Bitter Orange Citrus aurantium

Modern Ayurveda

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The flower of C. aurantium daidai is in the food-grade herb list. The dry, unripe fruits of C. aurantium L. and its cultivated variants are not food-grade herbs, but effective medicine, and are collected when the pericarp of the fruit is still green. The fruits are used as a digestant and expectorant and in the treatment of anal prolapse. Related citrus species are known to produce coumar-ins, flavanones, flavones, flavonols (which occur in the free form and/or as glycosides), and limonoids (18). The inhibitory effect of some traditional herbal medicines on the infectivity of rotavirus, which predominantly occurs in sporadic diarrhea in infants and young children, was investigated. Among the 34 kinds of herbal medicines tested, the fruit of C. aurantium had the most potent inhibitory activity on rotavirus infection. The active components were neohesperidin and hesperidin, 2% w/w on average (19-21). In another study,

100% of 32 patients—19 with duodenal ulcer and 19 with gastroduodenitis (including 6 with both) all of them with concomitant obstipation syndrome— were successfully treated with Rhamus frangula, C. aurantium, and Carum carvi. A daily defecation was attained in 91% of the patients. There was no effect on gastric mucosa or on the clinical effect of the main disease or on the percentage of the ulcer niche healing (22).

The effects of Seville orange juice on dextromethorphan pharmacoki-netics were studied in 11 volunteers. Results suggest that dextromethorphan could provide some useful information on P-glycoprotein or related membrane efflux protein activity in the human gastrointestinal tract. Bioavailability of dextromethorphan increased significantly with Seville orange juice, but only returned to half the baseline value after 3 days of washout. This confirms that Seville orange juice is a long-lasting and perhaps irreversible inhibitor of gut CYP3A/Pp-glycoprotein (23). Also common in citrus are the polymeth-oxyflavones, tangeretin and nobiletin (24), which have some antimutagenic activity (25). Bitter orange extract plus ascorbate strongly inhibited atherosclerosis (26). We have found no recent scientific reports on C. aurantium flowers, except for a compositional analysis of flavonoids (27). Fruit extracts were found to be safe to use in combination with caffeine and St. John's wort for body weight loss of healthy adults (28). Use of peel is safe, although there are indications of cardiovascular toxic effects of fruit extracts in the rat (29). Bitter orange oil is widely used in perfumery and for flavoring candies, soft drinks, and baked goods (30). The polymethoxyflavonoid nobiletin specifically occurs in citrus fruits, and is a promising anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor-promoting agent.

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The Complete Compendium Of Everything Related To Health And Wellness

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