Induction of Phase II Detoxification Enzymes

Prestera and Talalay (54) suggested that evaluating the ability to promote phase II detoxification enzymes would be one of the indexes for detecting antimutagenicity and anticancer action of substances. It was known that B[a]P exerted its detoxification functions through GST (55). Therefore, exploring the effects of C. tora on GST activity of mammalian cells might reveal their function in lessening the genotoxicity of B[a]P. In the HepG2 cell line, unroasted and 150°C-roasted C. tora promoted enzyme activation (21). These two water extracts increased the enzyme activity by 1.26 and 1.35 times, respectively. Induction of the 250°C-roasted sample on GST activity was not significant. The result suggested that promoting GST activity of water extracts from unroasted and 150°C-roasted C. tora might be another reacting mechanism of antigenotoxicity compare with suppressing EROD.

Further investigation by Choi et al. (10) has demonstrated that eth-anolic extract of C. tora was able to reduce levels of hepatic enzymes of ethanol-treated rats, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathi-one peroxide. Glutathione levels were higher in rats fed Cassia ethanolic extract than the depleted levels observed in rats treated with ethanol. Therefore, the enhancement of antioxidant and phase II detoxification enzyme activities may be responsible in part for the chemopreventive effects of C. tora against reactive oxygen species and carcinogens. The balance between the phase I mutagen-activating enzymes and the phase II detoxifying enzymes could be important in preventing the risk of developing chemically induced cancer.

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