A C odorata Extract Enhances Proliferation of Fibroblasts Keratinocytes and Endothelial Cells Phan et al 1998 2001b

This study showed that the extract from the leaves of C. odorata at concentrations of 10 Ag/mL and 100 Ag/mL enhanced the growth of fibroblasts and endothelial cells. The extract at concentrations from 0.1 to 5 Ag/mL significantly stimulated the expansion of human keratinocyte colonies in monolayer in basal medium as it did in growth medium (Fig. 3). With increasing doses of the extract, from 50 to 300 Ag/mL, colonies did not further expand,

Figure 3 Growth of human dermal fibroblasts (a, c) and epidermal keratino-cytes (b, d) in monolayer by C. odorata extract, monitored under the light microscope in basal medium with or without C. odorata extract (100x) on day 5 (a, c) or day 2 (b, d). Cells were stained with MTT to visualize living cells. Fibroblasts in basal medium (a) and basal medium plus 100 ng/mL extract (c). Keratinocytes in basal medium (b) and basal medium plus 1 ng/mL extract (d). (With permission for reprint from Wound Repair and Regeneration and Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.)

Figure 3 Growth of human dermal fibroblasts (a, c) and epidermal keratino-cytes (b, d) in monolayer by C. odorata extract, monitored under the light microscope in basal medium with or without C. odorata extract (100x) on day 5 (a, c) or day 2 (b, d). Cells were stained with MTT to visualize living cells. Fibroblasts in basal medium (a) and basal medium plus 100 ng/mL extract (c). Keratinocytes in basal medium (b) and basal medium plus 1 ng/mL extract (d). (With permission for reprint from Wound Repair and Regeneration and Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.)

but cells tended to differentiate and form layers. Fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes are indispensable in cutaneous tissue repair. Fibroblasts and endothelial cells play very important roles in the initial phase of wound healing. Fibroblasts migrate into the wound site 24 hr after injury. During this phase of healing (4-21 days), fibroblasts are activated and undergo a burst of proliferative and synthetic activity, producing high amounts of fibronectin, and then synthesizing the other protein components of the extracellular matrix, including collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycans. Fibroblasts also contribute to the contraction of the wound (Cherry et al., 1994; Singer and

Clark, 1999). Endothelial cells play a key role in angiogenesis and are critical mediators of the repair reaction. Their proliferation and organization into a vascular network at the wound site, as well as their biosynthetic capacity, are essential for the successful completion of tissue repair (Cherry et al., 1994; Amenta et al., 1996). Keratinocytes are very important in reepithelialization and wound closure. Keratinocytes are also known to produce a vast array of cytokines and growth factors as well as adhesion molecules that regulate fibroblast proliferation, angiogenesis, and formation of the basement membrane zone (Cherry et al., 1994; Singer and Clark, 1999).

The results of these studies demonstrated that the C. odorata extract promoted fibroblast, keratinocyte, and endothelial cell growth, and this could explain in part the beneficial effects that have been observed.

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