Notes to the te

Full citation given in first reference only, thereafter author and page number. Orginal year of publication is in square brackets; place of publication London unless otherwise noted

Preface [viii]: Boerhaave's hat: Chris Howkins, The Elder: The Mother Tree of Folklore (Addlestone, Surrey, 1996), 28.

Introduction [ix]: Hew DV Prendergast & Helen Sanderson, Britain's Wild Harvest: The Commercial Uses of Wild Plants and Fungi (2004), 64.

Harvesting from the wild [x]: James Green, The Herbal Medicine-Makers Handbook: A Home Manual (Berkeley, CA, 2000), 10; Steven Foster & James Duke, A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants and Herbs: Of Eastern and Central North America (Boston, MA, 1999); nettle and elderflower from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 4 vols (1790-3), courtesy of John Innes Foundation Historical Collections, Norwich.

Relevant North American legislation on harvesting wild plants is found in the US Plant Protection Act (PPA) of June 2000, which consolidates previous law. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) is the federal agency responsible, through the PPA, for regulating the growing, sale, and import of commercial plants and for keeping a noxious weeds register. The USDA website, www.usda.gov, gives the links to state legislation.

The Endangered Species Listing Program of 1999 controls the federal schedule of endangered species. No such plant is included in this book.

There is no general law against harvesting wild plants unless they are endangered, threatened, or illegal. Ownership dictates whether you can legally harvest in a particular place, and usually the permission of the owner is required or advised. Picking in declared wilderness, state, and national parks and many freeways is usually forbidden. For an overview on protocols and common sense on harvesting, see the UK code of conduct on www.bsbi.org.uk.

AGRIMONY [2-5]: Woodville, Medical Botany, IV, 254, courtesy of John Innes Foundation Historical Collections, Norwich; Matthew Wood, The Book of Herbal Wisdom (Berkeley, CA, 1997), 85-92 passim; Anne Pratt, The Flowering Plants and Ferns of Great Britain, 5 vols (1857), II, 218; John Parkinson, Theatrum Botanicum (1640), 597.

BILBERRY [6-11]: "hunter-gatherer': Richard Mabey, Food for Free (2000 [1972]), 100-1; "mucky-mouth pies": Mabey, Flora Britannica (1997), 163; James Duke, The Green Pharmacy (Emmaus, PA, 1997), 318; Nicholas Culpeper, Complete Herbal (1995 [1653]), 33; Abbé Kneipp, quoted in Jean Palaiseul, Grandmother's Secrets, trans. Pamela Swinglehurst (1976 [1972]), 48; Mrs M Grieve, A Modern Herbal, ed. Mrs CF Leyel (1998 [1931]), 99-100; Geoffrey Grigson, The Englishman's Flora (1975 [1958]), 282.

BIRCH [12-15]: Baron Percy, quoted in Palaiseul, 50-1

BLACKBERRY, BRAMBLE [16-19]: Walt Whitman, "Song of Myself' 2, stanza 31, Leaves of Grass (New York, 1855); Jonathan Roberts, Cabbages & Kings (2001), 17; Dennis Furnell, Health from the Hedgerow (1985), 44-5; Carol Belanger Grafton, Medieval Herb, Plant and Flower Illustrations [CD-Rom and book] (New York, 2004), image 165; Julian Barker, The Medicinal Flora of Britain and Northwestern Europe (West Wickham, Kent, 2001), 171.

BURDOCK [20-23]: "official": British Herbal Medical Association, British Herbal Pharmacopoeia (1996), 49; Green, Herbal Medicine-Maker's Handbook, 35.

CHERRY [24-25]: "Wildman" Steve Brill & Evelyn Dean, Identifying and Harvesting Edible and Medicinal Plants (New York, 2002 [1994]), 119; Grigson, 177.

CHICKWEED [26-29]: Brill & Dean, 138; Susun Weed, Wise Woman Herbal: Healing Wise (Woodstock, NY, 1989), 122.

CLEAVERS [30-33]: Culpeper, 73; Parkinson, 568; Maria Treben, Health through God's Pharmacy (Steyr, Austria, 1983 [1980]), 10-11; John Pughe, ed. & trans., The Physicians of Myddfai (Felinfach, Wales, 1993 [1861]), 444; John Evelyn, Acetaria: A Discourse on

COLTSFOOT [34-37]: Barker, 472; tobacco: Robert John Thornton, A NewFamily Herbal (1810), 711.

COMFREY [38-41]: names: Deni Bown, The RHS Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses (1995), 206; Bocking 14: Henry Doubleday Research Association, www.gardenorganicorg.uk. ; Norfolk recipe: Book of Culinary Recipes, 1739-79 (Norfolk Record Office, RMN 4/5), fo. 4; Dr John R Christopher, School of Natural Healing (Springville, UT, 1996 [1976]), 337; Norman Grainger Bisset & Max Wichtl, eds, Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals, 2nd edn (Stuttgart/Boca Raton, 2001 [1989]), 485; Weed, www.susunweed.com.

COUCH GRASS [42-45]: Culpeper, 93; "civice": Audrey Wynne Hatfield, Howto Enjoy Your Weeds (Worcestershire, 1999 [1969]), 47; King's American Dispensatory, by Harvey Wickes Felter & John Uri Lloyd (1898), www.henriettesherbal.com; Parkinson, 1175; Bisset & Wichtl, 242.

CURLED DOCK, YELLOW DOCK [46-49]: Weeds Act 1959, www.defragov.uk. ; seeds: Maida Silverman, A City Herbal, 3rd edn (Woodstock, NY 1997 [1977]), 57; chants: Roy Vickery, comp., A Dictionary of Plant-Lore (Oxford, 1997 [1995]), 107; Tswana women: Margaret Roberts, Margaret Roberts' Book of Herbs (Johannesburg, 1983), 61; David E

Allen & Gabrielle Hatfield, Medicinal Plants in Folk Tradition (Portland, OR/ Cambridge, 2004), 98; Maria Sibylla Merian, Erucarum ortus alimentum et paradoxa metamorphosis (Amsterdam, c1717), courtesy of John Innes Foundation Historical Collections, Norwich; Culpeper, 91; old herbalists: Thomas Bartram, Bartram's Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine (1998 [1995]), 459; "superlative remedy': Matthew Wood, The Practice of Traditional Western Herbalism (Berkeley, CA, 2004), 152; jaundice recipe: Mary Norwalk, East Anglian Recipes, 2nd edn (Dereham, 1996 [1976]), 40.

DANDELION [50-55]: English/ Chinese names: Silverman, 50-1, 53; William Coles, quoted in Silverman, 51; US salad industry: Brigitte Mars, Dandelion Medicine (Pownal, VT, 1999), 18; quotation, Mars, 1.

ELDER [56-61]: Chambers: quoted in Howkins, The Elder, 20; John Evelyn, Sylva (1664), ch. XX, 17, www.gutenberg.org; Ria Loohuizen, The Elder in History, Myth and Cookery (Totnes, 2005); cordials: Prendergast & Sanderson, 24-7; Norfolk recipe: Book of Culinary Recipes, 1739-79 (NRO, RMN 4/5), fo. 14.

GUELDER ROSE, CRAMPBARK [62-63]: Gerard: Grigson, 380; Rosemary Gladstar, Herbal Healing for Women (New York, 1993), 175, 239; Dr Christopher, 431.

HAWTHORN [64-69]: Pratt, II, 269; Dr Green: Bertram, 215; Jennings: HP Whitford et al., A Treatise on Crataegus (Cincinnati, 1917), www.herbaltherapeutics.net; Peter Conway, Tree Medicine (2001), 170; "Fair Maid": Blanche Fisher Wright, illus., The Real Mother Goose (New York, 1916), www.gutenberg.org; hawthorn berry leather: inspired by Ray Mears, "Wild Food," BBC2, 31.1.07.

HONEYSUCKLE, WOODBINE [70-71]: English woodland: Furnell, 98; twizzly canes: Katherine Kear, Flower Wisdom (2000), 89; yellow-flowered varieties: Christopher Hobbs (herbal workshop); shuan huang lian: Duke, 93-4; Anne Mclntyre, The Complete Floral Healer (1996), 147; Parkinson, 1461.

HOPS [72-73]: John Gerard, The Herball, ed. Marcus Woodward (1994 [1597]), 213; Laurel Dewey, The Humorous Herbalist (East Canaan, CT, 1996), 92; Evelyn, Acetaria, 19; George III: Mabey, Flora Britannica, 64; "official": Br. Herbal Pharm., 106.

HORSE CHESTNUT [74-77]: "park": figure cited in Independent, 24.8.06; Turkey: Mclntyre, 52; Chris Howkins, Horse Chestnut (Addlestone, 2005), 20-1; First World War: Howkins, 29- 32; David Hoffmann, Medical Herbalism (Rochester, VT, 2003), 524.

HORSERADISH [78-79]: Parkinson, 861; Philippa Back, The Illustrated Herbal (1987), 75; John Pechey, The Compleat Herbal of Physical Plants, 2nd edn (1707 [1694]), 197.

HORSETAIL [80-83]: Furnell, 102-4; "drumsticks": Palaiseul, 154; "moth-eaten asparagus": Hatfield, Weeds, 75; Galen, quoted in Mrs Grieve, 421; Treben, 26-9.

LYCIUM [87-91]: David Winston & Steven Maimes, Adaptogens (Rochester, VT, 2007), 178-81; Lu Ji and Chinese saying, Winston & Maimes, 179; protecting UK hedgerows: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, www.defra.gov.uk 15.1.03; goji as food: Food Standards Authority, www.food.gov.uk 18.6.07; Duke of Argyll: Mabey, Flora Britannica, 300; aphrodisiac: Duke, 192.

MALLOW [92-95]: Br. Herb. Pharm., 127-30 (leaf & root); Treben, 31-2; Cobbett, quoted in A. Lawson, The Modern Farrier [1842), 2824; Gabrielle Hatfield, Memory, Wisdom and Healing (Stroud, 1999), 40-2; Hortus Floridus (1614-16), courtesy of John Innes Foundation Historical Collections, Norwich; Culpeper, 156, 159; mallow tea: Richo Cech, Making Plant Medicine (Williams, OR, 2000), 182; "far from roads": Furnell, 122; Cicero: Clinton C. Gilroy, The History of Silk, Cotton, Linen, Wool, and Other Fibrous Substances (New York, 1843), 191-202, www.books.google.com.

MEADOWSWEET [96-99]: Turner: Grigson, 154; Chaucer: Mrs Grieve, 524; Parkinson, 593; Cuchulainn: Tess Darwin, The Scots Herbal (Edinburgh, 1996), 149; Palaiseul, 208; Cech, 183.

MINT [100-03]: "fishes": Palaiseul, 211; Gerard, 155; William Thomas Fernie, Herbal Simples Approved for Modern Uses of Cure (Philadelphia, 1897), 342, www.gutenberg.org. ; Parkinson, 35; "official": Br. Herb. Pharm., 149; sekanjabin: adapted from traditional Persian recipes; Rumi: quoted in www.superluminal.com.

MUGWORT [104-09]: "female remedy': Mclntyre, 57; northern saying:

Susan Lavender & Anna Franklin, Herb Craft (Chieveley, 1996), 371 ; Sir John Hill, The British Herbal (1756), quoted in Keith Vincent Smith, The Illustrated Earth Garden Herbal (1979), 100; insecticide: Pughe, Myddfai, 53; Silverman: quote and Leech-Book, 92, 94; moxa: Thornton, 695; tobacco, Manx festival: Mabey, Flora Britannica, 370.

MULLEIN [110-13]: Odysseus: Homer, The Odyssey, trans. EV Rieu (Harmondsworth, 1979 [1946]), 163; quaker girls: Wood, Herbal Wisdom, 493; Hildegard: Wighard Strehlow & Gottfried Hertzka, Hildegard of Bingen's Medicine, trans. Karin Anderson Strehlow (Santa Fe, NM, 1988), 21; Dr Quinlan: Allen & Hatfield, 250; Michael Moore, Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West (Santa Fe, NM, 1979), 113; Dr Christopher, 345.

NETTLE [114-19]: "springtime herbalism": James Green, The Male Herbal (Freedom, CA, 1991), 92; Milarepa: The Oxford Companion to Food, ed. Alan Davidson (Oxford, 1999), 532; Dr HCA Vogel, The Nature Doctor (Edinburgh, 1990 [1952]), 369;

Hatfield, Weeds, 93; Merian, Erucarum ortus; nettle-eating: Piers Warren, 101 Uses for Stinging Nettles (2006), 71; Sir John Harington, Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum (1607), quoted in Keith GR Wheeler, A Natural History of Nettles (victoria, BC, 2005), 48; Weed, 171; Duke, 371.

OAK [120-23]: "necessary': Grigson, 269; bark "official": Br. Herb. Pharm., 145; Moore, 116; "half-pay': Grigson, 273; Hoffmann, Medical, 497; German: Bisset & Wichtl, 403; Culpeper, 182.

PELLITORY OF THE WALL [124-25]: Parkinson, 437; Culpeper,

192; Norfolk recipe: Anon., Archdale Palmers Recipes 1659—1672 (Wymondham, Leics, n.d.), unpaginated; asthma weed: www.weeds.org.au; Mrs Grieve, 624.

PLANTAIN [126-31]: sacred herb: Grigson, 356; lawns: Ken Fern, Plants for a Future, 2nd edn (East Meon, Hants, 2000 [1997]), 144; footprint: Lesley Gordon, A Country Herbal (Exeter, 1980), 135-6; Archdale Palmer's Recipes "Indian bandaid": JT & Michael Garrett, Medicine of the Cherokee (Rochester, VT, 1996), 57; Abbé Kneipp, quoted in Palaiseul, 250; Bessie Smith: Darwin, 138; Dr Christopher, 57; Merian, Erucarum ortus.

RAMSONS, BEAR GARLIC [132-35]: Hippocrates: www.bmj.com. ; Mrs Grieve, 344; Abbé Kuenzle, quoted in Treben, 37; Plants for a Future database: www.pfaf.org.

RASPBERRY [136-38]: Ida: Oxford Companion to Food, 653; Juliette de Bairadi Levy, The Complete Herbal Book for the Dog (1971 [1955]), 59; John Parkinson, Paradisi in Sole: Paradisus Terrestris (1629 [New York, 1976]), 558.

RED CLOVER [139-41]: Scott: Guy Mannering (1815), ch. 3; Hatfield, Weeds, 38-9; Dr Christopher, 61; Matthew Wood, pers. comm., 9 Jan 2008; "official": Br. Herb. Pharm., 161; phyto-estrogens: Ruth Trickey, Women, Hormones & the Menstrual Cycle, 2nd edn (Crows Nest, NSW, 2003 [1998]), 402-4.

RED POPPY [142-45]: and war: eg Grigson, 57; Myddfai: Pughe,

414; Pechey, 192.

ROSEBAY WILLOWHERB, FIREWEED [146-49]: Singerweed: Roy Vickery, Plant Lore Notes and News (Dec. 1998); Roger Phillips, Wild Food (1983), 77; Felter & Lloyd, King's American Dispensatory, www.henriettesherbal.com; Carol Rudd, Flower Essences (Shaftesbury, Dorset, 1998), 52.

SELF-HEAL [150-54]: Chinese background: Henry C Lu, Chinese Natural Cures (New York, 1994), 204-5; Parkinson, 528; Brunella: Malcolm Stuart (ed.), The Encylopedia of Herbs and Herbalism (New York, 1979), 247; Gerard, 145; Duke, 256-7, 273.

SHEPHERD'S PURSE [155-57]: Barker, 146; Ryokan poem: trans. John Stevens, Dewdrops on a Lotus Leaf: Zen Poems of Ryokan (Boston, MA, 1996).

ST JOHN'S WORT [158-63]: "hyperikon": Wood, Book, 307; Parkinson, 574; Mrs Grieve, 708; MAO: Dewey, 137; use in Germany: Larry Katzenstein, Secrets of St John's Wort (1998); Alfred Lear Huxford: quoted in Anne Pratt, Wild Flowers (1852), 109; herbs of St John: Grigson, 85-6; Klamath weed: Grigson, 88-9; Australasia: Sir Edward Salisbury, Weeds & Aliens (1961), 208.

SWEET CICELY [164-66]: Gerard, 244; Culpeper, 66; Furnell, 165.

TEASEL [167-69]: bath of Venus, eg, Allen & Hatfield, 275; fulling:

Mrs Grieve, 754; TCM: Dan Bensky & Andrew Gamble, Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia Medica, rev. edn (Seattle, WA, 1993 [1986]), 349; Wood, Book, 234-7; lyme: Stephen Harrod Buhner, Healing Lyme (Randolph, VT, 2005).

VERVAIN [170-72]: prayer: TF Thiselton Dyer, The Folklore of Plants (Llanerch, Wales, 1994 [1889]), 285; Mydffai: Pughe, 448-9; Parkinson, 676; marriage and verbenarius, Mclntyre, 233; Pechey, 241; Pratt, IV, 210.

WHITE DEADNETTLE, ARCHANGEL [173-75]: names: Mrs Grieve, 580; Gerard, 158; "too common" and quote: Barker, 370.

WILD LETTUCE [176-77]: wild vs commercial: Brill & Dean, 246; lactucarium and 1771: Stuart, 210; "official": Br. Herb. Pharm., 185; Galen and "eunuch's plant": Palaiseul, 184; Min: Penelope Ody, Essential Guide to Natural Home Remedies (2002), 128; "o'er much lettuce": www.easyhomeremedy.com.

WILD ROSE [178-83]: Vitamin C and wartime use: Mabey, 192; Anacreon: quoted in Maggie Tisserand, Essential Oils for Lovers (1999 [1993]), 97; Bartholomew: quoted in Eleanour Sinclair Rohde, The Old English Herbals (New York, 1971 [1922]), 49; Pechey, 202; Milto: Tsserand, 96; Pliny: Stuart, 253; dagger and other names: Back, 55; love-charm, Germany: Pamela Allardice, Aphrodisiacs & Love Magic (Bridport, Dorset, 1989), 21; gall: Grigson, 174; Askham's Herbal: Rohde, 60.

WILLOW [184-85]: Culpeper, 272; Ben-Erik van Wyk et al, Medicinal Plants of South Africa (Pretoria, 1997), 222 [re Salix mucronata, wild willow]; www.aspirin-foundation.com,www.pfaf.org.

WILLOWHERB [186-87]: Treben, 49; Gerard, 114; Parkinson, 549.

WOOD BETONY [188-91]: Culpeper, 30, 31-2; Pratt, IV, 189; Parkinson, 616; Grete Herball: Rohde, 72; John Clare: quoted in Pratt, Wild Flowers, www.books.google.com.

YARROW [192-96]: "herb for women": Treben, 50; "cure-all": Barker, 460; Margaret Roberts, 31; Hoffmann, Medical, 523; Barker, 460; East Anglian saying: quoted in Keith Vincent Smith, 136; Rudolf Steiner [n.d.]: quoted in Smith, 136; Merian, Erucarum ortus.

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