A Kruss Contact Angle Measuring System, Model G-10 was used for all contact angle measurements. A mass of approximately 20 mg H2O was deposited onto the surface; the readings were taken 30 sec after deposition at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra were acquired using Physical Electronics 5600 multitechnique system with monochromatic Al Ka X-ray source (1486.6 eV). The radiation was focused on the sample at an electron takeoff angle (TOA) of 45 ± 3° relative to the substrate surface. The spectra for sulfur, S (2p); oxygen, O (1s); carbon, C (1s); and silica, Si (2p) were acquired using the respective Physical Electronics software. An electron flood gun was used to compensate for the insulating properties of the sample. The Si (2p) peak was chosen as the reference binding energy (103.3 eV). Variable-
angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) measurements were acquired using Variable Angle Ellipsometry System H-VASE GE005 (Woollam). The optical constant for the MPTS layer was set to 1.4420 (25°C) (25). Scanning Probe Microscope-NanoScope (Digital Instruments) was used for atomic force microscopy (AFM). Data were acquired in tapping mode using a resolution of 512 pixels per line and analyzed using Digital Instrument software.
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