The herb contains irridoids, phenols (pyrogallol, protocatechuic acid, and p-trans-coumaric acid), tannins, coumarin, lactones and their glycosides, alkaloids, triterpenes, saponins, ( + )-pinoresinol-di-O-|3-D-glucopyranoside, catechol, 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, dihydrocaffeic acid, guiacygly-cerol, trans-4-hydroxycyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid resins, long-chain polytrans prenols ( >9 mers), ajugoside, reptoside, harpagide acetate (C26H32O12), other organic acids, and some alkaloids (5-9). Among the constituents, irri-doids are considered to be bioactive; these include geniposidic acid, geniposide, asperulosidic acid, deacetyl asperulosidic acid, asperuloside, and their glycoxylated derivatives such as encommiol (CgH16O4) and 1-deoxyeucom-miol and aucubin (C15H22O9). Three percent of the leaf contains cholorogenic acid. The biological actions of many of these compounds have not been investigated.

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