References

Liu Tongting, Zhao lichun, Wang Naixin, Lu Zhaotong, Sun Ziqin. Effects of Ju Hua Jian in ulcerative colitis and on the contents of CD44 and CD62p. Chin J Covalesc Med 1998 7(6) 38-39. 2. Jiang Huidi, Xia Qiang, Xu Wanhong, Cao Chunmei. Studies on cardic effects of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat and their unlying mechanism. Modern Trad Chin Med 2002 4(2) 31-34. 3. Wang HK, Xia Y, Yang ZY, Natschke SL, Lee KH. Recent advances in the discovery and development of flavonoids and their analogues as...

Antioxidant Properties in Food and Biological Systems

During storage of prepared or dehydrated food, lipid autoxidative degradation products such as hydroperoxides, malondialdehydes, aldehydes, ketones, and hydroxy fatty acids may occur if the food is not properly protected by antioxidants. These products not only result in unpleasant flavors but may also be a health risk (25). Lipid oxidation is an autocatalyzed radical chain reaction induced by free radicals (26). Polyphenolic antioxidants possess a relatively reactive phenolic hydrogen atom,...

A C odorata Extract Enhances Proliferation of Fibroblasts Keratinocytes and Endothelial Cells Phan et al 1998 2001b

This study showed that the extract from the leaves of C. odorata at concentrations of 10 Ag mL and 100 Ag mL enhanced the growth of fibroblasts and endothelial cells. The extract at concentrations from 0.1 to 5 Ag mL significantly stimulated the expansion of human keratinocyte colonies in monolayer in basal medium as it did in growth medium (Fig. 3). With increasing doses of the extract, from 50 to 300 Ag mL, colonies did not further expand, Figure 3 Growth of human dermal fibroblasts (a, c)...

Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat

Different from its use as an attractive flower for horticulture purposes in Europe, chrysanthemum of the Compositae family, in particular its flower, has been used as a traditional medicine in several Asian countries, such as China, Korea, and Japan, for several centuries. The flower of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat, owing to its broad pharmacological effects as well as its fragrance, is also used as a beverage chrysanthemum tea. This chapter will focus on both the broad and specific...

Contact Angle Measurements Xps Vase and AFM

A Kruss Contact Angle Measuring System, Model G-10 was used for all contact angle measurements. A mass of approximately 20 mg H2O was deposited onto the surface the readings were taken 30 sec after deposition at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra were acquired using Physical Electronics 5600 multitechnique system with monochromatic Al Ka X-ray source (1486.6 eV). The radiation was focused on the sample at an electron takeoff angle (TOA) of 45 3 relative to the...

Effect of Processing

Processing affects the chemical composition of the herb. Concentrations of compounds in eucommia are influenced by the area where it is produced, harvest time, and treatment after harvesting. Thus the content of pinoresinol diglucoside in postprocessed bark is higher than that in preprocessed bark (10). Leaves collected from June to September had an aucubin content that was 2.5 higher than at other times (11). On the other hand, geniposidic acid concentration was 5.5 higher in June and July....

Formulation

A synergistic effect by using the leaves of E. ulmoides Oliver, Eucomiaceae (Du-Zhong leaf) and the roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Ginseng) has been reported (4). The formula consists of amounts that exert no effect when used individually. Several formula ratios of ginseng and Du-Zhong leaf, 1 1, 1 2, 1 3, and 1 4, were tested. It was demonstrated that the formula ratio of ginseng to Du-Zhong leaf of 1 3 was the most effective for stimulation of collagen synthesis and prevention of...

In Vitro Studies

The decolorization of the acid) (ABTS) radical cation is an accurate assay for screening the antioxidant activities of either lipophilic substances or food extracts (55). The total antioxidant capacity of either the DCM lipophilic extracts or the methanolic hydrophilic extracts from fruits of the yellow, red, and white Sicilian cultivars of prickly pear has been evaluated by the reaction with the ABTS radical cation, generated by reacting ABTS with potassium persulfate (9), and expressed as...

Naphthodianthrones

The most researched class of compounds isolated from H. perforatum is the naphthodianthrones, which occur in concentrations ranging from 0.1 up to 0.3 (9,25,26). The most common naphthodianthrones include hypericin, pseudohypericin, isohypericin, and protohypericin (10,21). Of those, hyper-icin is the best known and, to date, the most studied. Hypericin is a reddish pigment that is responsible for the red color of St. John's wort oils. Hypericin is found in greatest abundance in the flowers,...

Nonplant Myrosinases

Apart from the GSL-producing plant genera, myrosinase enzymes have also been characterized in insects, fungi, and bacteria (37). Endogenous myrosinase have been identified in the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae and the mustard aphid Liaphis erysimi. However, from a human nutritional perspective nonplant myrosinases present in bacteria are of greater importance. Microbial myrosinases have been isolated from Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sydowi, and, more significantly, the gut bacteria...

Scavenging Activity on DPPH Radical Superoxide Anion and Hydroxyl Radical

Free radicals are produced in cells by cellular metabolism and by exogenous agents. The extracts of C. tora, especially roasted and unroasted samples, were evaluated for their free-radical, 2,2-diphenyl-1-piperylhydrazyl radical (DPPH'), superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. Choi et al. (29) found that the methanolic extracts of the seed of C. tora have a scavenging activity on the DPPH radical. 2-Hydroxyemodin cassiaside and ru-brofusarin gentiobioside were isolated from...

Total Phenolic Compounds

C. tora contains many phenolic compounds, such as emodin, rhein, chry-sophanol, and obtusin, some of which belong to anthraquinones (56). Some anthraquinones have been reported to have antioxidant activity (57). The total polyphenols in extracts of C. tora decreased significantly (p > 0.05) during roasting. The amount of polyphenols in extracts of C. tora decreased from 180.64 mg g (unroasted) to 103.55 mg of gallic acid g extracts of C. tora after roasting at 250 C. This means that...

Acacetin

Acacetin is a flavonoid that occurs in plants as a glycoside with attached glucose, rhamnose, or glucuronic acid moieties. In the aglycone form, it is an antioxidant in vitro although this is a common property ofmost flavonoids. It induces UGT defense mechanisms in cells in vitro (90), inhibits cytochrome P450s CYP1A and CYP1B1 (91), induces terminal differentiation of HL-60 cells (92), inhibits topoisomerase l-catalyzed DNA ligation (93), and inhibits B(a)P-induced mutagenesis in hamster...

Effects on Tumor Cell Cytotoxicity and Differentiation

Saponin and nonsaponin compounds have been reported to show cytotoxic activities against various kinds of cancer cell lines in culture. The major active components are ginsenoside Rh2, a peculiar component of red ginseng, and also polyacetylenes, panaxydol, panaxynol, and panaxytriol. In addition, ace-tylpanaxydol and panaxydolchlorohydrin, showing cytotoxicity against lymph-oid leukemia L1210, have been isolated from Korean ginseng root (45). The critical early even in the cytotoxicity of...

Immune Effects

Epimedium has been reported to significantly enhance the phagocytic activity of macrophages (25), to stimulate the migration of T-lymphocytes from the thymus to peripheral organs, and to promote both the proliferation of bone marrow cells and the synthesis of DNA. The n-butanol fraction of E. hunanense and epimedin C isolated from the fraction significantly enhanced the response of spleen antibody-forming cells to nearly normal in the mice treated with the immunosuppressant hydrocortisone...

Polysaccharides

Plant polysaccharides are reported to confer anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, antiulcer, and anticancer effects (7,16,50). Fungi are remarkable for the variety of high-molecular-weight polysaccharide structures that they produce, and bioactive polyglycans are found in all parts of the mushroom. Polysaccharides from the G. lucidum mushroom have been extracted from the fruit body, mycelia, and spores, and exopolysaccharides are produced by mycelia cultured in fermenters. Analysis of the...

Preparation of Crude Total Ethanol Extract

Fresh leaves of C. odorata (10 kg) were collected, washed, and dried in the sun for 5 days and then in a 45 C incubator for another 3 days. A 1-kg amount of clean, dried leaves was powdered, divided into three batches, and then extracted with 4000 mL of absolute ethanol in a Soxhlet apparatus for 12 hr per batch. Twelve liters of the ethanol fraction was evaporated under vacuum using a Rotary Vacuum Evaporator, RE 100, Bibby, UK Chlorophyll, resin, and lipids were removed by Whatman paper...

Antiatherosclerosis and Antiplatelet Effects of Ginsenosides

Endothelial cell damage is considered to be the initial step in the genesis of thrombosis and arteriosclerosis, the common precursors of cardiovascular disoders. Platelet hyperfunction, such as enhanced platelet aggregation associated with overproduction of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), a potent platelet aggregative and vasoconstrictive substance, has been frequently encountered in patients with cardiovascular thrombotic diseases. Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2), a potent antiplatelet aggregative and...

Anticoagulation Effects

Platelet aggregation plays a pathophysiological role in a variety of thromboembolic disorders, including myocardial infraction, atherosclerosis, and cerebrovascular diseases. Tetramethylpyrazine displayed a dose-dependent inhibition of human platelet aggregation and ATP-release reaction induced by various agonists. It was also demonstrated to have inhibitory action against monophosphate formation by collagen as well as an inhibitory effect on intracellular free calcium rise (49). The same group...

Biological Activities

So far, quassinoids from this plant have been reported to exhibit a wide range of activities in animals, both in vivo and in vitro (28,30-34,36-42,45,51,52). Detailed investigations on this plant showed that some of the quas-sinoids, one of the major bioactive groups in this plant, had antimalarial activities against drug-resistant Malaysian and non-Malaysian Plasmodium falciparum isolates, and some were found to have favorable potency compared to chloroquine (28,30,32 33,41,45,51). Most of the...

Efficacy Studies with the Crude Extract

A limited number of studies have been performed in Chinese laboratories to demonstrate the efficacy of the herb on a particular illness treatment based on the use of the crude extracts. Most of these studies were unable to demonstrate either the specific molecular mechanism or the mode of action of the herbal extracts. The nature of the bioactive compound was also not known. Chuanxiong was administered to dogs to test its efficacy on muscle function, and specifically to see whether the use of a...

In Vivo Studies with Humans

A strong protection of the body's antioxidant system, and reduction of oxidative stress by regular ingestion of prickly pear, has recently been observed in an in vivo study in which eight healthy volunteers, aged 20-55, received six fruits per day (400 g edible pulp), for 2 weeks during which they were allowed to eat according to their usual diet, with the exception of fruits (31). Plasma measurements, before and after the 2-week trial, have shown a very marked elevation of vitamin C and...

Bioavailability

The forms of flavonoids are as important as their content in affecting the absorption and bioactivity. It had been expected that only aglycones could be absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, because no enzymes are secreted in the gut that could cleave the glycosidic bonds (123). However, recent studies have demonstrated that the bioavailability of specific flavonoids is much higher than previously believed. For example, quercetin glycosides were more readily absorbed than quercetin aglycone...

Contact Angle Measurements

Changes in contact angle measurements were monitored during the processing of the silicon chips. The mean values are listed in Table 2. A contact angle of 3 after the treatment of the chips in NH4OH indicated almost complete hydroxylation of the surface (27). After formation of the self-assembled layer of MPTS, the contact angle increased from 3 to 81.13 . The hydrophobicity imparted to the surface facilitated the deposition of the TABLE 2 Physical Measurements Taken During Fabrication of the...

Enzymatic and Nonenzymatic Lipid Peroxidation Systems

It is now clear that oxygen species such as superoxide anion hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, and other free radicals are proposed as agents that attack polyunsaturated fatty acid in the cell membranes giving rise to lipid peroxidation (34). C. tora has been reported to have antioxidant properties in vitro that act as reducing agents, hydrogen donors, free-radical quenchers, and metal ion chelators (32). In view of this, Yen and Chung (33) evaluated the antioxidant properties of water...

British Library

In 1985, the British Library, owing to lack of coverage on Medline, commenced work on compiling the Allied and Alternative Medicine database (AMED), which was later changed to the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database. AMED was started to assist complementary medicine practitioners and paramedical staff locate articles that were relevant to their practice. At the time that the British Library started AMED in 1985, Medline was particularly poor in the areas of complementary medicine and...

Higher MolecularWeight Components

The presence of oligosaccharides in higher plants is common. Early studies confirmed their presence in Echinacea species but, other than assigning molecular weights of approximately 50 kDa to these, structural information was limited (3). Pharmacological studies suggested that they possessed weak antihyaluronidase activity (84, as synopsized in Ref. 3). Studies of particular relevance to immunostimulation were reported by the Wagner group starting in 1981 (85-87). Two immunostimulatory...

Hydrogen PeroxideInduced Oxidative DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes

Hydrogen peroxide is a well-known ROS produced intracellular during physiological and pathological processes, and causes oxidative DNA damage in cells. (37) As mentioned earlier, several noncell studies have demonstrated that Cassia seed was capable of reducing lipid peroxidation caused by ROS. The effect of C. tora on hydrogen-peroxide-induced oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes was assessed using single-cell gel electropheresis (comet assay). Water extracts of C. tora prepared under...

Anethole

Anethole has a broad range of biological activities related to possible action on the gastrointestinal tract. It exhibits local anesthetic activity in vivo in rats (96), is antimicrobial (97), and may possibly have antispasmodic, digestive, and secretolytic activities, although the mechanisms of these activities are not reported. At relatively high doses, anethole shows dose-related antigenotoxic effect against procarbazine and urethane in mice (98), and inhibits TNF-induced cellular responses...

Antinutritional Effects of Glucosinolate Hydrolytic Products

It cannot be ignored that the beneficial effects of consuming cruciferous vegetables is important in the proposed prevention of chronic human disease. It must also be noted that deleterious effects can also be attributed to high exposure to ITCs and other GSL hydrolytic products. In addition to acting as feeding deterrents for herbivores, some GSL metabolites also show goitrogenic activity in mammals. For example, the use of oilseed rape meal as animal feed was severally hampered owing to high...

Component Separation by Semipreparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography

The three antioxidant fractions obtained by column chromatographic frac-tionation were labeled A, B, and C. Further separation of these fractions was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (Fig. 2). Hewlett-Packard HPLC equipment with Diode Array Detection was used (HP-1100). Separation was carried out using a C18 semipreparative column (Hewlett-Packard) at room temperature. A mixture of methanol and water was used as the mobile phase with a flow-rate of 2 mL min. Detection...

Chemoprevention

Apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death, is a means by which living organisms control abnormalities in cells that occur either by genetic or by environmental queues. Characteristic changes such as cell shrinkage, chro-matin condensation, plasma membrane blebbing, DNA fragmentation, and, finally, the cell breakdown with the release of apoptotic bodies are often observed during apoptosis. The initiation of apoptosis can occur via two major pathways through membrane-bound receptors such as...

Consumption In Humans

Evaluation of the protective effect of licorice root extract on the resistance of LDL to ex vivo oxidation was studied in normolipidemic human subjects (84), as well as in hypercholesterolemic patients (85). LDL, which was isolated from the plasma of 10 healthy volunteers after consumption of 100 mg of licorice root ethanolic extract per day, for a period of 2 weeks, was more resistant to copper-ion-induced oxidation, as well as to AAPH-induced oxidation, by 44 and by 36 , respectively, in...

Additional Compounds

Other compounds of various classes have been determined to occur in H. perforatum. These include tannins (concentrations vary from 3 to 16 ), xanthones (1.28 mg 100 g), phenolic compounds (caffic acid, chlorogenic acid, and p-coumaric acid), and hyperfolin. Other compounds include acids (nico-tinic, myristic, palmitic, stearic), carotenoids, choline, pectin, hydrocarbons, and long-chain alcohols (21). Amino acids that occur include cysteine, GABA (g-aminobutyric acid), glutamine, leucine,...

Antioxidant Effects

Methanol extracts of 180 Oriental herbs were screened for their antioxidant activities by determining the peroxide values of linoleic acid during storage at 50 C (43). Among the herbal extracts tested, 44 selected herbal extracts were further studied in a methyl linoleate system for an extended storage time. Eleven herbs had particularly high antioxidant activities, where the antiox-idative effects of most herbal extracts were greatly dependent on the extraction solvent used. However, E....

Atomic Force Microscopy AFM

Surface changes that occur during the processing of the chips were also evaluated by AFM. During the cleaning and rehydroxylation process some material appeared to be removed by desorption of Si(OH)4 into the solution, leading to an increase in roughness of the surface (data not shown). The formation of MPTS layers led to an increase in the grain size from 44 nm2 to 89 nm2 and a small change in the topography (Fig. 3a). The AFM image of the immobilized oligonucleotide layer (Fig. 3b) showed a...

Rational

Lack of training for T CAM providers Lack of training for allopathic practitioners on T CAM Lack of communication between T CAM and allopathic practitioners and between allopathic practitioners and consumers Lack of information for the public on rational use of T CAM These are tasks that have been repeatedly identified by numerous groups in recent years it would be a significant advancement if the WHO is now able to stimulate action by bringing attention, and more important, funding, to address...

Salt

Salt does not damage DNA and is not genotoxic. However, importantly, it severely impinges on the stability of cell, and cells exposed to high levels of salt undergo rapid cell duplication. Therefore, there is severe damage to the stomach with possible alteration, especially in the tissue also generating ROS and carrying a bacterium discovered in 1984, Helicobacter pylori (reviewed in ref. 8). Eventually, stomach cancer and possibly ulcers stem from excessive salt intake in infected cells (9)....

Antioxidant Assay

Cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes were employed in the in vitro experiments to assess the protective effects of the extracts on cells against oxidative-induced damage. Commercial hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or hypo-xanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX XO), strong oxidant agents, were prepared for addition to cells. Cells were seeded in growth media in 96-well plates at high densities of 6000 cells well or 10,000 cells well and incubated at 37 C in a 5 CO2 95 air atmosphere. Cells were grown to...

Bamboo Leaf Lophatherum gracile

Bamboo leaf is the young stem and leaf of L. gracile Brongn., which have been used for bringing down fevers and diuresis. Melanosis coli has been associated with ingestion of bamboo leaf extract (17), a potential safety hazard. The his-tological changes in the colonic mucosa were compared with those in patients who had melanosis coli as a result of anthraquinone ingestion (aloe, etc.). Because bamboo leaf extract was not ordinarily ingested by humans, the possibility of its deposition in the...

Immunomodulatory Antitumor Activities of Ginseng Polysaccharide

It has long been reported that ginseng strengthens the resistance of an organism to harmful physical, chemical, and biological stresses. This capability is related to its regulation of the immune system, which plays an important role in the protective mechanism of the body. Recently, an acidic polysaccharide named ginsan has been isolated from white ginseng, peeled dried ginseng, and identified as an ideal nontoxic antineoplastic immunostim-ulator. It acts by activating multiple effector arms...

Intestinal Microflora and Immune Defenses Are Improved in Tea Drinkers

Tea polyphenols affect viruses and bacteria (110). Enterobacteriaceae in the intestinal tract have mostly unpleasant properties since they generate smelly chemicals of the type of skatole and related indoles. The tea polyphenols suppress the growth of these bacteria but have no adverse effects on beneficial bacteria such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Also, the consequence is a lower pH of the intestinal contents since there is increased formation of organic acids. In particular, butyric...

Variable Angle Ellypsometry VASE

VASE measurements generated estimated thickness values for the layers formed on the chip surface during processing. A summary of the values obtained is shown in Table 2. Based on the topography detected by AFM, a roughness layer was calculated (16.8 A) and included in the calculated spectra. The thickness of the MPTS layer, 38.8 7 A was larger than expected for a monolayer, suggesting the formation of multiple layers of MPTS during the Figure 3 AFM images of Si-based TCM microarray. oligo, (c)...

Cardioactive Effects

It has been confirmed that acteoside has cardioactive effects (48). Intravenous administration of acteoside resulted in a significant decrease in blood pressure in Wistar rats (49). In the Langendorff rat heart preparation, acteoside induces a significant dose-dependent increment in chronotropism, inotro-pism, and coronary perfusion (50). These cardioactive effects appear to be associated with a striking increase in the level of intracellular cyclic 3,5-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) (51)....

Knowledge Production

Comparative research should be promoted, where modern and traditional approaches to managing the same conditions are compared in terms of clinical outcomes and cost. Clinical research should follow national and international health priorities e.g., cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, TB, malaria, HIV AIDS, etc. and mainstream research funds should encourage a component of research into traditional means for treating specific conditions. To ensure a rational basis for the use of...

Other Pharmacological Effects

Sch C and some other lignans were found to inhibit the growth of human immunodeficiency virus (HlV)-infected H9 cells at effective concentrations (EC) ranging from 0.006 to 1.2 Ag mL (65). Recently, halogenated derivatives of gomisin J (Fig. 1g) have been shown to possess anti-HIV activities by inhibiting reverse transcriptase activity as well as expressing cytoprotective action in HIV-infected H9 cells (66). In addition, the growth and clonogenicity as well as the topoisomerase II activity of...

Curcumin Suppresses the Induction of Adhesion Molecules

The expression of various cell surface adhesion molecules, such as intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1, on endothelial cells is absolutely critical for tumor metastasis (50). The expression of these molecules is in part regulated by nuclear factor NF-kB (51). We have shown that treatment of endothelial cells with curcumin blocks the cell surface expression of adhesion molecules and this accompanies the...

In Vitro Study of Effects of the Extract on Adhesion Molecule and Matrix Production by Keratinocytes

First- or second-passage keratinocytes were seeded onto 12-well slides at a density of 2 x 103 cells well in keratinocyte growth medium (KGM). After 48 hr the medium was replaced by keratinocyte basal medium (KBM) containing various concentrations of the extract, with one set being maintained in KGM as a control. At 70-80 confluence, the slides were washed three times in PBS, air-dried, and stored at 70 C until required for indirect immunoflu-orescence. A standard indirect immunofluorescent...

Knowledge Management and Utilization

To ensure sound standards of practice based on recognized levels of training and the use of therapies that are safe and effective, information is needed on best practice across a wide range of professional and industrial issues. A coordinated development strategy with multiple national and international partners will be required to develop such an information resource to inform and support national policy development in natural health care. Aware that other countries are also grappling with...

Antifungal Activity

Antifungal peptides have been purified from the bark of E. ulmoides Oliver (28). Their primary structures consists of 41 residues with a N-terminal blockage by pyroglutamic acid and all contain 10 cysteines, which are cross-linked to form five disulfide bridges with a pairing pattern (C1-C5, C2-C9, C3-C6, C4-C7, C8-C10). They exhibit relatively broad spectra of antifungal activities against eight pathogenic fungi from cotton, wheat, potato, tomato, and tobacco. Their inhibition activity can be...

Curcumin Downregulates Cyclooxygenase2 COX2 Expression

Overexpression of COX-2 has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of cancers, including colon (53), lung (54), and breast (55) cancers. The role of COX-2 in suppression of apoptosis and tumor cell proliferation has been demonstrated (56). Furthermore, celebrex, a specific inhibitor of COX-2, has been shown to suppress mammary carcinogenesis in animals (57). Several groups have shown that curcumin downregulates the expression of COX-2 protein in different tumor cells (44,58) most...

Microbiological Effects

There has been interest over the years in the effects of phenylethanoid glycosides on microorganisms. Although acteoside exerted weak antibacterial effects on Escherichia coli, it had antiplasmid effects, including F'lac plasmid elimination, and inhibited kanamycin resistance transfer in E. coli (55). Similar results were observed with its isomer isoacteoside (56,57). In addition, acteoside and arenarioside exhibited a moderate antimicrobial activity against Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus...

Chicory

Recent research in experimental animal models revealed that inulin has possible anticarcinogenic properties since it reduced the incidence of azoxy-methane (AOM)-induced aberrant cyrpt foci and tumors in the colon (35). In perfused rats, chicory extract significantly decreased cholesterol absorption by 30 in the jejunum and by 41 in the ileum, compared to the control (36,37). Recently a new type of chicory inulin with higher average chain length (DP 25) has become commercially available. A...

Curcumin Inhibits Angiogenesis

For most solid tumors, including breast cancer, angiogenesis (blood vessel formation) is essential for tumor growth and metastasis (59). The precise mechanism that leads to angiogenesis is not fully understood, but growth factors that cause proliferation of endothelial cells have been shown to play a critical role in this process. Curcumin has been shown to suppress the proliferation of human vascular endothelial cells in vitro (60) and abrogate the fibroblast growth-factor-2-induced angiogenic...

Emodin

Emodin is anti-inflammatory against carageenan-induced edema in rats (110) and emodin and its metabolites have a long half-life in the plasma of rats ( 50 hr) (111). Emodin exhibits a range of anticarcinogenic activities in vitro, including inhibition of formation of DNA adducts induced by 1-nitropyrene (112), modulation of cellular transformation and proliferation (113), inhibition of NF-kB activation and expression of adhesion molecules (114), inhibition of casein kinase II (114a), and...

Ho

Figure 1 Chemical structure of (a) 6 -gingerol and (b) 6 -paradol. The oleoresin from the root of ginger contains 6 -gingerol the major pharmacologically active component (Fig. 1a) (3), and lesser amounts of a structurally related vanilloid, 6 -paradol (Fig. 1b). An earlier study indicated that 6 -gingerol is very rapidly cleared from rat plasma following intravenous administration (3 mg kg) (14 . In a later study, 6-gingerol was reported to be metabolized enzymatically in a ste-reospecific...

Atherogenic Modifications Of Ldl And Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people with a Western lifestyle. The early atherosclerotic lesion is characterized by the accumulation of arterial foam cells derived mainly from cholesterol-loaded macrophages (1,2). Most of the accumulated cholesterol in foam cells originates from plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is inter nalized into the cells via the LDL receptor. Native LDL, however, does not induce cellular cholesterol accumulation, because...

Introduction

Ligusticum belongs to the Umbelliferae family, members of which include L. chuanxiong (Chuan Xiong), L. wallichii, L. sinense (Gao Ben), and L. brachylobum. The dried rhizome of L. chuanxiong is one of the most common crude drugs described in the traditional Chinese, Japanese, and Korean pharmacopoeia. In Japan, Senkyu is obtained from the dried rhizome of L. officinale Kitagawa (also known as C. officinale Makino). In China, the herb is grown in Sichuan province and the root is usually...

Research Environment

Research into traditional medicine is needed at both national and international levels. If this need is to be met, dedicated funding will be required to be allocated by international funders and governments. To ensure a rational basis for the use of plant-based medicines, priority is needed for infrastructure development in traditional medicine. This will include Research oriented to the safe and effective production of herbal medicines as a central feature of public health programs in...

Traditional Medicine

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), up to 80 of people in the developing world use traditional medicine as part of their primary health care, and therefore, it is becoming increasing popular in countries in the North, too. Traditional medicine incorporates plants, animals, and mineral-based medicines, spiritual therapies, as well as manual techniques or exercise (1). In Ethiopia, 90 of the population uses traditional medicine for primary health care in Benin, India, and Rwanda,...

Chinese Yam Dioscorea opposita

Major constituents of chinese yam are saponins, mannan, phytic acid, and starch (40) and some varieties are rich in essential amino acids (36 ) and minerals (Se, Fe, Zn, Mn) (41). The related D. opposita, D.fordii, D.persimilis, and D. alata are similar in content of polysaccharides, allatonin, and amino acids but differ in the ratio of monosaccharides. Pharmacological experiments with mice showed that they strengthen physique, help digestion, and increase immunity. It was suggested that these...

Curcumin Suppresses the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase MMP9 and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase iNOS

MMPs make up a family of proteases that play a critical role in tumor metastasis (for references see Ref. 63). MMP-9 is one of the proteases that has been shown to be regulated by NF-kB activation (64), and curcumin has been shown to suppress its expression (64). Curcumin has also been demonstrated to downregulate iNOS expression, also regulated by NF-kB and involved in tumor metastasis (65). All these observations suggest that curcumin must have antimetastatic activity. Indeed, there is a...

Fabrication Of SiBased Toxic Tcm Microarrays

There are currently two main types of microarrays c-DNA- and oligonucle-otide-based arrays. These arrays may be made using different surfaces as solid supports. Glass and nitrocellulose are the still the most commonly used owing to their low cost and general availability (11-13), but they lack the versatility of Si surfaces such as the possibility of integration with other Si-based components such as micro PCR reactors (14), microfluidic transport, micro-capillary electrophoresis (15) and...

Glucosinolates

To date, 116 GSLs have been identified in a diverse range of plant families represented in the order Capparales (16). All share a common feature of a h-D-thioglucose moiety, sulfonated oxime residue, and a variable side chain (Fig. 1 Table 1). The current chemical classification of GSLs recognizes three groups comprising aliphatic, aromatic, and indolyl GSLs based on the amino acid from which they are derived (17). The primary source of aliphatic GSLs is the amino acid methionine and to a...

Macrophagemediated Oxidation Of

The process of LDL oxidation is unlikely to occur in plasma because plasma has high concentrations of antioxidants and of metal ions chelators. It is more likely to occur within the artery wall, an environment depleted of antioxi-dants, and therefore the LDL is exposed there to oxidative stress. The identity of the cells responsible for the oxidation of LDL along atherogenesis in the arterial wall is uncertain. Monocyte-derived macrophages are likely candidates to induce the oxidation of LDL...

Misidentification Substitution Or Contamination

Misidentification or mislabeling of herbs may result in unexpected adverse clinical effects. One problem in the identification of herbal ingredients is that the plant materials can be named in four different ways the common English name, the transliterated name, the Latinized pharmaceutical name, and the scientific name. The Chinese names of different substances are sometimes similar and a raw material may have several Chinese proprietary names. It is desirable that plants are referred to by...

Species Description

H. perforatum, commonly called the common St. John's wort, klamathweed, tiptonweed, goatweed, and enolaweed (1), is a native of Europe, but has spread to temperate locations in Asia, Africa, North and South America, and Australia (2,3). It thrives in poor soils, and is commonly found in meadows, fields, waste areas, roadsides, and abandoned mines and quarries (1,2,4). Individuals of St. John's wort are freely branching perennials that typically range from 40 to 80 cm tall (Fig. 1) (1,2). The...

Tea As A Healthpromoting Beverage

Tea is a frequently used beverage worldwide. Tea is a hot-water extract of the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. Upon harvest, the best teas are obtained by collecting the top two leaves and the bud of the tea bush (10,11). The leaves contain the polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate and an enzyme, polyphenol oxidase. When the leaves are withered and steamed, the polyphenol oxidase is inactivated, yielding green tea upon drying. If the withering step is omitted, and the leaves are steamed,...

What Is Ginkgo Biloba

Ginkgo biloba is a tall, long-lived tree originating from China (2). Ginkgo means''silver apricot'' and biloba refers to the shape of the two distinct lobes of the leaves. This species, which was classified in 1771 by Linne, is the only representative of the class of Ginkgoatae and even of its entire phylum, that of Ginkgophyta, distinct from all other trees, notably Coniferophyta and Cycadophyta. To this taxonomic singularity is added its unique status as a living fossil. Ginkgo trees already...

Antioxidant Composition Of Fruits Of O Fcus Indica

Organic extracts in dichloromethane (DCM) and aqueous extracts in methanol of the yellow, red, and white fruits from Sicilian cultivars of O. ficus indica have been analyzed for lipid-soluble and water-soluble antioxidants, respectively (54). Very limited amounts of lipophilic antioxidant vitamins have been found, a-tocopherol, trans- h-Carotene, and retinyl palmitate representing the major compounds, with minor variations among the cultivars. Retinyl oleate and trans-retinol are absent. In...

Chemical Constituents

A number of studies have been conducted to elucidate the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of the aerial parts of Epimedium herb. Several methods such as column chromatography, liquid chromatography, pulse polarography, coulometric titration, and fluorometry have been used to study the flavonoids from Epimedium species (8). The main constituents in Epimedium plants are the prenylflavone glycosides. Among the important active constituents isolated from the aerial parts of...

Chemistry

The herb contains irridoids, phenols (pyrogallol, protocatechuic acid, and p-trans-coumaric acid), tannins, coumarin, lactones and their glycosides, alkaloids, triterpenes, saponins, ( + catechol, 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, dihydrocaffeic acid, guiacygly-cerol, trans-4-hydroxycyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid resins, long-chain polytrans prenols ( > 9 mers), ajugoside, reptoside, harpagide acetate (C26H32O12), other organic acids, and some alkaloids (5-9). Among the constituents,...

Perspectives

The multifunctions of various components of chrysanthemum indicate that this plant could have potential chemoprevention properties. However, several fundamental questions still need to be answered prior to knowing the exact pharmacological effects of chrysanthemum. For example, what is the content of various active components in the C. morifolium Ramat How much of the respective component is absorbed and how is it being biotransformed in the body Obviously, more research in theses areas is...

Pharmacology

Ephedrine and its related alkaloids have similar pharmacokinetic properties, which are summarized in Table 1 (12-15). The ephedra alkaloids are well absorbed orally with an average time to maximum plasma concentration of1-2 hr. The duration of action of the ephedra alkaloids is approximately 3-5 hr after oral administration. Recent studies have found that the pharmacoki-netics of the alkaloids in the form of ephedra extracts are similar to those of pharmaceutical forms (16-18). One study showed...

Some Botanical Considerations

Botanically, the North American Echinacea genus consists of nine species and multiple varieties with E. purpurea, E. angustifolia, and E. pallida finding most use medicinally. The genus belongs to the Heliantheae, the largest tribe within the family Compositae (Asteraceae). Various authorities have described this genus and the presently accepted scheme is based on the comparative morphological and anatomical studies of McGreggor (3,49). E. angustifolia (Braumeria angustifolia), E. atrorubens...

The Glucosinolate Myrosinase System

Associated with the order Capparales are a group of thioglucosidases known as myrosinases EC 3 2 2 1 . It is proposed that ''myrosinase'' is compartmentalized within myrosin cells and distributed throughout all parts of the plant (reviewed in Ref. 33). The separation of the myrosinase-glucosinolate system ensures that GSL degradation occurs only during tissue damage such as chewing or cutting. The catalytic degradation of GSLs initiates the cleavage of the glucose residue from the core GSL...

Iiiwhat Is Ginkgo Biloba Extract

Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761, is a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba. It contains 24 flavonoids and 6 terpene lactones. The flavonoids are nearly exclusively flavonol-O-glycosides (combination of the phenolic aglycones quercetin, kaempferol, or isorhamnetin with glucose or rhamnose or both in different positions of the flavonol moiety). The terpenoids are ginkgolides (3.1 of the extract) and bilobalide (2.9 ), both found exclusively in the Ginkgo biloba tree. Ginkgolides are diterpenes,...

Iisimaroubaceae

The Simaroubaceae, as defined in Engler's Syllabus (3), consist of six subfamilies with 32 genera and over 170 arboreous or shrubby species. The largest genus is Picramnia with ca. 40 species native to the New World tropics. Indeed the entire family is of pantropical occurrence with the exception of the genera Picrasma and Ailanthus, which extend to temperate Asia (4). The genera of Simaroubaceae are mostly well defined, but the family is only loosely knit (5). However, only eight genera and 10...

In an In Vitro Model of Wound Reepithelialization Phan et al 2001b

In this study, the effect of C. odorata extract on keratinocyte migration, an important phenomenon in wound healing, was investigated in vitro. It was shown that concentrations of extract from 5 to 60 Ag mL always led to faster migration ofkeratinocytes and closure ofthe scratch although there was not a clear dose-dependent relationship (Fig. 4). Until the wound is resurfaced by epithelium and the protective stratum corneum is reestablished, the patient remains at risk of infection, and...

Integrating Traditional and Complementary Medicine into National Health Care

Learning from the International Experience University of Oxford Medical School Oxford, England As the global public's use of traditional and complementary medicine increases, governments are being challenged to develop sound policies, regulations, and trade standards (Bodeker, 2001). Public access to their health care system of choice and public safety are both important dimensions of the policy challenge. * This paper draws on work reported in two previous papers ''Planning for Cost-effective...

Policy Framework

With respect to policy action, country experience can be organized into eight broad areas of principle (1) Equity. (2) Ethics. (3) Governance. (4) Financing. (5) Knowledge production. (6) Knowledge management and utilization. (7) Capacity development. (8) Research environment. This framework draws on that developed by the Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED) and it served for the policy recommendations on traditional medicine made at the COHRED conference on health research...

Anticarcinogenic Activity

The main weapons in the war against cancer have been early detection and surgical removal, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and attempts to develop gene therapy. However, the result have been less than ideal, and the dominant strategy is now changing from therapeutic approaches to prevention of cancer by identifying effective natural products as chemopreventive agents. One promising candidate with cancer-preventive effects is ginseng. Its usefulness as an anticarcinogen has been shown by extensive...

Doseresponse Relationships

Sometimes dose-dependent reversal of effects is encountered in efficacy studies, wherein higher or lower dosages can produce different effects. There are suggestions that these findings should not be interpreted to mean that phytomedicines are not efficacious. For example, extracts of goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea) in low doses have no diuretic effect, whereas in therapeutic doses (6-12 g dried herb per dose) diuretic effects can be demonstrated (22). Still higher doses in animals again result...

Pharmacokinetics And Metabolism

After oral administration of 15 mg Sch B to healthy male subjects, the mean value of maximum plasma concentration was found to be 96.1 14.1 ng mL ( 0.25 aM) (124). The lignan molecule was metabolized by rat liver micro-somes to give three main phase I metabolites. Several oxidation routes appear to be involved (1) hydroxylation of an alkyl substitute and (2) demethylation of the -OCH3 groups on the aromatic rings (125). The metabolites were detectable in urine and bile of rats. A recent study...

Production Of Tongkat

It is found that this crop grows well in deep sandy loams mixed with plenty of organic matter. The plants are propagated usually from seeds (fresh seeds collected from tree burst fruits) that take about a week to germinate. The seedlings will then grow to a height of 10-15 cm after 2 months and at this stage, they can be removed from the nursery bed and potted, then later transferred to permanent positions when they are 6 months old. Intercropping tongkat Ali with other grown timber species is...

Ivcompounds Isolated From L Chuanxiong

Isolation of the chemical constituents of L. chuanxiong began in the 1920s. The major components identified were ligustilide, butylidenephthalide, cnid-ilide, neocnidilide, butylphthalide, cindium lactone, sedamonic acid, and sedanolide (8-11). Pregnenolone, tetramethylpyrazine, coniferylferulate, sen-kyunolide-A, ligustilides, and their mono- and dihydroxyphthalide derivatives (senkyunolide B-L) have also been described (12-18). A significant amount of minor components, like the oxygenated...

Ivcultivation

Expanding global demand for echinacea threatens to result in unsustainable levels of wild harvest, and significant habitat destruction contributes to these concerns. Worries about the presence of undesirable agricultural residues such as herbicides, fertilizers, heavy metals, and pesticides also must be dealt with. This suggests that cultivation under carefully controlled conditions should be investigated to produce sustainable quantities of safe material of high potency, yields, and purity....

Ivoptimal Dosage Determination

To achieve the desired highest antitumor effect, the amount of lentinan given to the experimental model should be optimized. Initially, lentinan showed little effectiveness, primarily because the dosages used were above or below what was later found to be optimal. Chihara and co-workers (7) and Aoki (34) showed that lentinan caused complete regression of sarcoma 180 transplanted into the mice at a dose of 1 mg kg for 10 days (intraperitoneal route), while a larger dose of 80 mg kg for 5 days...

Summary

Although licorice has been known to be a useful medicinal plant for the past 3000 years, it is still luring investigators to explore new medicinal properties of this plant. In a separate chapter, Aviram et al. review the therapeutic effects of licorice extract and its major antioxidant constituents of glabridin on atherosclerosis via inhibition of the LDL oxidation molecular mechanism. The second part of the chapter reviews the potential of licorice extract and its constituents as HRT for...

Ixeffects Of Cordyceps On The Cardiovascular System

The antiarrhythmic effects of different extracts including petroleum extract from cultured Cordyceps were tested by using experimental arrhythmia in rats induced by aconitine and barium chloride. Pretreatment of petroleum extract of Cordyceps at the dose of 200 mg kg by oral administration significantly antagonized the drug-induced arrhythmia, and prolonged the onset time of arrhythmia (85.0 12.3 sec vs. 25.0 19.8 sec, control), decreased the duration of persistence (19.8 15.3 min vs. 40.8 17.2...

Chrysanthemum morifolium Flower

The flower of C. morifolium Ramat is a commonly used medical herb with mild action and a popular beverage with an aromatic odor in China. It is used for treating colds and eyes with redness and pain (43). It is potentially anticarcinogenic, since the flowers contain chlorogenic acid, flavonoids, and pentacyclic triterpenes. The flavonoids from C. morifolium have been found to exhibit anti-HIV activity (44). Several active anti-HIV compounds, including acacetin-7-O-h-D-galactopyranoside and...

L Clove Eugenia caryophyllata

Bioassay-directed fractionation of clove terpenes from the plant E. caryophyllata has led to the isolation of the following five active known compounds h-caryophyllene, h-caryophyllene oxide, a-humulene, a-humulene epoxide, and eugenol. These compounds showed significant activity as inducers of the detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase in the mouse liver and small intestine (49). Eugenol, an active principle of clove, is an effective secretagogue in rats, causing dose-dependent...

L Nobiletin

Nobiletin is a flavonoid that occurs exclusively in citrus fruits. It is antimeta-static in mice and inhibited peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer, at least partly through inhibition of metalloproteinases (128). Nobiletin protected against the appearance of gastric hemorrhagic lesions induced by ethanol but not aspirin in the guinea pig, and alone had no effect on the potential difference. Nobiletin also relaxed the contractions induced by acetylcholine, electrical stimulation, and...

Molecular Aspects of Health

Lester Packer Choon Nam Ong Barry Halliwell Although great care has been taken to provide accurate and current information, neither the author(s) nor the publisher, nor anyone else associated with this publication, shall be liable for any loss, damage, or liability directly or indirectly caused or alleged to be caused by this book. The material contained herein is not intended to provide specific advice or recommendations for any specific situation. Trademark notice Product or corporate names...

N Rhein

Rhein is a highly biologically active anthraquinone that is a component of senna. It has a number of effects on the gastrointestinal tract, including induction of ion secretion, chemotaxis, and apoptosis in the intestinal Caco2 cell line via nitric oxide generation (131), inhibits the growth of Helicobacter pylori (132), modifies the peristaltic reflex of the inverted guinea pig ileum (133), inhibits glucose uptake (134), and decreases transit time in rats with a prostaglandin-dependent...

Of A Paniculata Extract And Some Diterpenoid Derivatives

A. paniculata extract was fractionated with solvents to obtain three fractions with different polarity FA (ethyl acetate fraction), FB (butanol fraction), and FC (aqueous fraction). These were tested in the anesthetized normoten-sive Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat to evaluate their effects on the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). MAP is the average systolic pressure that drives blood through the systemic organs and is thus a critical cardiovascular parameter. We found that FA did not reduce MAP in...

On Their Er Binding

Glabridin, which contains two hydroxyl groups at positions 2' and 4', has a higher affinity to ER and a stronger effect on cell growth stimulation than 2V-O-MeG and 4'-O-MeG. 2',4'-O-MeG did not bind to the human estrogen receptor and showed no proliferative activity. This suggests that when both hydroxyl groups are free, binding and cell growth promotion are more pronounced. Previous reports on the involvement of the two hydroxyl groups of estradiol in binding to the human estrogen receptor...

Renal Effects

L. wallichii has been reported to reduce the toxicity of cyclosporine A on renal function (24). Infusion of cyclosporine A to Sprague-Dawley rats resulted in a significant fall in glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow as well as an increase of plasma renin activity, angiotensin II level, and percentage of platelet aggregation. Treatment with 20 L. wallichii before cyclosporine A infusion significantly prevented the decline of glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow as well...

Unsaturated Alkyl Amides

Secondary substituents of this type have a somewhat restricted distribution in higher plants. They are, however, fairly common in Echinacea species and are Formula Chart No. 4 Unsaturated keto alcohols of echinacea. Formula Chart No. 4 Unsaturated keto alcohols of echinacea. Formula Chart No. 5 Unsaturated polyenes and acetylenes of echinacea. Formula Chart No. 5 Unsaturated polyenes and acetylenes of echinacea. believed to be primarily responsible for the tingling and local anesthetic effects...

Antigenotoxicity Of Chrysophanol Emodin And Rhein

Natural herbs contain a large number of potential anticancer materials. For example, within Rhei rhizoma, Scutellariae radix, and Rehmanniae radix, there is antimutagenicity that suppresses B a P (59). The major active components in Cassia seed are probably a derivative of anthraquinones (AQ) (17,56) and its mechanism was considered as suppressing exogenic activation enzymes (47). As for DNA damage induced by B a P in HepG2 cells, chrysophanol had 78 inhibitory effect, as well as rhein (71 ),...