References

Complementary and alternative medicine (cam) use by older adults a comparison of self-report and physician chart documentation. J Gerontol Biol Sci Med Sci 2002 57 M223-M227. 2. Ernst E, Schmidt K. Health risks over the Internet advice offered by ''medical herbalists'' to a pregnant woman. Wien Med Wochenschr 2002 152 190-192. 3. Surh Y. Molecular mechanisms of chemopreventive effects of selected dietary and medicinal phenolic substances. Mutat Res 1999 428 305-327. 4....

Ephedra Ephedra SiNiCA

Traditional Chinese medicine has for centuries touted the use of ephedra for the treatment of asthma, congestion, and bronchitis. Also known as ma huang, it predominantly consists of two alkaloids, ephedrine and pseudo-ephedrine. Ephedrine is a sympathomimetic drug, structurally similar to amphetamines. Its effects on the body include central nervous system stimulation, cardiac stimulation (ionotropic and chronotropic), bronchodilation, and elevation in blood pressure. Pseudoephedrine is an...

Curcumin Downregulates Cyclin D1 Expression

Cyclin D1, a component subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-4 and Cdk6, is a rate-limiting factor in progression of cells through the first-gap (G1) phase of the cell cycle (67). Cyclin D1 has been shown to be overex-pressed in many cancers including breast, esophagus, head and neck, and prostate (68-73). It is possible that the antiproliferative effects of curcumin are due to inhibition of cyclin D1 expression. We found that curcumin can Figure 1 Role of curcumin in prevention and therapy...

Occurrence Synthesis And Chemistry

Nonflavonoid classes of phenolic compounds, such as RSV, are synthesized by a variety of plants in response to injury or fungal infection (Langcake and Pryce, 1976). Although RSV does not enjoy a wide distribution in the plant kingdom, its occurrence has been documented in trees, including eucalyptus, spruce, and the tropical deciduous tree Bauhinia racemosa, in a few flowering plants such as Veratrum grandiflorum and Veratrum formosanum (two species of lilly), in Pterolobium hexapetallum...

Cardiovascular Effects

Many investigators have focused on the cardiovascular effects of ligusticum since the traditional use of chuanxiong was to improve blood circulation. Tetramethylpyrazine isolated from L. wallichii Franch has been shown to have positive effects on portal-hypertensive rat models (28). Sprague-Dawley rats were used and portal hypertension was induced by partial ligation of the portal vein. Two weeks after the ligation, the rats were cannulated for measurement of mean arterial pressure, portal...

Antioxidant Properties in Food and Biological Systems

During storage of prepared or dehydrated food, lipid autoxidative degradation products such as hydroperoxides, malondialdehydes, aldehydes, ketones, and hydroxy fatty acids may occur if the food is not properly protected by antioxidants. These products not only result in unpleasant flavors but may also be a health risk (25). Lipid oxidation is an autocatalyzed radical chain reaction induced by free radicals (26). Polyphenolic antioxidants possess a relatively reactive phenolic hydrogen atom,...

A C odorata Extract Enhances Proliferation of Fibroblasts Keratinocytes and Endothelial Cells Phan et al 1998 2001b

This study showed that the extract from the leaves of C. odorata at concentrations of 10 Ag mL and 100 Ag mL enhanced the growth of fibroblasts and endothelial cells. The extract at concentrations from 0.1 to 5 Ag mL significantly stimulated the expansion of human keratinocyte colonies in monolayer in basal medium as it did in growth medium (Fig. 3). With increasing doses of the extract, from 50 to 300 Ag mL, colonies did not further expand, Figure 3 Growth of human dermal fibroblasts (a, c)...

Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat

Different from its use as an attractive flower for horticulture purposes in Europe, chrysanthemum of the Compositae family, in particular its flower, has been used as a traditional medicine in several Asian countries, such as China, Korea, and Japan, for several centuries. The flower of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat, owing to its broad pharmacological effects as well as its fragrance, is also used as a beverage chrysanthemum tea. This chapter will focus on both the broad and specific...

Contact Angle Measurements Xps Vase and AFM

A Kruss Contact Angle Measuring System, Model G-10 was used for all contact angle measurements. A mass of approximately 20 mg H2O was deposited onto the surface the readings were taken 30 sec after deposition at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra were acquired using Physical Electronics 5600 multitechnique system with monochromatic Al Ka X-ray source (1486.6 eV). The radiation was focused on the sample at an electron takeoff angle (TOA) of 45 3 relative to the...

Effect of Processing

Processing affects the chemical composition of the herb. Concentrations of compounds in eucommia are influenced by the area where it is produced, harvest time, and treatment after harvesting. Thus the content of pinoresinol diglucoside in postprocessed bark is higher than that in preprocessed bark (10). Leaves collected from June to September had an aucubin content that was 2.5 higher than at other times (11). On the other hand, geniposidic acid concentration was 5.5 higher in June and July....

Formulation

A synergistic effect by using the leaves of E. ulmoides Oliver, Eucomiaceae (Du-Zhong leaf) and the roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Ginseng) has been reported (4). The formula consists of amounts that exert no effect when used individually. Several formula ratios of ginseng and Du-Zhong leaf, 1 1, 1 2, 1 3, and 1 4, were tested. It was demonstrated that the formula ratio of ginseng to Du-Zhong leaf of 1 3 was the most effective for stimulation of collagen synthesis and prevention of...

Genetic Characterization

In plant genomes, genes for the ribosomal RNA (rDNA) are normally clustered in an array of multiple tandemly repeated copies of the cistron of 18S-ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-28S (5). The coding regions of 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA sequence are highly conserved, whereas sequence homology within the ITS1 and ITS2 regions is much lower across the plant kingdom. Based on these features of the plant rDNA, molecular markers, such as random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and restriction fragment length...

In Vitro Studies

The decolorization of the acid) (ABTS) radical cation is an accurate assay for screening the antioxidant activities of either lipophilic substances or food extracts (55). The total antioxidant capacity of either the DCM lipophilic extracts or the methanolic hydrophilic extracts from fruits of the yellow, red, and white Sicilian cultivars of prickly pear has been evaluated by the reaction with the ABTS radical cation, generated by reacting ABTS with potassium persulfate (9), and expressed as...

Naphthodianthrones

The most researched class of compounds isolated from H. perforatum is the naphthodianthrones, which occur in concentrations ranging from 0.1 up to 0.3 (9,25,26). The most common naphthodianthrones include hypericin, pseudohypericin, isohypericin, and protohypericin (10,21). Of those, hyper-icin is the best known and, to date, the most studied. Hypericin is a reddish pigment that is responsible for the red color of St. John's wort oils. Hypericin is found in greatest abundance in the flowers,...

Scavenging Activity on DPPH Radical Superoxide Anion and Hydroxyl Radical

Free radicals are produced in cells by cellular metabolism and by exogenous agents. The extracts of C. tora, especially roasted and unroasted samples, were evaluated for their free-radical, 2,2-diphenyl-1-piperylhydrazyl radical (DPPH'), superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. Choi et al. (29) found that the methanolic extracts of the seed of C. tora have a scavenging activity on the DPPH radical. 2-Hydroxyemodin cassiaside and ru-brofusarin gentiobioside were isolated from...

Total Phenolic Compounds

C. tora contains many phenolic compounds, such as emodin, rhein, chry-sophanol, and obtusin, some of which belong to anthraquinones (56). Some anthraquinones have been reported to have antioxidant activity (57). The total polyphenols in extracts of C. tora decreased significantly (p > 0.05) during roasting. The amount of polyphenols in extracts of C. tora decreased from 180.64 mg g (unroasted) to 103.55 mg of gallic acid g extracts of C. tora after roasting at 250 C. This means that...

Acacetin

Acacetin is a flavonoid that occurs in plants as a glycoside with attached glucose, rhamnose, or glucuronic acid moieties. In the aglycone form, it is an antioxidant in vitro although this is a common property ofmost flavonoids. It induces UGT defense mechanisms in cells in vitro (90), inhibits cytochrome P450s CYP1A and CYP1B1 (91), induces terminal differentiation of HL-60 cells (92), inhibits topoisomerase l-catalyzed DNA ligation (93), and inhibits B(a)P-induced mutagenesis in hamster...

Abbreviations

EGF, epidermal growth factor EGFR, EGF receptor NF-kB, nuclear factor-nB TNF, tumor necrosis factor H2O2, hydrogen peroxide AP-1, activating protein-1 JNK, c-jun N-terminal kinase MMP, matrix metal-loprotease COX, cyclooxygenase iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells VSMC, vascular smooth muscle cells HDL, high-density lipoprotein TBARS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance LDL, low-density lipoprotein VLDL, very-low density lipoprotein ASA,...

Effects on Tumor Cell Cytotoxicity and Differentiation

Saponin and nonsaponin compounds have been reported to show cytotoxic activities against various kinds of cancer cell lines in culture. The major active components are ginsenoside Rh2, a peculiar component of red ginseng, and also polyacetylenes, panaxydol, panaxynol, and panaxytriol. In addition, ace-tylpanaxydol and panaxydolchlorohydrin, showing cytotoxicity against lymph-oid leukemia L1210, have been isolated from Korean ginseng root (45). The critical early even in the cytotoxicity of...

Immune Effects

Epimedium has been reported to significantly enhance the phagocytic activity of macrophages (25), to stimulate the migration of T-lymphocytes from the thymus to peripheral organs, and to promote both the proliferation of bone marrow cells and the synthesis of DNA. The n-butanol fraction of E. hunanense and epimedin C isolated from the fraction significantly enhanced the response of spleen antibody-forming cells to nearly normal in the mice treated with the immunosuppressant hydrocortisone...

Polysaccharides

Plant polysaccharides are reported to confer anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, antiulcer, and anticancer effects (7,16,50). Fungi are remarkable for the variety of high-molecular-weight polysaccharide structures that they produce, and bioactive polyglycans are found in all parts of the mushroom. Polysaccharides from the G. lucidum mushroom have been extracted from the fruit body, mycelia, and spores, and exopolysaccharides are produced by mycelia cultured in fermenters. Analysis of the...

Preparation of Crude Total Ethanol Extract

Fresh leaves of C. odorata (10 kg) were collected, washed, and dried in the sun for 5 days and then in a 45 C incubator for another 3 days. A 1-kg amount of clean, dried leaves was powdered, divided into three batches, and then extracted with 4000 mL of absolute ethanol in a Soxhlet apparatus for 12 hr per batch. Twelve liters of the ethanol fraction was evaporated under vacuum using a Rotary Vacuum Evaporator, RE 100, Bibby, UK Chlorophyll, resin, and lipids were removed by Whatman paper...

Surface Characterization of the SiBased TCM Chip

Initial experiments showed the need for a thorough cleaning pretreatment as well as rehydroxylation of the Si surface before the formation of the MPTS layer and deposition of the DNA. It has been shown that adequate substrate rehydration is crucial for self-assembly of MPTS layer (26). The surface characteristics were monitored during processing of the Si surface by goni-ometry, XPS, VASE, and AFM. The information obtained included thickness of the layers deposited on the surface, their...

Antiatherosclerosis and Antiplatelet Effects of Ginsenosides

Endothelial cell damage is considered to be the initial step in the genesis of thrombosis and arteriosclerosis, the common precursors of cardiovascular disoders. Platelet hyperfunction, such as enhanced platelet aggregation associated with overproduction of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), a potent platelet aggregative and vasoconstrictive substance, has been frequently encountered in patients with cardiovascular thrombotic diseases. Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2), a potent antiplatelet aggregative and...

Anticoagulation Effects

Platelet aggregation plays a pathophysiological role in a variety of thromboembolic disorders, including myocardial infraction, atherosclerosis, and cerebrovascular diseases. Tetramethylpyrazine displayed a dose-dependent inhibition of human platelet aggregation and ATP-release reaction induced by various agonists. It was also demonstrated to have inhibitory action against monophosphate formation by collagen as well as an inhibitory effect on intracellular free calcium rise (49). The same group...

Biological Activities

So far, quassinoids from this plant have been reported to exhibit a wide range of activities in animals, both in vivo and in vitro (28,30-34,36-42,45,51,52). Detailed investigations on this plant showed that some of the quas-sinoids, one of the major bioactive groups in this plant, had antimalarial activities against drug-resistant Malaysian and non-Malaysian Plasmodium falciparum isolates, and some were found to have favorable potency compared to chloroquine (28,30,32 33,41,45,51). Most of the...

Efficacy Studies with the Crude Extract

A limited number of studies have been performed in Chinese laboratories to demonstrate the efficacy of the herb on a particular illness treatment based on the use of the crude extracts. Most of these studies were unable to demonstrate either the specific molecular mechanism or the mode of action of the herbal extracts. The nature of the bioactive compound was also not known. Chuanxiong was administered to dogs to test its efficacy on muscle function, and specifically to see whether the use of a...

In Vivo Studies with Humans

A strong protection of the body's antioxidant system, and reduction of oxidative stress by regular ingestion of prickly pear, has recently been observed in an in vivo study in which eight healthy volunteers, aged 20-55, received six fruits per day (400 g edible pulp), for 2 weeks during which they were allowed to eat according to their usual diet, with the exception of fruits (31). Plasma measurements, before and after the 2-week trial, have shown a very marked elevation of vitamin C and...

Bioavailability

The forms of flavonoids are as important as their content in affecting the absorption and bioactivity. It had been expected that only aglycones could be absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, because no enzymes are secreted in the gut that could cleave the glycosidic bonds (123). However, recent studies have demonstrated that the bioavailability of specific flavonoids is much higher than previously believed. For example, quercetin glycosides were more readily absorbed than quercetin aglycone...

Contact Angle Measurements

Changes in contact angle measurements were monitored during the processing of the silicon chips. The mean values are listed in Table 2. A contact angle of 3 after the treatment of the chips in NH4OH indicated almost complete hydroxylation of the surface (27). After formation of the self-assembled layer of MPTS, the contact angle increased from 3 to 81.13 . The hydrophobicity imparted to the surface facilitated the deposition of the TABLE 2 Physical Measurements Taken During Fabrication of the...

Enzymatic and Nonenzymatic Lipid Peroxidation Systems

It is now clear that oxygen species such as superoxide anion hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, and other free radicals are proposed as agents that attack polyunsaturated fatty acid in the cell membranes giving rise to lipid peroxidation (34). C. tora has been reported to have antioxidant properties in vitro that act as reducing agents, hydrogen donors, free-radical quenchers, and metal ion chelators (32). In view of this, Yen and Chung (33) evaluated the antioxidant properties of water...

British Library

In 1985, the British Library, owing to lack of coverage on Medline, commenced work on compiling the Allied and Alternative Medicine database (AMED), which was later changed to the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database. AMED was started to assist complementary medicine practitioners and paramedical staff locate articles that were relevant to their practice. At the time that the British Library started AMED in 1985, Medline was particularly poor in the areas of complementary medicine and...

Higher MolecularWeight Components

The presence of oligosaccharides in higher plants is common. Early studies confirmed their presence in Echinacea species but, other than assigning molecular weights of approximately 50 kDa to these, structural information was limited (3). Pharmacological studies suggested that they possessed weak antihyaluronidase activity (84, as synopsized in Ref. 3). Studies of particular relevance to immunostimulation were reported by the Wagner group starting in 1981 (85-87). Two immunostimulatory...

Hydrogen PeroxideInduced Oxidative DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes

Hydrogen peroxide is a well-known ROS produced intracellular during physiological and pathological processes, and causes oxidative DNA damage in cells. (37) As mentioned earlier, several noncell studies have demonstrated that Cassia seed was capable of reducing lipid peroxidation caused by ROS. The effect of C. tora on hydrogen-peroxide-induced oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes was assessed using single-cell gel electropheresis (comet assay). Water extracts of C. tora prepared under...

Antinutritional Effects of Glucosinolate Hydrolytic Products

It cannot be ignored that the beneficial effects of consuming cruciferous vegetables is important in the proposed prevention of chronic human disease. It must also be noted that deleterious effects can also be attributed to high exposure to ITCs and other GSL hydrolytic products. In addition to acting as feeding deterrents for herbivores, some GSL metabolites also show goitrogenic activity in mammals. For example, the use of oilseed rape meal as animal feed was severally hampered owing to high...

Component Separation by Semipreparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography

The three antioxidant fractions obtained by column chromatographic frac-tionation were labeled A, B, and C. Further separation of these fractions was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (Fig. 2). Hewlett-Packard HPLC equipment with Diode Array Detection was used (HP-1100). Separation was carried out using a C18 semipreparative column (Hewlett-Packard) at room temperature. A mixture of methanol and water was used as the mobile phase with a flow-rate of 2 mL min. Detection...

Consumption In Humans

Evaluation of the protective effect of licorice root extract on the resistance of LDL to ex vivo oxidation was studied in normolipidemic human subjects (84), as well as in hypercholesterolemic patients (85). LDL, which was isolated from the plasma of 10 healthy volunteers after consumption of 100 mg of licorice root ethanolic extract per day, for a period of 2 weeks, was more resistant to copper-ion-induced oxidation, as well as to AAPH-induced oxidation, by 44 and by 36 , respectively, in...

Traditional

Epimedium is one of the most popular and effective kidney yang tonics of Chinese herbalism. Its first recorded use dates back to the ancient text Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (ca. 200 B.C.-A.D. 100). The herb is listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (1) as having action to '' reinforce the kidney yang, strengthen tendons and bones, and relieve rheumatic conditions and indicated ''for impotence, seminal emission, weakness of the limbs, rheumatoid arthralgia with numbness and...

Additional Compounds

Other compounds of various classes have been determined to occur in H. perforatum. These include tannins (concentrations vary from 3 to 16 ), xanthones (1.28 mg 100 g), phenolic compounds (caffic acid, chlorogenic acid, and p-coumaric acid), and hyperfolin. Other compounds include acids (nico-tinic, myristic, palmitic, stearic), carotenoids, choline, pectin, hydrocarbons, and long-chain alcohols (21). Amino acids that occur include cysteine, GABA (g-aminobutyric acid), glutamine, leucine,...

Antioxidant Effects

Methanol extracts of 180 Oriental herbs were screened for their antioxidant activities by determining the peroxide values of linoleic acid during storage at 50 C (43). Among the herbal extracts tested, 44 selected herbal extracts were further studied in a methyl linoleate system for an extended storage time. Eleven herbs had particularly high antioxidant activities, where the antiox-idative effects of most herbal extracts were greatly dependent on the extraction solvent used. However, E....

Antitumor Activities of Ginsenosides

Oral administration of ginsenoside Rh2 has been reported to have an inhibitory effect on tumor growth in nude mice bearing human ovarian cancer cells (HRA), resulting in remarkable retardation of the tumor growth. In particular, tumor growth in mice treated with 15, 30, and 120 M of Rh2 was significantly inhibited, compared to that in CDDP (cis-diaminedichloro-platinum) (II)-treated mice as well as in untreated mice (66). Further investigation showed that p.o. but not i.p. treatment with...

Atomic Force Microscopy AFM

Surface changes that occur during the processing of the chips were also evaluated by AFM. During the cleaning and rehydroxylation process some material appeared to be removed by desorption of Si(OH)4 into the solution, leading to an increase in roughness of the surface (data not shown). The formation of MPTS layers led to an increase in the grain size from 44 nm2 to 89 nm2 and a small change in the topography (Fig. 3a). The AFM image of the immobilized oligonucleotide layer (Fig. 3b) showed a...

Hepatoprotective Activity

Chemicals such as CCl4-catabolized radicals induce lipid peroxidation, damage the membranes of liver cells and organelles, cause the swelling and necrosis of hepatocytes, and result in the release of cytosolic enzymes such as AST, ALT, and LDH into the blood. Therefore, CCl4-induced liver injury has been employed as a convenient model for investigating radical-induced damage and its prevention in animals. Acteoside, 2'-O-acetylacteoside, and isoacteoside inhibited both hepa-tocyte lipid...

Rational

Lack of training for T CAM providers Lack of training for allopathic practitioners on T CAM Lack of communication between T CAM and allopathic practitioners and between allopathic practitioners and consumers Lack of information for the public on rational use of T CAM These are tasks that have been repeatedly identified by numerous groups in recent years it would be a significant advancement if the WHO is now able to stimulate action by bringing attention, and more important, funding, to address...

Salt

Salt does not damage DNA and is not genotoxic. However, importantly, it severely impinges on the stability of cell, and cells exposed to high levels of salt undergo rapid cell duplication. Therefore, there is severe damage to the stomach with possible alteration, especially in the tissue also generating ROS and carrying a bacterium discovered in 1984, Helicobacter pylori (reviewed in ref. 8). Eventually, stomach cancer and possibly ulcers stem from excessive salt intake in infected cells (9)....

Bamboo Leaf Lophatherum gracile

Bamboo leaf is the young stem and leaf of L. gracile Brongn., which have been used for bringing down fevers and diuresis. Melanosis coli has been associated with ingestion of bamboo leaf extract (17), a potential safety hazard. The his-tological changes in the colonic mucosa were compared with those in patients who had melanosis coli as a result of anthraquinone ingestion (aloe, etc.). Because bamboo leaf extract was not ordinarily ingested by humans, the possibility of its deposition in the...

Immunomodulatory Antitumor Activities of Ginseng Polysaccharide

It has long been reported that ginseng strengthens the resistance of an organism to harmful physical, chemical, and biological stresses. This capability is related to its regulation of the immune system, which plays an important role in the protective mechanism of the body. Recently, an acidic polysaccharide named ginsan has been isolated from white ginseng, peeled dried ginseng, and identified as an ideal nontoxic antineoplastic immunostim-ulator. It acts by activating multiple effector arms...

Intestinal Microflora and Immune Defenses Are Improved in Tea Drinkers

Tea polyphenols affect viruses and bacteria (110). Enterobacteriaceae in the intestinal tract have mostly unpleasant properties since they generate smelly chemicals of the type of skatole and related indoles. The tea polyphenols suppress the growth of these bacteria but have no adverse effects on beneficial bacteria such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Also, the consequence is a lower pH of the intestinal contents since there is increased formation of organic acids. In particular, butyric...

Variable Angle Ellypsometry VASE

VASE measurements generated estimated thickness values for the layers formed on the chip surface during processing. A summary of the values obtained is shown in Table 2. Based on the topography detected by AFM, a roughness layer was calculated (16.8 A) and included in the calculated spectra. The thickness of the MPTS layer, 38.8 7 A was larger than expected for a monolayer, suggesting the formation of multiple layers of MPTS during the Figure 3 AFM images of Si-based TCM microarray. oligo, (c)...

Cardioactive Effects

It has been confirmed that acteoside has cardioactive effects (48). Intravenous administration of acteoside resulted in a significant decrease in blood pressure in Wistar rats (49). In the Langendorff rat heart preparation, acteoside induces a significant dose-dependent increment in chronotropism, inotro-pism, and coronary perfusion (50). These cardioactive effects appear to be associated with a striking increase in the level of intracellular cyclic 3,5-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) (51)....

Knowledge Production

Comparative research should be promoted, where modern and traditional approaches to managing the same conditions are compared in terms of clinical outcomes and cost. Clinical research should follow national and international health priorities e.g., cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, TB, malaria, HIV AIDS, etc. and mainstream research funds should encourage a component of research into traditional means for treating specific conditions. To ensure a rational basis for the use of...

Other Pharmacological Effects

Sch C and some other lignans were found to inhibit the growth of human immunodeficiency virus (HlV)-infected H9 cells at effective concentrations (EC) ranging from 0.006 to 1.2 Ag mL (65). Recently, halogenated derivatives of gomisin J (Fig. 1g) have been shown to possess anti-HIV activities by inhibiting reverse transcriptase activity as well as expressing cytoprotective action in HIV-infected H9 cells (66). In addition, the growth and clonogenicity as well as the topoisomerase II activity of...

Curcumin Suppresses the Induction of Adhesion Molecules

The expression of various cell surface adhesion molecules, such as intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1, on endothelial cells is absolutely critical for tumor metastasis (50). The expression of these molecules is in part regulated by nuclear factor NF-kB (51). We have shown that treatment of endothelial cells with curcumin blocks the cell surface expression of adhesion molecules and this accompanies the...

In Vitro Study of Effects of the Extract on Adhesion Molecule and Matrix Production by Keratinocytes

First- or second-passage keratinocytes were seeded onto 12-well slides at a density of 2 x 103 cells well in keratinocyte growth medium (KGM). After 48 hr the medium was replaced by keratinocyte basal medium (KBM) containing various concentrations of the extract, with one set being maintained in KGM as a control. At 70-80 confluence, the slides were washed three times in PBS, air-dried, and stored at 70 C until required for indirect immunoflu-orescence. A standard indirect immunofluorescent...

Knowledge Management and Utilization

To ensure sound standards of practice based on recognized levels of training and the use of therapies that are safe and effective, information is needed on best practice across a wide range of professional and industrial issues. A coordinated development strategy with multiple national and international partners will be required to develop such an information resource to inform and support national policy development in natural health care. Aware that other countries are also grappling with...

Antifungal Activity

Antifungal peptides have been purified from the bark of E. ulmoides Oliver (28). Their primary structures consists of 41 residues with a N-terminal blockage by pyroglutamic acid and all contain 10 cysteines, which are cross-linked to form five disulfide bridges with a pairing pattern (C1-C5, C2-C9, C3-C6, C4-C7, C8-C10). They exhibit relatively broad spectra of antifungal activities against eight pathogenic fungi from cotton, wheat, potato, tomato, and tobacco. Their inhibition activity can be...

Curcumin Downregulates Cyclooxygenase2 COX2 Expression

Overexpression of COX-2 has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of cancers, including colon (53), lung (54), and breast (55) cancers. The role of COX-2 in suppression of apoptosis and tumor cell proliferation has been demonstrated (56). Furthermore, celebrex, a specific inhibitor of COX-2, has been shown to suppress mammary carcinogenesis in animals (57). Several groups have shown that curcumin downregulates the expression of COX-2 protein in different tumor cells (44,58) most...

Microbiological Effects

There has been interest over the years in the effects of phenylethanoid glycosides on microorganisms. Although acteoside exerted weak antibacterial effects on Escherichia coli, it had antiplasmid effects, including F'lac plasmid elimination, and inhibited kanamycin resistance transfer in E. coli (55). Similar results were observed with its isomer isoacteoside (56,57). In addition, acteoside and arenarioside exhibited a moderate antimicrobial activity against Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus...

Curcumin Inhibits Angiogenesis

For most solid tumors, including breast cancer, angiogenesis (blood vessel formation) is essential for tumor growth and metastasis (59). The precise mechanism that leads to angiogenesis is not fully understood, but growth factors that cause proliferation of endothelial cells have been shown to play a critical role in this process. Curcumin has been shown to suppress the proliferation of human vascular endothelial cells in vitro (60) and abrogate the fibroblast growth-factor-2-induced angiogenic...

Emodin

Emodin is anti-inflammatory against carageenan-induced edema in rats (110) and emodin and its metabolites have a long half-life in the plasma of rats ( 50 hr) (111). Emodin exhibits a range of anticarcinogenic activities in vitro, including inhibition of formation of DNA adducts induced by 1-nitropyrene (112), modulation of cellular transformation and proliferation (113), inhibition of NF-kB activation and expression of adhesion molecules (114), inhibition of casein kinase II (114a), and...

Atherogenic Modifications Of Ldl And Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people with a Western lifestyle. The early atherosclerotic lesion is characterized by the accumulation of arterial foam cells derived mainly from cholesterol-loaded macrophages (1,2). Most of the accumulated cholesterol in foam cells originates from plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is inter nalized into the cells via the LDL receptor. Native LDL, however, does not induce cellular cholesterol accumulation, because...

Introduction

The use of herbal medications has soared over the last decade. In 1997, an estimated 12 of the population used over-the-counter herbal products, resulting in billions of dollars in sales for the herbal industry (1). Herbal therapy has become popular for a number of reasons. First, herbs are relatively inexpensive when compared to prescription medications. They may be viewed by consumers as cost-effective alternatives to conventional therapies. Second, they are ''natural'' substances that are...

Research Environment

Research into traditional medicine is needed at both national and international levels. If this need is to be met, dedicated funding will be required to be allocated by international funders and governments. To ensure a rational basis for the use of plant-based medicines, priority is needed for infrastructure development in traditional medicine. This will include Research oriented to the safe and effective production of herbal medicines as a central feature of public health programs in...

Traditional Medicine

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), up to 80 of people in the developing world use traditional medicine as part of their primary health care, and therefore, it is becoming increasing popular in countries in the North, too. Traditional medicine incorporates plants, animals, and mineral-based medicines, spiritual therapies, as well as manual techniques or exercise (1). In Ethiopia, 90 of the population uses traditional medicine for primary health care in Benin, India, and Rwanda,...

Chinese Yam Dioscorea opposita

Major constituents of chinese yam are saponins, mannan, phytic acid, and starch (40) and some varieties are rich in essential amino acids (36 ) and minerals (Se, Fe, Zn, Mn) (41). The related D. opposita, D.fordii, D.persimilis, and D. alata are similar in content of polysaccharides, allatonin, and amino acids but differ in the ratio of monosaccharides. Pharmacological experiments with mice showed that they strengthen physique, help digestion, and increase immunity. It was suggested that these...

Curcumin Suppresses the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase MMP9 and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase iNOS

MMPs make up a family of proteases that play a critical role in tumor metastasis (for references see Ref. 63). MMP-9 is one of the proteases that has been shown to be regulated by NF-kB activation (64), and curcumin has been shown to suppress its expression (64). Curcumin has also been demonstrated to downregulate iNOS expression, also regulated by NF-kB and involved in tumor metastasis (65). All these observations suggest that curcumin must have antimetastatic activity. Indeed, there is a...

Fabrication Of SiBased Toxic Tcm Microarrays

There are currently two main types of microarrays c-DNA- and oligonucle-otide-based arrays. These arrays may be made using different surfaces as solid supports. Glass and nitrocellulose are the still the most commonly used owing to their low cost and general availability (11-13), but they lack the versatility of Si surfaces such as the possibility of integration with other Si-based components such as micro PCR reactors (14), microfluidic transport, micro-capillary electrophoresis (15) and...

Glucosinolates

To date, 116 GSLs have been identified in a diverse range of plant families represented in the order Capparales (16). All share a common feature of a h-D-thioglucose moiety, sulfonated oxime residue, and a variable side chain (Fig. 1 Table 1). The current chemical classification of GSLs recognizes three groups comprising aliphatic, aromatic, and indolyl GSLs based on the amino acid from which they are derived (17). The primary source of aliphatic GSLs is the amino acid methionine and to a...

Macrophagemediated Oxidation Of

The process of LDL oxidation is unlikely to occur in plasma because plasma has high concentrations of antioxidants and of metal ions chelators. It is more likely to occur within the artery wall, an environment depleted of antioxi-dants, and therefore the LDL is exposed there to oxidative stress. The identity of the cells responsible for the oxidation of LDL along atherogenesis in the arterial wall is uncertain. Monocyte-derived macrophages are likely candidates to induce the oxidation of LDL...

Misidentification Substitution Or Contamination

Misidentification or mislabeling of herbs may result in unexpected adverse clinical effects. One problem in the identification of herbal ingredients is that the plant materials can be named in four different ways the common English name, the transliterated name, the Latinized pharmaceutical name, and the scientific name. The Chinese names of different substances are sometimes similar and a raw material may have several Chinese proprietary names. It is desirable that plants are referred to by...

Species Description

H. perforatum, commonly called the common St. John's wort, klamathweed, tiptonweed, goatweed, and enolaweed (1), is a native of Europe, but has spread to temperate locations in Asia, Africa, North and South America, and Australia (2,3). It thrives in poor soils, and is commonly found in meadows, fields, waste areas, roadsides, and abandoned mines and quarries (1,2,4). Individuals of St. John's wort are freely branching perennials that typically range from 40 to 80 cm tall (Fig. 1) (1,2). The...

Tea As A Healthpromoting Beverage

Tea is a frequently used beverage worldwide. Tea is a hot-water extract of the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. Upon harvest, the best teas are obtained by collecting the top two leaves and the bud of the tea bush (10,11). The leaves contain the polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate and an enzyme, polyphenol oxidase. When the leaves are withered and steamed, the polyphenol oxidase is inactivated, yielding green tea upon drying. If the withering step is omitted, and the leaves are steamed,...

What Is Ginkgo Biloba

Ginkgo biloba is a tall, long-lived tree originating from China (2). Ginkgo means''silver apricot'' and biloba refers to the shape of the two distinct lobes of the leaves. This species, which was classified in 1771 by Linne, is the only representative of the class of Ginkgoatae and even of its entire phylum, that of Ginkgophyta, distinct from all other trees, notably Coniferophyta and Cycadophyta. To this taxonomic singularity is added its unique status as a living fossil. Ginkgo trees already...

Antioxidant Composition Of Fruits Of O Fcus Indica

Organic extracts in dichloromethane (DCM) and aqueous extracts in methanol of the yellow, red, and white fruits from Sicilian cultivars of O. ficus indica have been analyzed for lipid-soluble and water-soluble antioxidants, respectively (54). Very limited amounts of lipophilic antioxidant vitamins have been found, a-tocopherol, trans- h-Carotene, and retinyl palmitate representing the major compounds, with minor variations among the cultivars. Retinyl oleate and trans-retinol are absent. In...

Chemical Constituents

A number of studies have been conducted to elucidate the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of the aerial parts of Epimedium herb. Several methods such as column chromatography, liquid chromatography, pulse polarography, coulometric titration, and fluorometry have been used to study the flavonoids from Epimedium species (8). The main constituents in Epimedium plants are the prenylflavone glycosides. Among the important active constituents isolated from the aerial parts of...

Pharmacology

Ephedrine and its related alkaloids have similar pharmacokinetic properties, which are summarized in Table 1 (12-15). The ephedra alkaloids are well absorbed orally with an average time to maximum plasma concentration of1-2 hr. The duration of action of the ephedra alkaloids is approximately 3-5 hr after oral administration. Recent studies have found that the pharmacoki-netics of the alkaloids in the form of ephedra extracts are similar to those of pharmaceutical forms (16-18). One study showed...

Some Botanical Considerations

Botanically, the North American Echinacea genus consists of nine species and multiple varieties with E. purpurea, E. angustifolia, and E. pallida finding most use medicinally. The genus belongs to the Heliantheae, the largest tribe within the family Compositae (Asteraceae). Various authorities have described this genus and the presently accepted scheme is based on the comparative morphological and anatomical studies of McGreggor (3,49). E. angustifolia (Braumeria angustifolia), E. atrorubens...

The Glucosinolate Myrosinase System

Associated with the order Capparales are a group of thioglucosidases known as myrosinases EC 3 2 2 1 . It is proposed that ''myrosinase'' is compartmentalized within myrosin cells and distributed throughout all parts of the plant (reviewed in Ref. 33). The separation of the myrosinase-glucosinolate system ensures that GSL degradation occurs only during tissue damage such as chewing or cutting. The catalytic degradation of GSLs initiates the cleavage of the glucose residue from the core GSL...

Iiiwhat Is Ginkgo Biloba Extract

Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761, is a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba. It contains 24 flavonoids and 6 terpene lactones. The flavonoids are nearly exclusively flavonol-O-glycosides (combination of the phenolic aglycones quercetin, kaempferol, or isorhamnetin with glucose or rhamnose or both in different positions of the flavonol moiety). The terpenoids are ginkgolides (3.1 of the extract) and bilobalide (2.9 ), both found exclusively in the Ginkgo biloba tree. Ginkgolides are diterpenes,...

Iisimaroubaceae

The Simaroubaceae, as defined in Engler's Syllabus (3), consist of six subfamilies with 32 genera and over 170 arboreous or shrubby species. The largest genus is Picramnia with ca. 40 species native to the New World tropics. Indeed the entire family is of pantropical occurrence with the exception of the genera Picrasma and Ailanthus, which extend to temperate Asia (4). The genera of Simaroubaceae are mostly well defined, but the family is only loosely knit (5). However, only eight genera and 10...

In an In Vitro Model of Wound Reepithelialization Phan et al 2001b

In this study, the effect of C. odorata extract on keratinocyte migration, an important phenomenon in wound healing, was investigated in vitro. It was shown that concentrations of extract from 5 to 60 Ag mL always led to faster migration ofkeratinocytes and closure ofthe scratch although there was not a clear dose-dependent relationship (Fig. 4). Until the wound is resurfaced by epithelium and the protective stratum corneum is reestablished, the patient remains at risk of infection, and...

Integrating Traditional and Complementary Medicine into National Health Care

Learning from the International Experience University of Oxford Medical School Oxford, England As the global public's use of traditional and complementary medicine increases, governments are being challenged to develop sound policies, regulations, and trade standards (Bodeker, 2001). Public access to their health care system of choice and public safety are both important dimensions of the policy challenge. * This paper draws on work reported in two previous papers ''Planning for Cost-effective...

Policy Framework

With respect to policy action, country experience can be organized into eight broad areas of principle (1) Equity. (2) Ethics. (3) Governance. (4) Financing. (5) Knowledge production. (6) Knowledge management and utilization. (7) Capacity development. (8) Research environment. This framework draws on that developed by the Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED) and it served for the policy recommendations on traditional medicine made at the COHRED conference on health research...

Anticarcinogenic Activity

The main weapons in the war against cancer have been early detection and surgical removal, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and attempts to develop gene therapy. However, the result have been less than ideal, and the dominant strategy is now changing from therapeutic approaches to prevention of cancer by identifying effective natural products as chemopreventive agents. One promising candidate with cancer-preventive effects is ginseng. Its usefulness as an anticarcinogen has been shown by extensive...

Concluding Remarks

The body of evidence presented in this chapter speaks volumes for the clinical potential of wine polyphenolics such as RSV and related compounds. The relatively simple chemical structure enables RSV to interact with receptors and enzymes, giving rise to biological effects such as suppression of growth, induction of differentiation, inhibition of ROS production, cell cycle regulation, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, downregulation of proinflammatory mediators, regulation of gene expression by...

Doseresponse Relationships

Sometimes dose-dependent reversal of effects is encountered in efficacy studies, wherein higher or lower dosages can produce different effects. There are suggestions that these findings should not be interpreted to mean that phytomedicines are not efficacious. For example, extracts of goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea) in low doses have no diuretic effect, whereas in therapeutic doses (6-12 g dried herb per dose) diuretic effects can be demonstrated (22). Still higher doses in animals again result...

Glucosinolates And Their Biological Function A Flavor Components

Glucosinolates are sulfur-containing glycosides and are some of the most abundant secondary metabolites in Brassica species they function in plant insect interactions and as feeding deterrents for plant herbivores. These very same phytochemicals are also recognized by humans, particularly the ITCs, as the characteristic flavor components associated with cruciferous vegetables and salad crops. During tissue damage ITCs are often released and can be recognized by their often spicy and pungent...

Pharmacokinetics And Metabolism

After oral administration of 15 mg Sch B to healthy male subjects, the mean value of maximum plasma concentration was found to be 96.1 14.1 ng mL ( 0.25 aM) (124). The lignan molecule was metabolized by rat liver micro-somes to give three main phase I metabolites. Several oxidation routes appear to be involved (1) hydroxylation of an alkyl substitute and (2) demethylation of the -OCH3 groups on the aromatic rings (125). The metabolites were detectable in urine and bile of rats. A recent study...

Production Of Tongkat

It is found that this crop grows well in deep sandy loams mixed with plenty of organic matter. The plants are propagated usually from seeds (fresh seeds collected from tree burst fruits) that take about a week to germinate. The seedlings will then grow to a height of 10-15 cm after 2 months and at this stage, they can be removed from the nursery bed and potted, then later transferred to permanent positions when they are 6 months old. Intercropping tongkat Ali with other grown timber species is...

Selection Of The Active Ingredients And Their Mechanism Of Action

The CFI discussed above consist of a complex mixture of phytochemicals, and for most, only partial analysis has been performed. However, often (one of) the active ingredients have been identified for some of the extracts. These active ingredients are often flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates, but also terpenes, other phenolics, steroids, etc. Most flavonoids and hydroxycinnam-ates are found in the plant and in extracts from the plant attached to a sugar or organic acid, and consequently have a...

Toxicity Of Sm

So far, only a few studies have been conducted in mice or rats to evaluate the toxicity of SM. In one study, intraperitoneal injection of SM at adose of33.75 g kg day was given to mice for 14 days. No significant changes in body weight, food intake, condition of the fur, or other general appearance of the mice was observed, and also no change in blood picture, hepatic function, or liver function was found. The mice were then killed and the heart, liver, spleen, and kidney were examined...

Ivcompounds Isolated From L Chuanxiong

Isolation of the chemical constituents of L. chuanxiong began in the 1920s. The major components identified were ligustilide, butylidenephthalide, cnid-ilide, neocnidilide, butylphthalide, cindium lactone, sedamonic acid, and sedanolide (8-11). Pregnenolone, tetramethylpyrazine, coniferylferulate, sen-kyunolide-A, ligustilides, and their mono- and dihydroxyphthalide derivatives (senkyunolide B-L) have also been described (12-18). A significant amount of minor components, like the oxygenated...

Ivcultivation

Expanding global demand for echinacea threatens to result in unsustainable levels of wild harvest, and significant habitat destruction contributes to these concerns. Worries about the presence of undesirable agricultural residues such as herbicides, fertilizers, heavy metals, and pesticides also must be dealt with. This suggests that cultivation under carefully controlled conditions should be investigated to produce sustainable quantities of safe material of high potency, yields, and purity....

Ivoptimal Dosage Determination

To achieve the desired highest antitumor effect, the amount of lentinan given to the experimental model should be optimized. Initially, lentinan showed little effectiveness, primarily because the dosages used were above or below what was later found to be optimal. Chihara and co-workers (7) and Aoki (34) showed that lentinan caused complete regression of sarcoma 180 transplanted into the mice at a dose of 1 mg kg for 10 days (intraperitoneal route), while a larger dose of 80 mg kg for 5 days...

Summary

Although licorice has been known to be a useful medicinal plant for the past 3000 years, it is still luring investigators to explore new medicinal properties of this plant. In a separate chapter, Aviram et al. review the therapeutic effects of licorice extract and its major antioxidant constituents of glabridin on atherosclerosis via inhibition of the LDL oxidation molecular mechanism. The second part of the chapter reviews the potential of licorice extract and its constituents as HRT for...

Ixeffects Of Cordyceps On The Cardiovascular System

The antiarrhythmic effects of different extracts including petroleum extract from cultured Cordyceps were tested by using experimental arrhythmia in rats induced by aconitine and barium chloride. Pretreatment of petroleum extract of Cordyceps at the dose of 200 mg kg by oral administration significantly antagonized the drug-induced arrhythmia, and prolonged the onset time of arrhythmia (85.0 12.3 sec vs. 25.0 19.8 sec, control), decreased the duration of persistence (19.8 15.3 min vs. 40.8 17.2...

Chrysanthemum morifolium Flower

The flower of C. morifolium Ramat is a commonly used medical herb with mild action and a popular beverage with an aromatic odor in China. It is used for treating colds and eyes with redness and pain (43). It is potentially anticarcinogenic, since the flowers contain chlorogenic acid, flavonoids, and pentacyclic triterpenes. The flavonoids from C. morifolium have been found to exhibit anti-HIV activity (44). Several active anti-HIV compounds, including acacetin-7-O-h-D-galactopyranoside and...

L Clove Eugenia caryophyllata

Bioassay-directed fractionation of clove terpenes from the plant E. caryophyllata has led to the isolation of the following five active known compounds h-caryophyllene, h-caryophyllene oxide, a-humulene, a-humulene epoxide, and eugenol. These compounds showed significant activity as inducers of the detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase in the mouse liver and small intestine (49). Eugenol, an active principle of clove, is an effective secretagogue in rats, causing dose-dependent...

L Nobiletin

Nobiletin is a flavonoid that occurs exclusively in citrus fruits. It is antimeta-static in mice and inhibited peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer, at least partly through inhibition of metalloproteinases (128). Nobiletin protected against the appearance of gastric hemorrhagic lesions induced by ethanol but not aspirin in the guinea pig, and alone had no effect on the potential difference. Nobiletin also relaxed the contractions induced by acetylcholine, electrical stimulation, and...

Molecular Aspects of Health

Lester Packer Choon Nam Ong Barry Halliwell Although great care has been taken to provide accurate and current information, neither the author(s) nor the publisher, nor anyone else associated with this publication, shall be liable for any loss, damage, or liability directly or indirectly caused or alleged to be caused by this book. The material contained herein is not intended to provide specific advice or recommendations for any specific situation. Trademark notice Product or corporate names...