Herbalism In The United States

Herbal remedies were an important component of American medicine right up until the early years of the twentieth century. Medical historians believe that upon their arrival in North America in the sixteenth century, early European explorers began trading information about herbal remedies with the Native Americans they encountered. According to Medicinal Plants of Native North America, the various indigenous tribes had over 18,000 uses for herbs.1 Several of these herbs, such as seneca snakeroot...

Traditional Medicine And Herbal Remedies

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 4 billion people, or 80 percent of the world's population, use herbal remedies for some aspects of their health care.1 WHO uses the term traditional medicine to refer to ways of protecting and restoring health that existed before the arrival of modern medicine (WHO Web site). It encompasses many systems of healing that are not based on the Western scientific approach and are often centered around cultural beliefs and practices handed down...

Medical Herbalism A Journal for the Clinical Practitioner

Medical Herbalism is a quarterly journal of clinical herbalism founded to strengthen the herbal practitioner, to preserve and develop the science and art of herbal medicine, and to promote communication and sharing of clinical methods and experiences. Its editor, Paul Bergner, teaches at the Rocky Mountain Center for Botanical Studies, in Boulder, Colorado (see the corresponding entry in Chapter 6). Though a paid subscription is required for the journal itself, the site provides the full text...

Herbal Remedies Are Not Risk Free

The increased use of herbal preparations is causing concern among doctors and pharmacists due to the widespread misconception among the American public that because herbal remedies are natural, they are free from the adverse effects or reactions associated with conventional drugs. Adverse effects, adverse reactions, and drug interactions are all areas of concern. An adverse effect is a ny unintended effect of a pharmaceutical product occurring at doses normally used in man which is related to...

Herbal Associations and Organizations

Herbal Organizations in the United States and Europe Web Sites of Professional Herbal Organizations Chapter 6. The Mainstreaming of Herbal Medicine 55 University-Affiliated, Nonprofit, and Other Research Web Sites of Herbal Research Institutions 57 Chapter 7. Traditional Medicine, Folklore, Traditional Medicine and Herbal Remedies 69 Traditional Chinese, Tibetan, and Ayurvedic Medicine 70 Web Sites Focusing on Traditional Herbal Medicine 72 Chapter 8. Laws, Regulations, and Standards 83 Drug...

Herbal Information Resources

In the preface to the 1981 edition of the The Honest Herbal, Dr. Varro Tyler, a respected authority on herbal medicines, opined More misinformation regarding the efficacy of herbs is currently being placed before consumers than at any previous time, including the turn-of-the-century heyday of patent medicines.1 In the years since this was written, major developments, both in the United States and in European countries, have considerably improved the amount of reliable information on herbs that...

Herbal Information And The Internet

Problems associated with locating reliable herbal information have been exacerbated by the arrival of the Internet and the associated proliferation of health-related Web sites. Personal computers are now ubiquitous, as well as easy to use, and sophisticated health care consumers are beginning to use the Internet to educate themselves about their own health. A vast amount of health care data is available on the Internet. The current estimate is that over 10,000 sites now provide some type of...

Herbal Products And Manufacturers

Along with the mainstreaming of herbal medicine in the United States has come a burgeoning of the market for herbal preparations. The actual size of the herbal market in the United States is difficult to determine, but it is now believed that annual sales exceed 3 billion.2 Herbal preparations are moving beyond health food stores into pharmacies and grocery stores. Much of the sales growth can be traced to the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act in 1994, which critics...

The American Association of Naturopathic Physicians AANP

The word naturopathy was first coined in the United States around 100 years ago and refers to a holistic way of treating illness using the natural healing forces present in the human body. According to the philosophical basis of naturopathy, healing occurs naturally in the human body if it is given what it needs, such as a proper diet, pure water, fresh air, sunlight, exercise, and rest. As with other holistic healing systems, the emphasis is not on finding a disease and curing it, but rather...

American Botanical Council ABC

The American Botanical Council (ABC) is a nonprofit organization whose mission is to educate the public about beneficial herbs and plants and to promote their safe and effective use. It is probably one of the best-known and most active herbal organizations in the United States. The ABC conducts continuing education (CE) modules for pharmacists and, along with the Herb Research Foundation (HRF), publishes the widely respected peer-reviewed journal HerbalGram. The ABC site has useful information...

The American Herbalists Guild AHG

Launched in 1989, the American Herbalists Guild (AHG) is anon-profit educational organization devoted to the promotion of educa tional excellence, ethical standards, and integrity in herbalism. It is the only peer-reviewed organization for professional herbalists. Useful AHG publications include a directory of educational programs for herbalists, a list of recommended readings, and various position papers on herbal issues. Its Journal of the American Herbalists Guild publishes scholarly...

Herb Research Foundation HRF

The Herb Research Foundation (HRF) is a nonprofit research and educational organization focusing on herbs and medicinal plants. Along with the American Botanical Council, it publishes HerbalGram, a peer-reviewed journal with a scientific focus on medicinal herbs. This is an invaluable site for keeping up to date with advances in the field of herbal medicine and with the latest results from clinical trials involving herbal products. From the home page, select News Views to view updated news...

National Herbalists Association of Australia NHAA

The NHAA was founded in 1920 and is Australia's only professional herbal association. It publishes the peer-reviewed Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism. Of particular interest is the Native Herb Forum Web page, which seeks to positively influence the clinical use of Australian herbs and ensure ongoing supplies by exploring their potential for cultivation. The Forum Web site houses review articles on Australian medicinal plants and fact sheets and monographs on native Australian plants,...

The National Institute of Medical Herbalists NIMH

The institute was originally established in 1864 as the National Association of Medical Herbalists and is one of the leading professional herbal organizations in the United Kingdom. The Web site provides some introductory information on herbs and herbal medicine, including an FAQ section, information on education, and an overview of research in this area. The institute publishes the European Journal of Herbal Medicine and Greenfiles, a quarterly newsletter of research abstracts. The site also...

Society for Medicinal Plant Research Gesellschaft fr Arzneipflanzenforschung

Based in Germany, but with an international reach, the Society for Medicinal Plant Research is one of the leading European organizations devoted to the advancement of research in the field of medicinal plants. Areas of interest include the biological and pharmacological activity of natural products, the breeding and cultivation of medicinal plants, and the development of manufacturing and quality control standards for herbal products. The society publishes an online newsletter, available from...

Fogarty International Center FIC

Fogarty, the FIC is part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH). Its mission is to reduce global health disparities by supporting and promoting research and to prepare the current and future generation of international and U.S. scientists to meet global health needs. FIC supports basic biological, behavioral, and social science research, as well as related research training. One of the center's areas of concern is the consequences for human health of the...

Chinese Cultural Studies The Chinese Language and Writing

This is an introductory article on the Chinese language and the pin yin system of romanizing Chinese characters from a course in Chinese cultural studies, given at Brooklyn College of the City of New York. An increasing amount of information on Chinese herbs is appearing on the Internet. Some of these sites may organize information by the Chinese name for an herb or an herbal remedy, and the user may be given a choice of accessing entries using a pin yin index or a Latin index. For purposes of...

The Journal of Chinese Medicine

The Journal ofChinese Medicine is an English-language journal providing professional information on the entire field of Chinese medicine, including Chinese herbal medicine. Though the full text of the journal is not yet online, this site does provide tables of contents for the current issue and some back issues. Of particular note though are the sample full-text articles with useful information on Chinese herbal formulas used in the treatment of a variety of conditions. In addition, the online...

WHO Publications Traditional Medicine

The WHO publishes a number of useful fact sheets and monographs on herbal medicine, such as Guidelines for the Appropriate Use of Herbal Medicines, Medicinal Plants in China, Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam, and Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plant Materials. Several are available online as full text. To see a list of relevant WHO publications, with descriptions, use the URLs listed here. Publication has just begun of a series of twenty-eight monographs covering the quality control,...

Office of Natural Health Products ONHP Canada

Over 50 percent of Canadians now use some type of natural health product, such as herbs, vitamins, and mineral supplements traditional Chinese or Ayurvedic medicine and homeopathic preparations.8 In 1999, in response to concerns from consumers, health care providers, and industry, the Canadian government established the ONHP to develop a new regulatory framework for these products. The new office is designed to provide Canadian consumers with the assurance of safety while enhancing consumer...

Center for Science in the Public Interest CSPI

The CSPI was founded in 1971 by scientists who had previously worked for Ralph Nader's Center for the Study of Responsive Law. The center is a nonprofit education and advocacy organization that focuses on improving the safety and nutritional quality of the food supply. It represents citizens' interests before legislative, regulatory, and judicial bodies and was involved with petitioning the FDA about labeling requirements for dietary supplements. Go to the Nutrition Action Healthletter link for...

The Internet And Health Care

The rise of the managed care movement in health care has resulted in a heightened focus on cost-effective health and disease prevention. At the same time, the rise of the Internet has opened up a vast reservoir of health and medical information to any individual with a computer and an Internet access account, and an increasing number of people are seeking information and advice from sources other than their primary physicians. The next decade may witness a revolution in health care fueled by...

The Literature On

Practically all health professionals now have some familiarity with the MEDLINE database, a tool that has evolved as a filter for the journal literature. In the United States, and in many other countries, it has become the primary database for searching the mainstream biomedical research literature, and it would be nearly impossible to locate relevant published journal articles without it. However, when using MEDLINE to locate information on herbal medicine and other CAM areas, three things...

Native Health History Database

The Native Health History Database (NHHD) is a computerized information resource containing complete bibliographic information and abstracts on historical American Indian and Alaska Native (AI AN) medical health research reports. The database is produced by the Indian Health Service (IHS) and the University of New Mexico (UNM) Health Sciences Center (HSC). Database entries cover the period from 1652 to 1970. The database contains citations on traditional foods and herbal remedies and is a...

Phytopharmacognosy Internet Discussion Group

This is a moderated discussion group of experts in medicinal and aromatic plants. The list owner is Dr. John Wilkinson, Senior Lecturer in Phamacognosy, Botany, Organic and Phytochemistry at Middlesex University, United Kingdom. Membership is free and open to academics, industrialists, and other suitably qualified professionals who are involved in plant-based natural products and who have an e-mail address. Active membership is limited to experts only, and potential members must submit evidence...

Consistency And Standardization

In addition to the controversies over their regulatory status, some concern exists about the identity, purity, quality, and strength of many herbal preparations currently on the market. Since the FDA does not regulate quality control measures for herbal products, the consumer must rely on the integrity of the manufacturer. Unfortunately, numerous instances of misbranding, adulteration, and contamination of herbal products, sometimes resulting in poisoning, have been reported.2,3 Consistency and...

The Center for Alternative Medicine Evaluation and Research in Arthritis CAMERA

The Complementary Medicine Program (CMP) at the University of Maryland School of Medicine was founded in 1991. Research focuses on the investigation of the effectiveness of complementary therapies for the alleviation of conditions accompanied by acute and chronic pain, such as arthritis. CAM areas of interest include herbal medicine, homeopathy, and acupuncture. In 1999, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) awarded a 7.8 million grant to the University of...

Ethnobotany

With the renewed Western interest in examining plants used for centuries in various traditional healing systems, the field of ethnobotany has emerged. Ethnobotany involves studies of the use of indigenous plants by people of various cultures in different parts of the world. In the United States, James Duke is one of the best-known ethnobotanists and a widely respected authority and author on medicinal herbs and herbal healing traditions he is the author of The Green Pharmacy and CRC Handbook of...

Dietary Supplements An Advertising Guide for Industry

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has responsibility for monitoring the advertising of dietary supplements in print and broadcast advertisements, infomercials, catalogs, and similar direct marketing materials. Such advertising must be truthful, substantiated, and not misleading. The FTC has taken action against supplement manufacturers, advertising agencies, distributors, retailers, catalog companies, and others involved in the deceptive promotion of herbal products. (See Chapter 11 for more...

Uicnih Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy

The University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy is one of the World Health Organization (WHO)'s two collaboration centers in the United States. It produces the NAPRALERT (NAtural PRoducts ALERT) database, containing bibliographic and factual data on natural products, such as plant, microbial, and animal (including marine) extracts (see the NAPRALERT entry in Chapter 13). The UIC NIH Center for Botanical Dietary Supplement Research is a new initiative, designed to employ a...

Herbal Folklore

It should be remembered that herbs generally have a long history of use, with some dating back several thousand years. For some there are written records, detailing uses and observations, while information about others survived only through oral traditions. In traditional herbalism, this herbal folklore has been a rich source of information. The word folklore is often used in the context of traditional medicine, referring to the traditional beliefs, legends, and customs of a par ticular group...

Napralert

This online resource requires a subscription, but it is included because it is a well-known database with in-depth information on many herbs, including Chinese herbs. NAPRALERT (NAtural PRoducts ALERT) is a large relational database started in 1975 by Dr. Norman Farnsworth and originally was designed to be used in drug discovery and development processes.8 The database currently contains extracted information from over 150,000 scientific research articles, dating back to 1650. It includes both...

The Register of Chinese Herbal Medicine United Kingdom

The Register of Chinese Herbal Medicine was set up in 1987 to regulate the practice of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the United Kingdom and to work with other organizations on issues relating to the practice and teaching of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. This site has a collection of useful online articles, including such topics as the dispensing and prescribing of Chinese herbal medicines. It also provides information on the use of Western herbs in Chinese herbal...

Health Fraud And Quackery

Due to the current absence of an effective regulatory framework in the United States, it is often difficult for the health practitioner or consumer to identify the serious science from the quackery. The growth of the Internet has exacerbated the problem. Web sites and bulletin boards abound with exotic, unproven, or exaggerated claims, and many opportunities exist for the unscrupulous to promote useless or harmful remedies to an unsuspecting public. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has...

Mini Course in Medical Botany

These documents constitute the syllabus for a continuing education course taught by the respected ethnobotanist Dr. James A. Duke (see the entry for Dr. Duke's Web site in Chapter 12). They are provided by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Though ostensibly just a syllabus, these documents contain valuable information on all aspects of herbs that is not readily available elsewhere. The nineteen modules cover introductory botany, herb formulations,...

ASPET Herbal Medicine and Medicinal Plant Interest Group

Membership in ASPET is restricted to qualified investigators who have conducted and published a meritorious original investigation in pharmacology. Individuals holding doctoral degrees (PhD, MD, or equivalent) are considered to be qualified investigators. (Exceptions may be made for those who do not meet the degree requirement but have made major original research contributions to pharmacology.) ASPET publishes Drug Metabolism and Disposition, Pharmacological Reviews, Molecular Pharmacology,...

European Herbal Practitioners Association EHPA

The European Herbal Practitioners Association was founded in 1993 to represent professional herbal practitioners in the European Union (EU). One of its main objectives is to protect both herbalists and consumers by helping to develop professional standards for herbal education and practice, and by encouraging appropriate European legislation. This site primarily provides information on issues relating to political and legislative developments throughout the EU in regard to herbs and the...

What Is Aromatherapy

Aromatherapy is a division of herbal medicine that uses fragrant oils extracted from the roots, branches, bark, leaves, fruit, and flowers of various plants to enhance and improve health. It has its roots in ancient medical practice dating back to Egyptian times, although it was not called aromatherapy until 1928, when the term was coined by a French chemist named Renee Gattefosse, who documented the healing benefits of essential oils and wrote the first modern book on the topic.1 The word...

Index

Page numbers followed by the letter f indicate figures those followed by the letter t indicate tables. Aconite (Aconitum napellus), 74 Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). See AIDS HIV Adverse reactions. See also Herb-drug interactions definition, 105 gathering data on, 107, 108, 109 ginkgo, 105 herb-drug interactions, 105 St. John's Wort, 106 statistics, 106 Advertising and dietary supplements, 115 federal guidelines, 39 fraudulent claims, 116 Good Housekeeping magazine, 122 on the...

Herbal Organizations In The United States And Europe

In the United States, few institutions or organizations offer training in herbal medicine and no nationwide professional body promotes its use. The situation is a little better in several European countries where herbal preparations have a much longer history of use, such as in England and France, or are more effectively integrated into mainstream medicine, such as in Germany. The current explosion of interest in herbs, though, has led to the launching of several new professional organizations...

California Society for Oriental Medicine CSOM

The CSOM is a nonprofit association dedicated to promoting the practice of acupuncture and other forms of Oriental medicine in California. This site provides much useful information on herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), including information on Chinese herbal patent medicines that contain Western drugs, news items documenting legal and political issues, and information on herbal products that are subject to import restrictions, such as aconite (Aconitum napellus), an herb much...

The Herbalist Approach To Health

The term herbalism has changed over the years, once being almost synonymous with botany, though it is now generally used to refer to the use of plant remedies to treat medical conditions. It is often associated with medical systems having a tradition of using herbs for healing, whether in North America, Europe, or China. Western herbalism, as practiced in the United States and Europe, and distinct from allopathic medicine, is characterized by an emphasis on building and maintaining health...

The Dietary Supplement Health And Education Act Dshea Of 1994

The current U.S. approach to the regulation of herbal products is rather complex and generally considered to be unsatisfactory. Until 1994, the FDA classified most herbal remedies as either food additives or drugs, and manufacturers had to meet strict FDA standards before placing their products on the U.S. market. This changed in 1994 when Congress enacted the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which placed herbs together with vitamins and minerals in a category know as...

Medicinal Plant Research Centre UK

The Medicinal Plant Research Centre is affiliated with the University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, in the north of England. Established in 1996, its mission is to investigate plant species for new drugs. Research is focused on the treatment of neurological disorders, involv ing herbs such as sage (Salvia officinalis) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) that have been found to contain compounds that show promise in alleviating the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. A trial of lemon balm aromatherapy...

Rocky Mountain Center for Botanical Studies

The Rocky Mountain Center for Botanical Studies (RMCBS) offers educational programs in Western herbalism, focusing on indigenous North American plants. The school is approved and regulated by the state of Colorado, Division of Private Occupational Schools, and is an associate member of the American Herbalists Guild (AHG) and the American Herb Association (AHA). It offers advanced herbal studies program and a clinical herbalism internship, which is available to advanced students of herbalism.

AMED Allied and Complementary Medicine Database

Even though this is not a free online database, information about the AMED database is included because it is one of the most important resources for CAM information. The database, produced by the Health Care Information Service of the British Library, contains bibliographic citations with abstracts, covering subjects such as acupuncture, osteopathy, Chinese medicine, homeopathy, rehabilitation, occupational therapy, hypnosis, herbalism, physiotherapy, chiropractic, holistic treatments, and...

Notes

Martindale The Complete Drug Reference. Thirty-Second Edition. London, UK Taunton, MA Pharmaceutical Press, 1999. 2. G. B. Wood. The Dispensatory of the United States of America. Twenty-Second Edition, with supplement. Philadelphia Lippincott, 1940. 3. V. E. Tyler. The Honest Herbal A Sensible Guide to the Use of Herbs and Related Remedies. Third Edition. Binghamton, NY Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1993. 4. ________ . Herbs of Choice The Therapeutic Use of Phytomedicinals....

Combined Health Information Database CHID

CHID is a bibliographic database produced by federal health-related agencies, including the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). The database provides bibliographic citations for major health journals, books, reports, pamphlets, audiovisuals, hard-to-find information resources, and health education promotion programs. At present,...

Histline History of medicine onLINE

The HISTLINE bibliographic database, produced by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), is an index to the journal literature dealing with the history of medicine and its related fields. This valuable resource for researching herbal medicine includes literature about the history of health-related professions, sciences, specialties, individuals, institutions, drugs, and diseases in all parts of the world and from all historic periods. It is updated weekly and has around 190,000 citations....

The Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine

The Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine was established in 1993 by Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons. In addition to promoting and conducting research into alternative and complementary therapies, it provides comprehensive information on alternative and complementary health care practices. The center's Web site provides information on a wide range of resources for researchers, health care practitioners, and the public. Physicians...

The Longwood Herbal Task Force LHTF

The LHTF was founded in the fall of 1998 by faculty, staff, and students from Children's Hospital, the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute. Its mission is to help educate clinicians about the use of herbal remedies and other dietary supplements. The LHTF has comprehensive collections of fact sheets on herbs for both patients and their health care providers. Documents are available for the more popular herbs, such as echinacea and St....

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora CITES

Many species of plants and animals are declining in number because of loss of habitat and increased exploitation as human populations grow. The worldwide surge of interest in herbal medicine has FIGURE 3.1. Part of the CalFlora Record for St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) Hypericum perforatum l. (Hypciicaceac) Common 11 nines Klamath weed IHrngaL i l St. Johnswoil F ri communities weed. species characteristic of disturbed places LWWalK -1 11n'li111( described by Walker i k CNPS as...

The National Institute of Ayurvedic Medicine NIAM

This is a comprehensive resource for basic information about the practice and beliefs of Ayurvedic medicine. The NIAM, located in Brewster, New York, is the largest resource for information on Ayurvedic medicine in the United States. Its research library has one of the largest collections of Ayurvedic literature in the country, with writings and research reports in English, Hindi, Sanskrit, Malayalam, Tamil, and several other dialects. Go to the medicinal plant page for profiles of plants from...

The National Council Against Health Fraud NCAHF

The NCAHF is a nonprofit, voluntary health agency that focuses on health fraud, misinformation, and quackery as public health problems. The organization is composed of health professionals, educators, researchers, attorneys, and concerned citizens. Useful resources include the NCAHF Position Paper on Over-the-Counter Herbal Remedies (1995) and its Consumer Health Digest (CHD), a free weekly e-mail newsletter summarizing scientific reports, legislative developments, and enforcement actions. CHD...

Plant Names And Plant Taxonomy

Information resources usually list herbs by their common or botanical names. A common name can be in any language, is usually based on what the flower or plant looks like, and will vary according to where you happen to live for example, St. John's wort is also known as Le millepertuis in France and Johanniskraut in Germany. To circumvent the problem of multiple common names, each plant is given a botanical name (also called the scientific or Latin name) based on an internationally accepted...

Traditional Chinese Tibetan And Ayurvedic Medicine

China and the Indian subcontinent have developed what are probably the two most widely known systems of traditional health care traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Ayurvedic medicine. TCM refers to an ancient healing system that is thought to predate current Western medicine by over 2,000 years.4 It encompasses a range of seemingly disparate techniques and materials, including widely popular areas such as acupuncture, massage, and herbal preparations, as well as the more esoteric areas of...

Europe And Germanys Commission E Monographs

Whereas widespread consumer interest in medicinal herbs is a relatively new phenomenon in the United States, herbs have been widely used in several European countries for many years. They play a particularly important role in German medicine, in which they are not only used for self-medication but also widely prescribed by medical doctors. Since 1993, medical students must successfully complete the phytotherapy portion of their board examinations as a precondition for practicing medicine Due to...

Conflicts Between Allopathic Medicine And Herbalists

Health professionals most frequently criticize herbal practitioners for what they see as a lack of scientific evidence indicating that herbal remedies are effective. They are also disturbed by what they view as an entrenched antiscientific attitude among many practicing herbalists. To someone trained in the methodology of Western scientific medicine, some of the writing about herbs can seem decidedly flaky, with an aura of mysticism and mythology and links to the New Age movement, with its...