specifications

Gas Chromatogram For Thymol

The medicinal and non-medicinal uses of thyme and thyme preparations demand high-quality standards. In the USA, the American Spice Trade Association (ASTA, 1960) is the advisory organization that helps the spice and seasoning industry develop acceptability standards for whole and ground spices and herbs. The recommended physical and chemical specifications of whole thyme leaves and ground thyme can be seen in Table 19.6. Internationally accepted specifications also exist for the commercially...

Most Affected Sesame Growth Stage By Antigastra Catalaunalis

Sesame is grown primarily in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world although it can be grown in more temperate climates. Sesame is cultivated in an area of 7.78 million hectares with a production of 3.15 million tonnes and a productivity level of405 kg ha in the world (Table 17.9). India is by far the largest producer, accounting for 28 of the world's area and 23 of the production (Table 17.10). Other major countries producing sesame are China, Myanmar, Sudan, Nigeria, Mexico, and to...

Measuring antimicrobial activity

The antimicrobial activity of plant-derived compounds against many different microorganisms, tested individually and in vitro, is well documented in the literature (Tables 3.1 and 3.2 Ippolito and Nigro, 2003). However, the results reported in different studies are difficult to compare directly. Indeed, contradictory data have been reported by different authors for the same antimicrobial compound (Mann and Markham, 1998 Manou et al., 1998 Skandamis, 2001 Skandamis et al., 2001b). Also, it is...

Production

Production of thyme is associated with various growing, harvesting and post-harvest handling aspects. Several important thyme production phases have to be properly controlled in order to obtain high yields of herb suitable for good quality ingredients in food applications. The information in this section is focused mainly on T. vulgaris, which is the only Thymus species cultivated and processed commercially for the use in food processing in reasonable amounts. Thyme is grown commercially in a...

Introduction morphology and related species

Star anise Illicium verum, Hooker belongs to the Magnoliaceae or Magnolia family and is an important spice. The tree is very ancient and is part of a primitive family. It is indigenous to southeastern China. Star anise was known beyond China long before the Christian era as one of the few familiar spices, like cinnamon. However, it was not until the late 16th century that this spice was first brought to Europe by an English navigator, Sir Thomas Cavendish.1 Commercial production of star anise...

Betel vine

The betel vine Piper betle L. is a perennial climber belonging to the family Piperaceae. Betelvine has been widely used in various parts of India and other South Asian countries for centuries. The name Piper is probably originated from the Sanskrit term 'PippaW meaning long pepper and the name 'betle' might have come from the Malayalam word 'Vetila'. It is cultivated, as a commercial crop, for its leaf, which is used as a masticatory. As a masticatory, the betel leaf pan is credited with...

Quality issues and adulteration 771 Specifications

Cleanliness, safety issues microbes and moisture levels and economic parameters aroma, flavour and granulation are the main quality aspects dealing with spice. The cleanliness specifications have been set out in laws such as Food and Drug Administration Defect Action Levels FDADALs USA or in trade practices such as the American Spice Trade Association ASTA , European Spices Association ESA , etc. As per the ISO specifications, allspice is described as the dried, fully mature but unripe, whole...

Harvesting yield and postproduction activities

Vanilla fruits are gathered when they are fully mature but before they are too ripe. When picked immaturely, the fruits do not develop the requisite full-bodied aroma and proper colour during processing and are more prone to fungal infection Correll, 1953 . When harvested at the over-ripe stage, the fruits tend to split and lose some of their aroma. The following serves as harvest indices for vanilla David, 1950 Purseglove, 1985 The thickest portion of the fruit the 'blossom end' takes on a...

Cultivation and production technology

Chervil probably originated in southern Europe or the Caucasus region. It is found in Europe and Asia. It has been cultivated in England since 1597 and in America since 1806. However, it can also be found growing in other places where the right conditions prevail. Chervil grows well in any good garden soil with high fertility. However, moist, humus-rich soils with good drainage are most suitable. It can be successfully grown in soils with a pH of 6.5, especially turnip-rooted chervil, which has...

Sweet flag

Sweet flag is the rhizome of Acorus calamus Linn, of the family Acoraceae and is highly valued as herbal medicine in India and other European countries. It is used as an ingredient Table 5.1 List of some of the under-utilized herbs and spices Table 5.1 List of some of the under-utilized herbs and spices Armoracia rusticana Gart. Horseradish of several drugs of the Unani, Ayurvedic and modern systems of medicine. It is also well known for its insecticidal properties. The word Acorus is derived...

Diseases pests and the use of pesticides

The following are the major important diseases that affect coriander Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. corianderi The coriander wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. conrianderi may infect the plant at any stage of the crop, but more frequently affects younger plants. The infected plants wilt and dry up, resulting in a loss of up to 10 of the yield. Adopting the following measures can reduce the incidence of disease Seed treatment with Thiram and Bavistin with the proportion of 1 1...

Main uses in food processing and medicine 1441 General

Oregano is used in meat, sausages, salads, stewings, dressings and soups. The food industry uses oregano oil and oregano resin both in foods and in beverages and also in cosmetics. Oregano oil is used in alcoholic beverages, baked goods, meats and meat products, condiments and relishes, milk products, processed vegetables, snack foods, and fats and oils. It is the most common spice for pizza. Along with black pepper, it is a common ingredient of dressings and a good substitute for table salt....

Summer savory

Lamiaceae comprises about 14 species of highly aromatic, hardy annual or perennial herbs or under-shrubs. Two important species of this genus are S. hortensis summer savory and S. montana winter savory CSIR, 1972 . Summer savory Satureja hortensis is a hairy aromatic annual and is grown as a popular garden herb. The savory of commerce is the dried leaves and flowering tops, but the best class comprises only leaves CSIR, 1972 . 5.13.1 Production and international trade...

Mezime Chemistry Delhi

Achuthan, c.r. and padikkala, j. 1997 , Hypolipidemic effect of Alpinia galanga Rasna and Kaempferia galanga Kachoori . Indian J. of Clini. Biochem. 12 1 55-8. acuna, u.m., atha, d.e., ma, j., nee, m.h. and kennelly, e.j. 2002 , Antioxidant capacities of ten edible North American Plants. Phytotherapy Res. 16 63-5. agarwal, s.o. 1987 , Some industrially important aromatic plants of Sikkim. Indian Perfumer 31 113-15. albertazzi, f.j., kudla, j. and bock, r. 1998 , The cox2 locus of the primitive...

Greater galangal

Willd belongs to the family Zingiberaceae, and is commonly known by such names as galangal, galanga, greater galangal and Java galangal. The related species A. officinarum is the lesser galangal. 5.3.1 Production and international trade Data on production, consumption and trade are scarce and not reliable because traders make no distinction between A. galanga and A. officinarum both are used as the source plant for the Ayurvedic raw drug rasna. India is a major supplier,...