Chansu

Chansu, or toad cake, is made from the dried venom of the toad Bufo bufo gargarizans or B. melanostictus. This is prepared from the skin and venom glands of the toad. It is stored in a disc shape of dry material, which has been mistaken for another innocuous material prepared from the hide of the ass. Chansu is used for its anti-inflammatory analgesic and anesthetic properties. It contains bufotoxins, which have a digoxin-like effect, and excessive doses may cause cardiac arrhythmias that may...

The Mammalian Detoxification System

Mammalian cells are continuously exposed to endogenous and exogenous toxins, either as by-products of metabolism or as environmental agents. These compounds are usually highly electrophilic and disrupt normal cellular function by reacting with nucleophilic centers located in and on proteins and DNA. In the extreme case, DNA adducts can be formed that result in the formation of a neoplastic cell and subsequently a cancerous cell can develop. To prevent these deleterious effects the mammalian...

Q Licorice Glycyrrhiza uralensis G glabra

Licorice (Gancao) is one of the most frequently used ingredients in many traditional Chinese prescriptions. It is used primarily as a demulcent, expectorant, and mild laxative. Licorice is known to exhibit many pharmacological actions, including anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antibacterial, antiviral, antihepatotoxic, anticonvulsive, and anticancer. Licorice has been shown to possess antimutagenic activity in the Ames test using Salmonella ty-phimurium (65). Glycyrrhizic acid, an active...

Introduction

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is widely used in Asia, especially in China, and plays an important part in the health care of overseas Chinese worldwide. Their methods, processing, and formulations have been worked out over the last 2000 years (1). TCM prescriptions and preparations are derived from natural sources about 80 of the total is derived from plants, and the rest includes minerals or animal parts. Even though the effectiveness and safety of TCM have been documented by controlled...

Antioxidation Activity Of Cordyceps

In China, there is a long history of using Cordyceps to ameliorate conditions associated with aging and senescence. Today, scientific findings reveal that Cordyceps has strong antioxidation activity in animals. The antioxidation activities were compared between natural and cultured Cordyceps by determining their effects on the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and lipid peroxide in mouse liver. It was found that natural and cultured Cordyceps (0.3 g L) markedly increased...

The Metabolism Of Dietary Isothiocyanates In Vivo

Gsts Reaction

The first step in the metabolism of dietary or synthetic ITCs involves their conjugation with the nucleophilic sulfhydryl group of glutathione in the mercapturic acid pathway (Fig. 3) (96). After GSH conjugation the resultant ITC conjugates pass through a series of catabolic steps mediated by the enzymes g-glutamyltranspepsidase, cysteinylglycinase, aminopeptidase, and N-acetyltransferase to the final mercapturic acid metabolite excreted in urine, the N-acetylcysteine-S or, alternatively,...

Conclusion

The twenty-first century has been considered the century of biological advancement. Breakthroughs are expected on cancer treatment, viral control, and, of course, genome study. Great triumphant moments are expected in medical science, which will further endorse and glorify the success of modern science and the deductive approach. On the other hand, as we discussed earlier, scientific advances have already brought overspecialization, rigid, strict, and oversimplistic approaches that have yet...

Antibacterial Effect

Thirteen phenolic glycosides including six new compounds were isolated from seeds of C. tora. The structures of the new compounds, rubrofusarin trigluco-side, nor-rubrofusarin gentiobioside, demethylflavasperone gentiobioside, torachrysone gentiobioside, torachrysone tetraglucoside, and torachrysone apioglucoside, were deduced on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence. The effect of the phenolic glycosides, their aglycones, and several other compounds structurally related to the on...

Rosemary Extracts Preparation And Composition A Preparation

The leaves of the plant Rosmarinus officinalis L. are best known as a spice and flavoring agent but they are also reported as a herbal remedy with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antidiuretic, and hepatotoxic protective properties (1-3). Crude and refined extracts of R. officinalis L. are commercially available in the form of powders and liquids at different concentrations of the active components (e.g., Robertet S.A., Grasse, France LycoRed Natural Products Industries, Beer...

References

Stampfer MJ, Henneekens CH, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Rosner B, Willet WC. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women. N. Engl J Med 1993 328 1444-1449. 2. Saija A, Scalese M, Lanza M, Marzullo D, Bonina F, Castelli F. Flavonoids as antioxidant agents importance of their interaction with biomembranes. Free Rad Bio Med 1995 19 481-486. 3. Yen GC, Chen HY. Antioxidant activity of various tea extracts in relation to their antimutagenicity. J Agric Food Chem 1995 43 27-32. 4....

Drugherb Herb Herb Interactions

Little more than anecdotal evidence exists regarding interactions between pharmaceutical and herbal medicines. Despite the widespread use of herbal medicines, documented herb-drug interactions are sparse. However, studies on the common herbs indicate that significant herb-drug interactions exists. Thus St. John's wort (Hypericumperforatum) lowers blood concentrations of cyclosporin, amitriptyline, digoxin, indinavir, warfarin, phenprocoumon, and theophylline furthermore, it causes...

Minerals Metals and Microbial Content

Elemental analysis of log-cultivated fruit bodies of G. lucidum revealed phosphorus, silica, sulfur, potassium, calcium, and magnesium to be the main mineral components. Iron, sodium, zinc, copper, manganese, and strontium were also detected in lower amounts, as were the heavy metals lead, cadmium, Figure 2 Chemical structure of lanosterol and three of the many triterpenes isolated from Ganoderma lucidum. (Modified from Refs. 72,74,75,81.) Figure 2 Chemical structure of lanosterol and three of...

Pharmacology A Antioxidative Activity

Oxidative stress leading to the formation of free radicals has been implicated in many biological processes, damaging the cell membrane and biological molecules. Free radicals are also responsible for the development of many diseases such as arteriosclerosis, cancer, inflammation, cardiovascular disorder, ischemia, arthritis, and liver diseases. Lipid peroxidation is initiated by very potent free radicals including superoxide (O2) and hydroxyl radicals (OH-). Most of free radicals can be...

Estrogenlike Activity Of Licorice Root Constituents

Hydroxyglabrol

Licorice root constituents were isolated from the aqueous extract, such as glycyrrhizin and its glycone, glycyrrhetinic acid, and were used in the treatment of hyperlipemia, atherosclerosis, viral diseases, and allergic inflammation (41). The organic extract of licorice root (acetone or ethanol) is known to contain isoflavans, isoflavene, and chalcones (Fig. 2) such as glabridin, Z-OMeG R1 CH3,R2 H 4'-OMeG RpH, R2 Me Z-OMeG R1 CH3,R2 H 4'-OMeG RpH, R2 Me Isoliquitireginin chalcone (ILC)...

Curcumin Lowers Serum Cholesterol Levels

Numerous studies suggest that curcumin lowers serum cholesterol levels (78-84). Soudamini et al. investigated the effect of oral administration of curcumin on serum cholesterol levels and on lipid peroxidation in the liver, lung, kidney, and brain of mice treated with carbon tetrachloride, paraquat, and cyclophosphamide (81). Oral administration of curcumin significantly lowered the increased peroxidation of lipids in these tissues produced by these chemicals. Administration of curcumin also...

Chemical Components A Lipid Soluble Components

In the last 50 years, many efforts have been made to study the chemical constituents of SM. Most of the studies have been focused on the lipophilic diter- penoid quinones. The major lipid-soluble components that have been identified so far include tanshinone I, dihydrotanshinone I, isotanshinone I and II, tanshinone IIA, tanshinone IIB, tanshinone V, tanshinone VI, isotanshinone, hydroxytanshinone, cryptotanshinone, isocryptotanshinone, methyltanshin-onate, methylene tanshinquinone,...

Jeong Dan Whan

Jeong Dan Whan is a Chinese patent medicine that is used in Korea for the treatment of acute and chronic indigestion, dyspepsia, and vomiting. This medicine consists of 14 kinds of powdered crude drugs. For the identification of the individual ingredients in such powdery mixtures, a microscopic method is often used as it requires only a small amount of material. The CFI are Raphanus sativus, Brassica juncea, Prunus persica, Gardenia jasminoides, Alpinia oxyphylla, and Citrus reticulata (86).

The Mechanisms of Isothiocyanate Induced Apoptosis in Mammalian Cell

ITC-induced apoptosis has been described on only a few occasions in the literature. This pathway is summarized in Figure 5. From the available data, both extracellular signalling and the mitochondrial death pathways have been Figure 5 The apoptotic cascade initiated by isothiocyanates. Apafl, apopto-sis-associated factor 1 FADD, Fas-associated death domain GSH, glutathione MMP, mitochondrial membrane potential ROS, reactive oxygen species. (Adapted from Refs. 166-173.) Figure 5 The apoptotic...

Heavy Metal Contamination

Heavy metals have been used over the centuries for their medicinal effects although they have largely been replaced in allopathic medicine by less toxic pharmaceuticals. In the theory of TCM heavy metals may be used as active ingredients of some herbal prescriptions and Chinese proprietary medicines often contain cinnabar (mercuric sulfide), realgar (arsenic sulfide), or litharge (lead oxide) as part of the traditional formula. Furthermore, during growth and storage, crude plant material can...

Sms Modulates Cellular Antioxidant Potential Through Induction Of

GPX is an enzyme participating in the capture of H2O2 and hydroperoxides produced in the cell. Therefore, the change in the activity reflects more or less overall tissue damage or cellular potential of antioxidant defense. Thus the preventive effect of SMS on GPX activity loss was further studied by the immunohistchemical method in culture cells using anti-GPX monoclonal antibody conjugated with FITC fluoroprobe. As shown in Figure 4, GPX activity was significantly induced by incubating cells...

Hesperidin Hesperetin

Hesperetin is a flavonoid that exhibits a number of biological activities hesperidin is the glycosylated form. Mandarin juice rich in hesperidin and h-cryptoxanthin reduced azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats (120) hesperidin reduced phorbol-ester induced inflammation in mouse skin (121) hesperidin was anti-inflammatory against rat colitis induced by trini-trobenzenesulfonic acid and protected against urinary bladder carcinogenesis in mice (122) and hesperidin protected against...

Bitter Orange Citrus aurantium

The flower of C. aurantium daidai is in the food-grade herb list. The dry, unripe fruits of C. aurantium L. and its cultivated variants are not food-grade herbs, but effective medicine, and are collected when the pericarp of the fruit is still green. The fruits are used as a digestant and expectorant and in the treatment of anal prolapse. Related citrus species are known to produce coumar-ins, flavanones, flavones, flavonols (which occur in the free form and or as glycosides), and limonoids...

Guijiu

One tragic example occurred in Hong Kong when the toxic herb guijiu, which is derived from the root and rhizome of Podophyllum hexandrum (P. emodi), was found as an adulterant of the herb longdancao (Gentiana rigescens) in 1989, which led to two cases of serious and permanent neuropathy and encephalopathy (11). Subsequent investigations revealed that the adulteration was made by the supplier in mainland China, but no one in the supply chain noticed the error until the occurrence of the adverse...

Curcumin Inhibits Platelet Aggregation

Platelet aggregation contributes to the pathway resulting in atherosclerosis. There are reports that suggest that curcumin can inhibit platelet aggregation (91-93). Srivastava et al. examined the effect of curcumin on platelet aggregation and vascular prostacyclin synthesis (92). In vitro and ex vivo effects of curcumin and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on the synthesis of prostacyclin (PGI2) and on platelet aggregation have been studied in rat. Both drugs inhibited adenosine...

Curcumin Inhibits LDL Oxidation

The oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is characterized by oxidative damage, which affects lipoproteins, the walls of blood vessels, and subcellular membranes. Several studies suggest that curcumin inhibits oxidation of LDL (87-90). Naidu and Thippeswamy examined the effect of cur-cumin on copper-ion-induced lipid peroxidation of human LDL by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance...

Viigarlic Allium Sativum

Garlic is one of the most extensively studied herbal medications available. It has been thought to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antioxidant, antineoplastic, and antithrombotic properties that make its use as a general tonic attractive. Recent research has primarily focused on the use of garlic for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and risk factors. Although allicin has been proposed to be the active ingredient within garlic (54,55), its poor...

Chemoprevention By Isothiocyanate The In Vivo Evidence

Aflatoxin Cancer Mechanism

One of the major characteristics of chemical carcinogens is their ability to act as DNA alkylating agents inducing DNA aberrations that have the potential to lead to genetic mutations. Several well-characterized carcinogens, such as benzo a pyrenes, nitrosamines, and aflatoxin B1, can form DNA adducts with exposed bases in double-stranded DNA (Fig. 2). The overall consequence of this is the possible impairment of DNA replication and the induction of genetic mutation. This can be especially...

Vidifferential Effects Of Glabridin And Glabrene On Era And Erb Expressions

Estrogen is known to offer protection from coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women, to be involved in Alzheimer's disease, and to inhibit oxidative stress-induced nerve cell death and apoptosis, which are implicated in a variety of pathologies including strokes and Parkinson's disease. The existence of estrogen receptors in these cells and tissues, and the possibility that some of these estrogen effects are ER-dependent, led to the investigation of whether phytoestrogens, known to bind...

Contributors

Professor of Cancer Medicine, Department of Bioimmunotherapy, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. Hooi Hoon Ang, B.Pharm.(Hons), Ph.D. Associate Professor, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University Science Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia Bimal H. Ashar, M.D. Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. Michael Aviram, D.Sc. Head, Lipid Research Laboratory, Rambam Medical...

Insufficient Consumer Education

If a patient's perception of herbal therapies is that they are'' safe and natural,'' like eating fruits to obtain fiber for constipation, the patient may not recognize the importance of safety issues associated with some herbal products. Use of herbal remedies can thus be less discerning and more indiscriminate as compared to use of conventional medicine. It is important for consumers to appreciate the fact that though herbal medicines have been in use for a long time, they still bring with...

Cassia Tora Seed C tora or C obtusifolia

An extract of C. tora leaves contracted smooth muscles of guinea pig ileum and rabbit jejunum in a concentration-dependent manner, and increased intestinal transit in mice dose-dependently. The studies were used to suggest that the use of C. tora, traditionally as a purgative and in the treatment of other ailments, is justifiable (31). Major active components are anthraqui-nones (chrysophanol, emodin, rhein, and others). Emodin is known for its laxative effect, and has antioxidant activity...

Kava Kava Piper Methysticum

Kava has been used for thousands of years by inhabitants of the South Pacific. It has usually been ingested as a mildly intoxicating beverage distinct from alcohol. Current interest in kava has centered around its use as an anxiolytic agent. Its active ingredients are located in the root rhizome of the plant and consist of compounds known as kavapyrones or kavalactones. These compounds are thought to exert anxiolytic, sedative, analgesic, and anticonvul-sant effects. Kava's precise mechanism of...

Cordyceps Acts On The Immune System

Effects of Cordyceps on the immune system have been reported however, the experimental results are controversial and show that Cordyceps possesses both potentiation and or inhibition effects on the immunoresponse. Thus, it is assumed that Cordyceps is a bidirectional modulator of the immune system. The spleen weight of mice was significantly increased by oral administration of water extract derived from Cordyceps the extract increased the synthesis of DNA and protein, which promoted the...

Fact Or Folklore

The possibility of bioactive aphrodisiacs, substances that stimulate sexual desire and that may be derived from animals, minerals, and plants (55), has been attractive throughout recorded history and the passion of man since time immemorial. Most of these ideas originated from the ancient belief in the therapeutic efficacy of''signature'' the notion that plants or animal organs resembling the genitalia would impart sexual powers. As such, among them are rhinoc eros horn and reindeer antler,...

Vchemical Constituents Of Echinacea A Lower MolecularWeight Components

At present the literature is divided as to whether the low-molecular-weight alcohol-extractable materials or the high-molecular-weight oligosaccharides of echinacea are responsible for the species' immunostimulatory properties. There is evidence to support both views and it is quite possible that both classes contribute. It is not clear, however, which may contribute the most or whether they are additive or even synergistic. The lower-molecular-weight secondary constituents of echinacea belong...

Ivclinical Indications

The use of the ginkgo tree in traditional Chinese medicine is very ancient. The seeds have been used since at least the thirteenth century and the leaves since at least the sixteenth century. Modern Chinese pharmacopoeias mention the use of the leaves in the treatment of cardiac and pulmonary diseases but also against dysentery and filariasis (2,7). Modern Western usage of Ginkgo biloba extract is much more recent and results from research inspired not by traditional medicine but linked instead...

Interference with CYP450 Enzyme Activation

Ferguson (43) indicated that the best way for antimutagenicity to suppress the toxicity or mutagenicity of a genotoxin was to affect its metabolism and block its activation. There are many metabolism possibilities after B a P enters the bioorganism the main way is through CYP-450 1A1 activation to produce and then further through epoxidation to form the final carcinogens benzo a pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) (44). The HepG2 cell, derived from human hepatoma, retains the characteristics of...

Inflammatory Disorders

The development of an inflammatory response is an important defensive mechanism. The inflammatory response is characterized by the movement of fluid, plasma proteins, cytokines, and other factors to the site of injury. However, this normal protective mechanism can cause problems if it is inadequate, uncontrolled, or inappropriate. Many chronic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, involve chronic inflammation, and long-term anti-inflammatory treatment is...

Shi QuanDaBuTang Ten Significant Tonic Decoction

Food-grade herbs have been used in a famous recipe, ''Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang,'' which was formulated in the Chinese Song dynasty in a.d. 1200. It is prepared by extracting a mixture of 10 medical herbs Rehmannia glutinosa (root, steamed) Paeonia lactiflora (root) Ligusticum chuanxiong (rhizome) Angelica sinensis (root) Glycyrrhiza uralensis (rhizome and root, honey-fried) Poria cocos (sclerotium) Atractylodes macrocephala (rhizome) Panax ginseng (root) Astragalus membranaceus (root, honey-fried)...

Role of Caffeine

We have described the slightly improved antimutagenicity of regular tea containing caffeine compared to the decaffeinated version of the same tea (64) (Table 10). The tea polyphenols are active antioxidant and antimutagenic components of green or black tea but the finding that regular tea seems more active called attention to the fact that caffeine may also play a role. Thus, independent study of caffeine has described an antimutagenic effect of caffeine against heterocyclic amines and on...

Amomum Fruit Amomum xanthioides

Amomum Fruit is commonly decocted for use as a drink and is also called bastard ''cardamon.'' It has an inhibitory effect on gastric acid secretion, affects gastrointestinal kinetics rather than propulsion, and is used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal dyspepsia, which includes hyper-chlorhydria, stomach ache, abdominal distention, anorexia, etc. (13). Oral administration of either water or methanol extracts to rabbits caused a significant decrease in gastric secretion...

Antioxidant Properties

Spirulina has a very high content of h-carotene and is believed to owe some of its potent antioxidant activity to it (29). The total carotenes in it have been shown to have a bioavailability comparable to other sources. In two very large-scale human trials with preschool children in South India, spirulina feeding led to an increase in serum retinol levels (30) and a significant decrease in '' Bitot's spot,'' a symptom of vitamin A deficiency (31). This finding is very important in view of the...

Ginseng Panax Species

Ginseng is thought of by many as a virtual panacea. Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) has been used for centuries as a general tonic, stimulant, and stress reliever. In Chinese medicine, American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) has been used, but is thought to possess less stimulant activity. Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) has also gained recent popularity but belongs to a different plant species, which is often the caue of confusion. Most studies to date concentrate on the use of...

Chemical Constituents Of Cordyceps

The chemical composition of C. sinensis, first described in 1947 (4), includes 25 crude protein, 8.4 fat, 18.5 crude fiber, 29 carbohydrate, and 4.1 ash. In 1957, cordycepic acid, which was identified as D-mannitol, was isolated from C. sinensis, and subsequently it has been used as a marker of quality control of Cordyceps for a number of years (21). In 1964, 3'-deoxyadenosine, namely cordycepin, was isolated from cultured Cordyceps militaris (4), a related species of C. sinensis commonly used...

In Vitro Ex Vivo and Animal Tests

Early pharmacological tests of echinacea preparations are not particularly relevant to the question of immune stimulation as this activity was not suspected before about 1960. Suitable pharmacological assays are asserted to have been underdeveloped at that time and there is considerable doubt about the specific plant material used. This work primarily focused on wound healing, anti-inflammatory activity, and direct antimicrobial and antiviral activity and has been reviewed (3). This summary...

Ayervedic Medicine Dr Abel

Herbal medicines are increasingly used in both Western and Chinese societies. The Chinese herb Jue-ming-zi, which is the seed of the plant Cassia tora L. (Leguminosae), has been reported to have hypotensive, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antihepatotoxic activity, etc. The herb C. tora contains a variety of bioactive phenolic substances, including chrysophanol, emodin, rhein, etc., which are mainly responsible for the pharmacological action ascribed to them. In addition, many recent...

Drug Interactions

While adverse drug reactions are relatively rare for individuals taking St. John's wort extracts alone, interactions with other drugs are more commonly reported, and should be a source of concern for those taking St. John's wort along with other medications. Greeson et al. (9) and Barnes et al. (10) provide excellent reviews of drug interactions. The herb in some cases can increase the effectiveness of other compounds when taken together. This increase may be helpful to the individual or may...

Biochemical Mechanisms Of Action A Detoxification Antioxidant Actions

The hepatoprotection afforded by Sch B and other lignans could at least in part be attributed to the induction of hepatic cytochrome P-450-dependent (phase I) and GST (phase II) drug-metabolizing enzymes for detoxification reactions (6,7). Gom A increased the hepatic levels of microsomal cytochrome b5 and P-450, and activities of NADPH cytochrome C reductase, aminopy-rine N-demethylase, and 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (11). As regards the CCl4 hepatotoxicity, Sch B and Gom A could inhibit the...

C C odorata Extract Upregulates Adhesion Complex Proteins and Fibronectin Production by Human Keratinocytes Phan et al

This study demonstrated that the C. odorata extract increased the expression of several components of the adhesion complex and of fibronectin by human keratinocytes. Using indirect immunofluorescence, an increased expression (dose-dependent) of laminin 1, laminin 5, collagen IV, and fibronectin was Figure 4 Reepithelialization of in vitro scratch wounds by C. odorata extract. Phase-contrast micrographs of a single representative field immediately after wounding. (a) and (b) Control and C....

Antiviral Effects

Lentinan showed marked antiviral activity and increased host resistance against various kinds of viral infections, such as adenovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-encephalitis virus, Abelson virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and influenza virus. The effect of lentinan on influenza virus infection has also been determined and reported by Irinoda et al. (97) and Maeda et al. (93). A significant level of protection in NMRI mice was noticed, even at low dosage (50 Ag) of lentinan when...

Curcumin Exhibits Antiproliferative Effects Against Cancer Cells

Compounds that block or suppress the proliferation of tumor cells have potential as anticancer agents. Curcumin has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of a wide variety of tumor cells, including B-cell and T-cell leukemia (19-22), colon carcinoma (23), and epidermoid carcinoma (24). It has also been shown to suppress the proliferation of various breast carcinoma cell lines in culture (25-27). We showed that the growth of the breast tumor cell lines BT20, SKBR3, MCF-7, T47D, and ZR75-1 is...

Curcumin Inhibits Myocardial Infarction

The effect of curcumin on myocardial infarction (MI) in the cat and the rat has been investigated (94-97). Dikshit et al. examined the prevention of ischemia-induced biochemical changes by curcumin in the cat heart (94). Myocardial ischemia was induced by ligation of the left descending coronary artery. Curcumin (100 mg kg, i.p.) was given 30 min before ligation. Hearts were removed 4 hr after coronary artery ligation. Levels of glutathione (GSH), malonaldelhyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO),...

Alkaloids

Early reports suggested the presence of alkaloids in Echinacea species but several subsequent workers were unable to verify this. The common plant Formula Chart No. 6 Unsaturated alkyl amides of echinacea. Formula Chart No. 6 Unsaturated alkyl amides of echinacea. Formula Chart No. 7 Additional unsaturated alkyl amides of echinacea. Formula Chart No. 7 Additional unsaturated alkyl amides of echinacea. constituent glycine betaine, however, has been definitely identified as present. Subsequently...

Antibacterial and Antiviral Activities

As noted, extracts of H. perforatum have been used for millennia to treat cuts, abrasions, and other wounds. Its usefulness in reducing inflammation is well known, and appears related, at least in part, to its ability to serve as an antibacterial agent. Recent research also suggests that it is useful in combating viruses. Antibacterial properties of H. perforatum extracts were reported by Russian scientists in 1959 (64). The main antibacterial principle was determined to be hyperforin and its...

Life Cycle Of Cordyceps

Cordyceps is composed of a fungus fruiting body and larva of the host, and its distribution is closely related to the distribution of the host. Many Cordyceps-related species have been found, which are based on different fungi growing on different insect hosts however, most of them are not considered as Cordyceps for clinical usage except C. sinensis, which is listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (3). China is the major producer of Cordyceps (4). In China, the parasitic complex of the fungus and...

Endothelium Dependent Vasorelaxation of Ginsenosides

Endothelium plays an important role in regulating vascular tone by releasing several vasoactive autacoids, including prostacyclin, endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) (79). EDRF has been identified as NO, which is produced from L-arginine by NOS (80). NO relaxes blood vessels mostly by stimulating soluble guanylyl cyclase, which leads to an increased production of cGMP in vascular smooth muscle (81). Ginsenosides have been found to...

In Vitro Studies

The antiradical activity of betalains has recently been investigated in a few studies (7-9). Betacyanins such as betanin (7,9) and betanidin (7), as well as betaxanthins such as indicaxathin (9) and vulgaxanthin (7), have been found capable of reducing the cation radical from ABTS, generated either by horseradish peroxidase hydrogen peroxide-mediated oxidation (7) or by reaction with potassium persulfate (9). When expressed as trolox equivalents, betanin has appeared very effective (9), with an...

Xifermentation Of Cordyceps

C. sinensis has a very restricted habitat, and the yield is decreasing every year. In 2001, only a few thousand kilograms of Cordyceps were collected in China. This represents a decrease of more than 70 compared to 1978. Because of environmental concerns, the Ordinance of Resources Protection on Wild Herbal Medicine was issued in 1987, and the collection of Cordyceps was highly restricted. The price of Cordyceps was US 5000 kg in 2002, which is about 100-fold higher than in the 1980s....

Structure Of Streptozotocin

Averrhoa bilimbi Linn belongs to the family Oxalidaceae Fig. 1 . It is a small tree growing to 15 m tall with a trunk diameter up to 30 cm. Young parts of the tree are covered with long-persistent, yellowish to rusty, velvety hairs. Leaves are often crowded at the ends of the branches with 7-19 leaflets, each measuring up to 12 cm by 4 cm, variable in shape lateral veins have 6-14 pairs. Flowers are borne in dense, fascicled, pendulous clusters on bare branches and on knobby protuberances along...

Anticyclooxygenase Antilipoxygenase Activities and Regulation of Cytokine Secretion Immunomodulatory Effect

Among the various beneficial effects of the extract prepared from the roots of P. capsidatum the plant from which RSV was first isolated were its magical effects on allergic and inflammatory diseases. Invariably, these pathological states are a direct or indirect outcome of a hyperactive immune system as a result of an increase in activity of leukocytes that churn out excess of biological response modifiers. The two enzyme systems involved in the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators such as...

Muscle Strength Stamina Collagen Metabolism

It has been noted that the muscles of eels fed Tochu leaf powder were 1.8 times harder than those of the controls 19 . Although the component analysis showed no difference in moisture, lipid, or protein content between the muscles of control and Tochu-fed eels, there was a great difference in the amount of muscle protein stroma fraction that consisted of collagen. The perimysium and endomysium of the muscle was observed microscopically to be firm and thick compared to control. The...

Anticarcinogenic Effects Of Ginger

Several aspects of the chemopreventive effects of various phytochemical dietary and medicinal substances, including ginger, have been reviewed 3,28,29 . Possibly because of our general failure to find a ''magic cure'' for cancer, the identification of plant-derived compounds or phytochemicals having the capacity to interfere with carcinogenic processes has been receiving increased interest. Many herbs and spices are known to possess an array of biochemical and pharmacological activities...

Peter Natesan Pushparaj MScBiochem MScZoology BEd

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Republic of Singapore Peter Rose, Ph.D. Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Republic of Singapore Han-Ming Shen, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Republic of Singapore Ranxin Shi, M.Sc. Department of Community, Occupational and...

Biosynthesis Of Betanin

The importance of diet in reducing the incidence of chronic and degenerative diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease is well recognized 1,2 . Epidemiological evidence, especially regarding the Mediterranean population 3,4 , pointed out on the importance of herbs, fruits, grains, and vegetables. Among other components such as fiber and micronutrients, antioxidants in these foods are thought to be active agents responsible for some of the beneficial effects. Some of the dietary...

Chemoprotective Properties of Rosemary

Carcinogenesis is a multistage process consisting of initiation, promotion, and progression. Protection against both the initiation and tumor promotion stages of carcinogenesis is one of the important findings obtained with phenolic antioxidants such as teas and rosemary 1,2 . Topical application of a methanol extract of rosemary, carnosol, or ursolic acid to mouse skin inhibited the covalent binding of benzo a pyrene B a P to epidermal DNA and inhibited tumor initiation by B a P and...