B GST Induction by Isothiocyanates

The second class of detoxification enzymes, the glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), and their functions in ITC metabolism have been of intense interest. GSTs function in detoxification of a wide range of electophilic species including aflatoxin-2,3-epoxide, tobacco carcinogens derived from benzo a -pyrene, and numerous pharmaceutical agents including acetaminophen. Distributed throughout the major organs and tissue such as the kidneys, lungs, intestine, skin, and the liver, GSTs catalyze the...

Integrated Clinic

An ideal arrangement might not be an integrated medicine hospital, but an integrated clinic. The integrated clinic at the University of Maryland could serve as a good example. Some other integrated clinics are being explored in the United States. The orientation would best be rehabilitation-oriented. The wide demand of chronic problems and pain related to rehabilitation would find a lot of favorable subjects who are dissatisfied with conventional medications and therapies, who would benefit...

Vhospital Service

Alternative medicine could be integrated into hospital service according to the planning of the administrator and the patients' need. Thus in China, every city, irrespective of its size, has integrated medicine or Chinese medicine hospitals, which give patient care consisting of both the modern scientific modality and traditional Chinese medicine. Even in other hospitals not labeled as such, it would be very easy to call in herbalists' support whenever required. Every hospital has its own...

Conclusion The Way Forward

The data reviewed above show that TCM cannot at present be taken as an acceptable given body of knowledge. Practitioners need to be licensed and subject to quality control checks on their prescriptions to deter adulteration. They should participate in national or international adverse-event-reporting networks. They should be monitored by a disciplinary body. Better monitoring of prescribed and '' over-the-counter TCM products for adulterants and contaminants is needed. Products should be...

Active Components and Intake

The beneficial effects of chrysanthemum flavonoids are highly suggested and proved in numerous experiments, which were carried out using pure flavo-noids at 20-60 M or even more than 100 M. The actual effects, however, are related to many other factors, including content of the active components, bioavailability, and metabolism. Lack of knowledge about the contents of flavonoids in chrysanthemum makes it difficult to predict exactly how much flavonoids are effective. It has been assumed that...

Grapefruit Juice

Drug interactions with grapefruit juice serve as a good example of how an apparently innocuous dietary constituent can interact with potent drugs, which could result in serious toxicity. A number of Chinese herbal medicines are derived from citrus fruits such as chen pi (rind of Citrus reticulata) or zhi shi (unripe fruits of Citrus aurantium) and these could have similar effects although it has been suggested that the interaction is specific for grapefruit products and in vitro findings...

Actions on Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury

SM is commonly prescribed for ischemic cerebral vascular disease in traditional Chinese medicine. In experimental studies, SM was shown to decrease cerebral infarction and attenuate neurological deficits after ischemia and reperfusion (50-52). It was observed that SM was able to ameliorate some ultrastructural abnormalities of ischemic brain, including swollen mitochondria, partial loss of cristae, dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi's complex, the presence of dark neurons,...

Adulteration

Herbal products are subjected to possible adulteration or contamination because regulations for herbal products are never as stringent as for conventional medicines. Adulteration may be intentional, as in the case of an herbal remedy manufactured in China and marketed in Singapore. The product, Slim 10, which is a slimming pill claimed to be totally natural, contained an adulterant, fenfluramine. It has since led to more than 10 cases of drug-induced hepatitis and thyroid disorders. One death...

Aloe Aloe vera

Aloe latex or aloe juice is obtained from the yellow latex of pericyclic cells found beneath the epidermis in the leaves of Aloe vera and other Aloe species (5). It is dried to yield a solid material called ''aloe'' that contains anthraqui-nones including barbaloin, which is metabolized to the laxative aloe-emodin, iso-barbaloin, chrysophanic acid, and aloin (6,7). Because of its extremely bitter taste and its laxative effect, aloe latex or aloe juice cannot be used readily or safely in food...

Signalling Events Associated with Phase II Enzyme Induction The Role of Map Kinases

Chemotherapeutic drugs, natural products, and oxidative stress can modulate various extracellular signaling events and potentate stress-related gene transcription. The key components of these pathways linking extracellular events to intracellular responses are members of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). MAPK are proline-directed serine threonine kinases that mediate phosphorylation cascades involved in both cell survival and apopto-sis. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK),...

Pharmacokinetics of Ligusticum Mixtures

The pharmacokinetics of most herbs and formulae used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are not well understood. Mixing many different herbs together into complex formulations is a common practice in TCM. The effects of mixing different herbs together on the pharmacokinetics of individual compounds are to a large extent unknown. One of the rare efforts in this area was the attempt to investigate herb-herb interactions and the pharma-cokinetics of L. wallichii in rat models with the use of...

Cardioprotective Effects

An early study in our laboratory has shown the myocardial protective effect of Shengmai San (36), a TCM formula used for the treatment of coronary heart disease (37), and the lignans derived from FS were found to contribute to the cardioprotective action (36). Pretreatment with the lignan-enriched FS extract, which has recently been shown to produce Sch B-like in vivo antioxidant activity at an equivalent potency of 30 (w w) (38), at an oral dose of 0.8 g kg day for 3 days, protected against...

Tea and Heart Disease Prevention

Epidemiological studies in Europe revealed that black tea drinkers had a lower incidence of heart disease (12-14). The underlying reason rests on the fact the tea polyphenols act as effective antioxidants that inhibit the oxidation of LDL cholesterol caused by reactive oxygen species, and lead to athero-genesis (15-19). In has been shown that the mechanism can be reproduced using a copper-catalyzed oxidation of LDL cholesterol, inhibited by tea polyphenols (Table 2) (20). Other investigations...

And Improvement Of Diabetes Treatment

Diabetes, affecting almost 3 of the world's population, is one of the major global health problems. In particular, there is a high incidence among the elderly population. It has been shown that the root of P. ginseng and other ginseng species has antihyperglycemic activity in vitro (23,24) and in vivo (2528). More than 90 of patients with diabetes have type 2 diabetes, which is related to aging and diet. Although type 2 diabetes is more common and has serious complications, even reducing life...

Xray Photoelectron Spectroscopy XPS

The XPS spectrum based on the unique electron binding energies allowed us to analyze the elements present in the surface during cleaning rehydroxylation and self-assembly of the thiol layer used as heterofunctional linker to immobilize the DNA to the Si surface of the TCM chip. The XPS spectrum taken immediately after cleaning indicated a low carbon content of 4.08 on the surface. The amount of carbon recorded on the surface was likely due to the deposition of contaminants present in the...

Bacterial Infection

In the last decade, the acceptance of traditional medicine as an alternative form of health care and the development of microbial resistance to antibiotics have led researchers to investigate the antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants and fungi (4,5,118-120), and in vitro and in vivo animal studies of G. lucidum have been performed. Mice injected with G. lucidum extract (2 mg mouse) 1 day prior to injection with Escherichia coli showed markedly improved survival rates (> 80 compared to 33...

Effects on the Skeletal System

The effect of Epimedium herb on osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoporosis has been studied in vitro and in vivo using ovariectomized rat models. The in vitro study (cultured osteoclasts) showed that Guizhou Epimedium (E. leptorrhizum Stearn) inhibited the osteoclastic resorption of bone. The in vivo effect of this Chinese herb was also investigated in rats with osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy and the result demonstrated that both the Epimedium and estradiol were able to increase mineral...

Governance

Self-regulation by traditional health practitioners is central to the establishment and maintenance of standards of best practice. Regulation should be designed to preserve and strengthen traditional knowledge systems and practice rather than to constrict their expression and availability. An important example is the case of New Zealand, which has allowed the registration of more than 600 Maori traditional healers who provide services within the wider health system. The government reimburses...

Induction of Phase II Detoxification Enzymes

Prestera and Talalay (54) suggested that evaluating the ability to promote phase II detoxification enzymes would be one of the indexes for detecting antimutagenicity and anticancer action of substances. It was known that B a P exerted its detoxification functions through GST (55). Therefore, exploring the effects of C. tora on GST activity of mammalian cells might reveal their function in lessening the genotoxicity of B a P. In the HepG2 cell line, unroasted and 150 C-roasted C. tora promoted...

Antimicrobial Properties of Dietary Isothiocyanates

The antibacterial effects of ITCs have been described on a number of occasions. The inhibitory effects of arylalkyl ITCs on the bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis are attributed to their reaction with cellular thiol groups disrupting cellular homeostasis. Indeed, the inhibition of polypeptide synthesis in the cell-free system of E. coli was attributed to the inactivation of ribosomes (43). In a study by Ono et al. identification of the active antimicrobial component in wasabi...

Neuroprotective Effects

Sch B and schisanhenol (Sal, Fig. 1f, also a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan) have been shown to protect oxidative damage induced in aging and ischemic-reperfused rat brain (41). Incubation of 8-month-old rat brain mitochondria and membrane suspension with a mixture of Fe2 + -cysteine resulted in the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), an end product of lipid peroxidation, and a decrease in ATPase activity. Sch B and Sal (100 M) completely inhibited these peroxidative damages induced by Fe2 +...

Endocrine Effects

It has been reported that E. brevicornum may reduce the cold-resistant potential of normal mice and disturb the balance of thyroid hormones in normal rats. Large doses of E. brevicornum may exert an unfavorable effect on normal rats, such as reducing natural weight gain and serum triiodothyronine (T3), but increasing rT3 and thyrotropin-releasing hormone levels as well as raising thyroid-stimulating hormone (40). Lower T3 and higher rT3 levels may be due to peripheral metabolism of thyroid...

Chemopreventive Potential of SM

In recent years, the application of naturally occurring compounds, such as dietary components and herbal plants, as chemopreventive agents has attracted extensive attention. Owing to the increasing interest in this area, some preliminary studies have been carried out to explore the antitumor potential of SM. The effect of SM on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis was investigated in male Fischer 344 rats. Results showed that the elevation of serum ALT and AST activities due to AFB1...

Lack of Scientific Evidence for Clinical Efficacy and Safety

Except for the handful of phytomedicines known in the West, the risk-benefit profile of many herbal therapies is not known. Randomized control trials are the gold standard for clinical efficacy and they have been performed only for a handful of commonly used drugs such as gingko, St. John's wort, ginseng, echinacea, saw palmetto, and kava (10). Little is known about the vast majority of the huge body of herbal extracts and formulae registered in the Chinese pharmacopoeia. The importance of...

Antinephritic Activity

It has been postulated that leukocytes play an important role in the pathogenesis of nephritic disease. Acteoside given p.o. at a dose of 30 mg kg once a day for 15 consecutive days after treatment with antiglomerular basement membrane (GBM) serum markedly suppressed the urinary protein as well as glomerular histological changes. Acteoside administered p.o. for 5 or 15 consecutive days remarkably retarded accumulation of total leukocytes as well as ED1-positive, CD4-positive, CD8-positive,...

Source of Herbs

Good clinical practice insists that the prescribed drug for the clinical trial should be thoroughly known and uniform. However, using herbal preparations for clinical trials faces the difficulties of thorough technical knowledge and uniformity. Pharmaceutical tests demand that details be known about the chemistry, the mode of action, and metabolic pathways before clinical tests be conducted. What is the chemistry of herbs like What are the pathways of action and metabolic degradations Are there...

Historical Aspects

Use of echinacea for medicinal purposes by native cultures in the high plains region of midcontinental North America long predates European contact. Whereas echinacea readily flourishes in many countries when planted in temperate climates, it is native only to the trans-Mississippian high plains region of the United States. Native Americans belonging to at least 14 different tribes chewed the roots for toothaches and sore gums and employed the juice and teas prepared from the leaves and roots...

Introduction A Estrogens

Estrogens are steroid hormones that exhibit a broad range of physiological activities. 17 3-Hydroxyestradiol is the female sex hormone active in developing the mammary gland and the uterus, maintaining pregnancy, relieving menopausal symptoms, and preventing cardiovascular and bone diseases (1). An apparent consequence of estrogen is the increase in short-term meno- pausal symptoms including vasomotor hot flashes, urogenital atrophy, and psychological functioning. A hot flash is the classic...

Classic Action And Uses

In ancient pharmacopoeia, the herb is used to tonify the liver and kidney, to strengthen bones and tendons, and to prevent miscarriage (1,2). Decoctions of eucommia bark have been used for, among other things, the relief of back pain, to increase strength, to make bones and muscles strong, to increase recovery from fatigue, to increase ability to remember, and to induce an antiaging effect. It is prepared as Du-Zhong tincture (5 or 100 ), 1-5 mL taken orally thrice daily. It is frequently...

Tea Weight Control and Thermogenesis

Black, green, and oolong teas, perhaps because of their limited caffeine content, have been found to increase thermogenesis, to inhibit lipases, and to control body weight and body fat (Table 12 see also Table 9) (87,145-151). The relevant mechanism may be an effect on fat cell synthesis and the endocrine system, modulated by leptin. Green tea and caffeine increased physical activity and lowered body fat in mice. Also, tea, especially epigallo- TABLE 12 Effect of Oral Administration of...

Regulated TCM Microarray

Species-specific probes derived from the intragenic spacer domain of the 5S rRNA, 12S rRNA, chloroplast t-RNA genes were designed for 24 species listed in the HKSAR Ordinance 47, 1999. The oligonucleotide probes were immobilized via disulfide bond to the silicon oxide surface of the chip in arrays of 5 x 25. These arrays were printed in the following order (1) positive immobilization control (2) Bufo melanostictus (3) B. gargarizans (4) Strychnos nux-vomica (5) Hyoscyamus niger (6) Typhonium...

Antioxidant Properties Of Ginger

A common mechanism offered to explain the actions and health benefits of ginger and other herbs and spices is related to their antioxidant properties (17,18). A systematic analysis (19) of several hundred dietary plants revealed that ginger root contained a very high concentration (3.85 mmol 100 g) of total antioxidants. Only pomegranate and several types of wild berries (e.g., dog rose, blueberry, strawberry, blackberry) had a higher total antioxidant concentration (19). In addition, Zancan et...

Lentinus Edodes

In recent years, there has been growing awareness and interest in the medicinal value of the biologically active components extracted from higher Basidiomycoto mushrooms (15-18). One such mushroom is the Lentinus edodes, better known as shiitake mushroom, which belongs to the family Tricholomataceae (order Agaricales and class Basidiomycetes). The edible part of raw L. edodes contains about 90 water. Carbohydrates make up the major component of dried shiitake (59.2 ), followed by 22.7 protein...

Antioxidant Potential Of Sms Determined In Vitro

SMS, a famous Chinese medicinal formula that has been used for more than 800 years in China, is comprised of three herbal components, Panax ginseng, Shisandra chinensis, and Ophiopogon japonicus (9). Traditionally, SMS is used for the treatment of excess loss of essence qi and body fluid that threatens heart failure. It can restore blood volume and prevent myocardial infarction. SMS is also prescribed for patients with coronary heart disease and various cardiovascular disorders. Ancient TCM...

Estrogenlike Activity Of Licorice Root Extract

The phytoestrogenic activity of licorice root extract (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) was tested among 150 other herbal extracts exerting a high ER-binding affinity (35) while others reported that it showed a low binding affinity (36). Licorice root extract in combination with a mixture of other herbal extracts was reported to exert potent estrogenic activity in vitro in animals and in patients TABLE 1 The Effect of Licorice Extract on the Induction of CK Activity in Various Female Rat Tissue TABLE 1...

Ginseng

In TCM ginseng is considered a panacea and has been attributed with many activities, including as an adaptogen, antistress, antifatigue, anticancer, antiaging, immunomodulating, as well as a performance enhancer, and aphrodisiac, although scientific evidence to support such claims is limited (21-23). Ginseng is generally regarded as safe but a number of adverse effects have been reported with ginseng products including central-nervous-system excitatory effects, hypertension, insomnia,...

Cranberry Vaccinium Macrocarpon

Folklore has for years perpetuated the use of cranberry for the treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Cranberries can be consumed as fresh fruit, concentrate, sauce, and juice. Cranberry juice cocktail, which is a mixture of cranberryjuice, sweetener, water, and vitamin C, has been used in a number of studies since single-strength juice is unpalatable. Basic science research has suggested that the cranberries may inhibit the adherence of Escherichia coli to urinary tract...

Physiological Actions

Ephedrine and the other alkaloids are sympathomimetic amines that have both direct and indirect actions at a- and h-adrenergic receptors in the brain and peripheral nervous system (12). The physiological actions of the ephedra alkaloids depend on their relative affinities for these receptors, which provide a molecular basis to explain their different profiles of action and adverse effects. For example, ( )-ephedrine appears to have relatively more direct agonist effects and greater central...

Problem 1 The Product Is Toxic

As Paracelsus said, ''The right dose differentiates a poison from a remedy.'' For example, the balance of clinical evidence favors the view that Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort) is effective in treating mild to moderate depression (2,3), although not all studies support this (11). Its mechanism of action appears to involve monoamine oxidase inhibition (2) and so excessive doses, or coadministration with synthetic MAO inhibitor antidepressants, are likely to cause side effects. Absinthe...

Therapeutic Uses Of St Johns Wort

John's wort's use as an herbal remedy results from studies that appear to verify its efficacy, especially in treating mild to moderate depression. In return, its use has generated widespread interest among scientists seeking to firmly evaluate its effectiveness. Such studies have included in vitro analyses on the effects of St. John's wort extracts on isolated tissue samples, studies using animal models, and clinical analyses and meta-analyses of humans given...

Problem 2 The Product Is Not What It Is Supposed To Be

The essential basic requirement for any herbal product is that the correct plant(s) are used. Even then there can be differences the chemical composition of plants varies enormously depending on developmental stage, soil composition, amount of water and sunlight, etc. (Table 1). Nevertheless, occasionally the wrong plant is used and sometimes the same name in TCM can encompass several different plants (see above). Two patients consuming a range of herbal products ''to cleanse the body''...

Herbology

John's wort was been considered to be a medicinally valuable plant for over 2000 years. The first-century Greek physicians Galen, Dioscorides, and Hippocrates recommended it as a diuretic, wound-healing herb, as a treatment for menstrual disorders, and as a cure for intestinal worms (3,5). In the sixteenth century, the Swiss herbalist Paracelsus used St. John's wort externally to treat wounds and alleviate pain (3). The species gained a reputation during the Middle Ages as having mystical...

Echinacea E Purpurea E Pallida E Augustifolia

Today oral HMPs of echinacea are used predominantly for the prevention and treatment of the common cold. A systematic review (8) included 16 RCTs with a total of 3396 participants. Five of the RCTs were placebo-controlled. Their methodological quality was variable but, on average, satisfactory. Results suggested that some echinacea preparations have an effect over and above that of placebo. Unfortunately, the trials were highly heterogeneous in many respects. No clear evidence emerged for one...

Adulteration With Western Drugs

Data from Taiwan have highlighted the widespread use of adulterants in TCM preparations. Examination of 2,609 products found 23.7 were adulterated and of these 52.8 contained two or more adulterants (55). Of the adulterants 34.5 contained caffeine, 27.0 paracetamol, 24.6 indo-methacin, 20.6 hydrochlorothiazide, and 14.8 prednisolone (55). TCM hospitals had the lowest rates of adulteration (9.0 ) with herbalists providing the least authentic preparations, with 34.6 containing adulterants (55)....

Glycyrrhizic Acid Glycyrrhizin

The triterpenoid glycyrrhizin is anti-inflammatory and is metabolised to the aglycone glycyrrhizic acid, which inhibits 11-h-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, involved in corticosteroid metabolism. The aglycone inhibited N-acetyltransferase activity in human colon tumor cell lines, and inhibited the formation of DNA adducts (118). Although glycyrrhizin did not directly induce apoptosis, it enhanced Fas-mediated apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation in T-cell lines (119). The action of...

Pharmacological Profile A Hepatoprotective Effects

Early pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of Sch B and other lignans in protecting against liver damage induced by a variety of chemicals, such as acetaminophen, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), thiacetamide, and immunlogical toxins, in rodents (11-18). Recent studies in our laboratory have also shown that Sch B pretreatment (0.5-4 mmol kg day x 3 days) protected against CCl4 and tumor necrosis factor-a-induced hepatotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in mice (19,20). Preliminary...

Of Cholesterol Gallstone Formation

Hussain and Chandrasekhara studied the efficacy of curcumin in reducing the incidence of cholesterol gallstones induced by feeding a lithogenic diet in young male mice (83). Feeding a lithogenic diet supplemented with 0.5 curcumin for 10 weeks reduced the incidence of gallstone formation to 26 , as compared to 100 incidence in the group fed with the lithogenic diet alone. Biliary cholesterol concentration was also significantly reduced by curcumin feeding. The lithogenic index, which was 1.09...

Effects Of Shosaikoto On Hepatic Carcinogenesis

HCC is, worldwide, one of the most common malignancies, especially in Southeast Asia. Based on clinical information, as a causative agent, HCV is more common than HBV in both Japan and Western countries. The incidence of HCC has been shown to be higher in patients with chronic HCV infection than for those with chronic HBV infection (79). In chronic hepatitis B, a resolution of the disease can frequently be seen after the inactivation of viral replication (4), which probably contributes to a...

Brassica Vegetable Consumption And Human Health The Epidemiological Evidence

Approximately 200 studies have examined the relationship between high consumption of fruits and vegetables and their protective effect against cancer (1). Statistical analysis of 128 of 156 dietary studies revealed a reduced risk of cancers of the colon, lung, stomach, and bladder was associated with high intake of fruits and vegetables. The findings revealed that one group of the cruciferous vegetables appeared to be associated with this trend. Verhoeven et al. analyzed the data of seven...

Or Become Contaminated

A pharmaceutical product is described as stable if it meets the five elements of stability physical, chemical, microbial, toxicological, and therapeutic. Many natural compounds readily oxidize and degrade, giving products with different properties. For example, the carotenoids h-carotene and lycopene may have antioxidant properties as intact molecules, yet their degradation products can be cytotoxic in cell cultures (23). Flavonoids and other plant polyphenolics are also easily oxidizable (24)....

N Ginger Zingiber officinale

Water extracts and methanol extracts of eight herbs of the Zingiberaceae were examined in intact unanesthetized rabbits for their effects on gastric secretion. Oral administration of either water or methanol extracts caused a significant decrease in gastric secretion. Since one possible cause of gastric ulcers is high acid output, water extracts of Zingiberaceae should be a rational therapy (14). Ginger extract was shown to improve gastroduodenal motility (56). Ginger contains pungent...

Series Introduction

Overwhelming evidence indicates that oxidative stress can lead to cell and tissue injury. However, the same free radicals that are generated during oxidative stress are produced during normal metabolism and thus are involved in both human health and disease. Free radicals are molecules with an odd number of electrons. The odd, or unpaired, electron is highly reactive as it seeks to pair with another free electron. Free radicals are generated during oxidative...

Eastmeetswest Medicine

According to TCM, the ''five tastes'' of FS bespeak much of its influence on the five visceral organs. In this regard, a renowned Chinese herbalist, Sun Simiao (a.d. 581-682), in the Tang dynasty, had noted that''taking Schisandra berry in May can invigorate the qi of the five viscerae.'' Given the indispensable role of qi in body functioning, this points to the possibility that FS can produce beneficial effect on major organs in the body. Over the past 10 years, our laboratory has attempted to...

Conclusion

Although herbal medicines are thought to be safe drugs, a complicating factor, which has caused physicians and patients to lose confidence in the safety of Sho-saiko-to, is the development of severe interstitial pneumonia associated with its use, particularly when it is used in combination with IFN in treating some Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis C. Interstitial pneumonia is also induced by G-CSF, whereas Sho-saiko-to induced G-CSF production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in...

Summary And Potential

Many of the effects reported have not been measured over a range of doses, there are only a few clinical studies, very little is known about the bioavail- ability of most of the compounds and extracts, and the reported effects in vitro may or may not be at relevant doses (i.e., similar to those found in vivo). Nevertheless, Chinese medicine clearly works in many cases, although the scientific basis of the action and the individual compounds responsible are often not known. In addition, there...

Effects On The Cardiovascular System

Only a few small clinical investigations have been published that describe the cardiovascular effects of ma huang, with some studies showing significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure after oral administration (17,18), and other studies showing that tolerance develops to these effects (30,31). In general, the cardiovascular response of combinations of sympathomimetic stimulants would be expected to be additive or synergistic. Because ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are present in...

Conclusions

John's wort has a long history ofuse as an herbal treatment for a variety of ailments. During the past 20 years, it has become a mainstream alternative treatment for depression, as well as holding promise as a therapy for cancer, bacterial and viral infections, and other disorders. Thanks to its popularity, the effectiveness of St. John's wort has been intensively studied since the mid-1980s. Those studies have focused on the pharmacology of its constituents, and on clinical trials....

Toxicology And Adverse Side Effects

The oral and intraperitoneal LD50 values of a petroleum ether extract of FS containing 40 (w w) lignans were 10.5 and 4.4 g kg, respectively (48). Subchronic toxicity of an extract of FS (standardized to a minimum of 2 lignans) was examined in Landrace piglets at daily doses ranging from 0.07 to 0.72 g kg for 90 days (131). Both body weight and the amount of food intake were not affected during the entire experimental period, and all blood parameters were not changed in the treated animals. No...

Vhawthorn Crataegus

A recent meta-analysis pooled data from 13 placebo-controlled, doubleblind RCTs of hawthorn as a treatment of congestive heart failure (CHF) (11). Eight trials could be submitted to a meta-analysis. They included a total of 632 patients suffering from CHF, NYHA Class I-III. A significant differential effect was found for maximal workload in favor of hawthorn compared to placebo (weighted mean difference 6.9 WaH, 95 confidence interval 2.6-11.1). The pressure-heart rate product and subjective...

Clinical Tests

Traditionally echinacea has been administered orally in the form of a tea or fluid extract. The majority of the clinical data in the United States were recorded between 1895 and 1930 although the topic has recently been taken up again in a number of laboratories. The early studies more closely resemble testimonials rather than careful scientific work and are not generally acceptable by current standards. Indeed, they were strongly criticized at the time. Studies in Germany date primarily from...

Xicurcumin Affects Alzheimers Disease

Inflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients is characterized by increased cytokines and activated microglia. Epidemiological studies suggest reduced AD risk is associated with long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Whereas chronic ibuprofen suppressed inflammation and plaque-related pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic APPSw mouse model (Tg2576), excessive use of NSAIDs targeting cyclooxygenase can cause gastrointestinal, liver, and renal toxicity. One alternative...

German Model For Regulation Use And Scientific Evaluation Of Herbal Products

Despite the inherent difficulties of performing clinical trials on herbal products because of their myriad constituents, different mechanisms of action of bioactive constituents, unusual dose-response relationships, and the synergistic combinatorial effects of the many bioactive compounds, proper scientific evaluation and safe regulated use is possible. This is best exemplified by the herbal industry in Germany where herbal medicines have been regulated by imperial decree since 1901 (44). In...

Phase Ii Detoxification Enzymes A Nqo1 Induction by Isothiocyanates

The ability of synthetic and plant-derived isothiocyanates to induce cystolic quinone reductase NQO1 NADP(H) quinone reductase oxidoreductase , an FAD-containing flavoprotein, has been widely addressed. NQO1 exists as a homodimmer, comprised of two homo-monomeric subunits of molecular weight 32 kDa with two identical catalytic sites providing the necessary pathway to detoxify quinones to hydroquinones using NADH and NADPH as reductants (reviewed in Ref. 129). The two-electron-mediated reduction...

An Adaptive Effect

One of the most remarkable aspects of EGb 761 is that, unlike many modern drugs, its pharmacological effects do not simply inhibit or activate a given target. On the contrary, its effect is instead regulatory, sometimes agonistic, sometimes antagonistic. Thus, at the vascular level, it does not simply exert effects on arteries, veins, and capillaries these effects can be dilatational or constrictive, depending on the target or condition (6,37). We know other examples of EGb 761's regulatory...

Ginkgo Ginkgo Bloba

Ginkgo biloba is the top-selling herb in the United States. It has been used for a variety of medical conditions including asthma, deafness, and male impotence (68). It is predominantly used currently for the treatment of dementia, memory impairment, symptomatic peripheral vascular disease, and tinnitus. It is thought to have a number of biological effects including increasing blood flow, inhibiting platelet-activating factor, altering neuronal metabolism, and working as an antioxidant (69)....

Viproblem 5 The Products May Produce Harm By Interacting With Each Other Or With Pharmaceuticals Taken Concurrently

TCM prescriptions may contain multiple different products whose ingredients can interact with each other in unexpected ways, or can influence the effects of Western drugs taken concurrently. TCM is often used by subjects with chronic diseases, who are likely to take Western drugs at the same time. For example, PC-SPES is allegedly a combination of eight herbs sometimes used by patients with prostate cancer. It was found to have potent oestrogenic activity (34). Coadministration of PC-SPES with...

Xiicurcumin Protects Against Cataract Formation

Age-related cataractogenesis is a significant health problem worldwide. Oxidative stress has been suggested to be a common underlying mechanism of cataractogenesis, and augmentation of the antioxidant defenses of the ocular lens has been shown to prevent or delay cataractogenesis. Awasthi et al. tested the efficacy of curcumin in preventing cataractogenesis in an in vitro rat model (115). Rats were maintained on an AIN-76 diet for 2 weeks, after which they were given a daily dose of corn oil...

Therapeutic Applications Of G Lucidum

The combination of benefit without toxicity represents the desired end product in the development of effective therapeutic intervention. G. lucidum has been used for hundreds of years as a health promotor and treatment strategy, but it is only in recent years that objective and scientific studies of G. lucidum have been performed. There are now many published studies based on animal and cell culture models and on in vitro assessment of the health effects of G. lucidum, and there are some...

Conclusions And Future Objectives

Our ever-expanding knowledge of how diet can influence the etiology of human disease is beginning to unravel how minor dietary components such as GSLs and their respective ITCs can prevent chronic diseases in humans. Epidemiological investigations coupled with the data from in vivo chemo-prevention studies show that ITCs are effective at preventing cancers especially during the initiation phase. These chemopreventive attributes appear to be associated with the induction of phase II...

Curcumin Prevents Adriamycininduced Nephrotoxicity

Nephroxicity is another problem observed in patients who are administered chemotherapeutic agents. Venkatesan et al. showed that curcumin prevents ADR-induced nephrotoxicity in rats (116,121). Treatment with curcumin markedly protected against ADR-induced proteinuria, albuminuria, hypo-albuminemia, and hyperlipidemia. Similarly, curcumin inhibited ADR-in-duced increase in urinary excretion of N-acetyl-h-D-glucosaminidase (a marker of renal tubular injury), fibronectin, glycosaminoglycan, and...

General Health Benefits

The positive effects of the dietary inclusion of spirulina on general health and well-being have been shown in studies on human volunteers, fish, and birds. In 1986, it was observed by Becker et al. that spirulina can reduce the body weight of obese humans (11). Subsequently Iwata et al. in 1990 showed that it can also reduce total plasma cholesterol levels (12). When administered in the form of syrup for 30 days, spirulina increased the mean blood hemoglobin levels by 11.65 in young anemic...

Aesculus Hippocastanum

Horse chestnut seed extracts are often used for chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). A systematic review (12) included eight placebo-controlled trials and five trials conducted against reference treatments. They included a total of 1083 patients with CVI of moderate severity. The methodological quality of these trials was on average good (Jadad score 3-5). The overall results indicated that active treatment is significantly more effective than placebo and equivalent to reference treatments. Both...

Immune Status

Agents that enhance the functioning of the immune system could be expected to enhance health in terms of improved resistance to infection and removal of malignant or premalignant cells. These agents would be particularly useful in very young children and in the elderly, where immune status is often poor. Conversely, agents that suppress the immune system are sometimes necessary, and the development of immunosuppressive agents with high efficacy and minimal toxicity has been the focus of novel...

Hepatocyte Injury Induced By Hcv Infection

During the course of a chronic HCV infection, hepatocytes are continuously damaged and replicated, and hepatic fibrosis appears to progress, whereas the frequencies of genetic alteration also probably increase. It is generally accepted that multiple genetic alteration, induced by mutations, is an important factor in carcinogenesis. Therefore, continuous cell death and replication and multiple genetic alteration may lead to the development of cirrhosis and HCC (Fig. 2). However, the mechanisms...

Cardiovascularassociated Effects Of Ginger

Caution in taking ginger and other herbal extracts has been suggested because of an apparent association with reported incidences of increased risk of bleeding following surgery (78,79) or if taken with anticoagulant drugs such as warfarin (80). However, the data are not conclusive (81). At least one study indicates that ginger has no effect on blood pressure, heart rate, or coagulation parameters and does not interact with anticoagulant drugs such as warfarin (82). Antiplatelet therapy is an...

Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide (123), and anything that can delay or help prevent CVD will make a significant impact in both economic- and health-related terms. Established risk factors for CVD include hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and increased thrombotic index, and there is an ever-increasing list of new CVD risk factors and predictors, such as homocysteine, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress. Modulating risk...

Ivginkgo Ginkgo Biloba

Ginkgo is used for a range of indications, most importantly perhaps for vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. A systematic review (10) included nine double-blind RCTs with a total of 606 patients suffering from dementia. The methodological quality of these studies was on average good (Jadad score 3-5). The dosage regimen varied by more than 100 . All but one of the nine trials yielded positive findings, and our overall judgment was therefore optimistic ''findings are encouraging and...

Valerian Valeriana Officinalis

Insomnia is a common sleep problem throughout the world. Many available prescription medications for insomnia are associated with significant side effects including daytime somnolence and dependence. The search for a more natural and safer hypnotic has stimulated many patients to turn to herbal products such as valerian root. Although it has been used for centuries, its mechanism of action, as well as the constituents of the plant responsible for its activity, is not well defined. As with a...

Different Mechanisms Of Action Of Bioactive Constituents

Observed effects may be the sum total of different classes of compounds having diverse mechanisms of action. The most widely used herbal medicine in Germany and Western countries is Gingko biloba (see Chapter 7). It is prescribed for ''brain dysfunction and to improve memory and cognition. In randomized placebo-controlled trials, the herb has been shown to improve memory impairment, cognitive performance, dementia, tinnitus, and intermittent claudication (9-11). The bioactive components of...

References

The challenges facing TCM in the West. Asia Pacific Biotech News 2001 5 3-11. 2. Ernst E. Herbal medications for common ailments in the elderly. Drugs Aging 1999 15 423-428. 3. Izzo AA, Ernst E. Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs a systematic review. Drugs 2001 6 2163-2175. 4. Fung SKW. Commercial development of TCM in Hong Kong. Asia-Pacific Biotech News 2000 4 488-510. 5. Engler HS, Spencer KC, Gilbert LE. Preventing cyanide release from leaves. Nature 2000 406...

Cordyceps Has Antitumor Activity

Antitumor activity of Cordyceps has been domonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. In mice inoculated i.p. with 1 x 106 Ehrlich carcinoma or 1 x 105MethA fibrosarcoma, water extract prepared from dried Cordyceps (1 mg protein mouse), when injected i.p. to mice, increased the median survival time of the Ehrlich carcinoma-injected mice to 316 and Meth A fibrosarcoma-injected mice to 312 of the control. On the other hand, a cytotoxic effect of Cordyceps was not found on both tumor cells in vitro....

Emerging European Regulation on the Safety of Herbal Medicines

The European Community definition of a medicinal product is '' Any substance or combination of substances presented for treating or preventing disease in human beings or animals'' ''Any substance or combination of substances which may be administered to human beings or animals with a view to making a medical diagnosis or restoring, correcting or modifying physiological function in human beings or in animals is likewise considered a medicinal product'' and Any ''medicinal product'' requires a...

Understanding Chinese Herbal Medicine

While herbal utilization as means of cure in communities in Europe and the United States might involve single herbs, Chinese herbal medicine uses a combination of different herbs. Although exceptional situations do occur when only one or two herbs are used, the majority of ancient effective formulae consist of multiple herbs. The use of multiple herbs is based on two considerations first, to enhance efficacy and, second, to maintain safety. Herbs of similar effects are expected to augment one...

Problems Associated With The Use Of Herbal Medicines

Despite the popularity of botanical supplements, many herbal products on the market are of low quality and dubious efficacy. Scientists, clinicians, and consumers are often concerned about safety, effectiveness, and consistency of herbal preparations. Their apprehension about these qualities is due to a plurality of unknowns. These include a variety of poorly controlled factors such as raw herb quality, processing methods used to make the preparations, the complex biochemical heterogeneity of...

Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine As A Model Of Antioxidantbasedcompounds Formula

In this sense, traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCM) is interesting because herbs have been used to treat many complex disorders such as diabete mellitus, cancer, and others for which Western medicine may not have an appropriate diagnostic name. TCM is usually prescribed with several herbal constituents having different functions and the synergistic action exhibited by the multicomponent formula is effective for the management of many complicated diseases (8). Moreover, their therapeutic...

Social and Economic Costs of Changes in IP Legislation

By requiring patents to be applied to pharmaceuticals, it is argued by many commentators that TRIPS will have the effect of pricing common drugs out of the reach of most people in poor countries. If herbal medicines are patented either domestically or internationally the medicines used as the first and last resort for health care by the poor will also become unaffordable. Some examples illustrate the point. There was a 200 increase in cost of medicines after the 1979 introduction of...

Potential Conflicts Arising from Allocation of Resources to Traditional Health Care Services

Resentment can arise from underfunded sections of the modern medical sector when resources are allocated to the development of traditional medicine. A traditional birth attendant (TBA) training program in Nigeria attracted resentment from underfunded rural midwives as resources were given to birth attendants when maternity centers lacked equipment (Matthews et al., 1995). Another potential conflict is that if traditional health care services are made available under medical insurance schemes,...

Capacity Development

Capacity of the traditional sector must be strengthened in the following areas safety, efficacy, standardization, current utilization, cost-effectiveness, customer satisfaction, priority diseases (TB, malaria, AIDS, etc.), and prevention of disease. A primary concern regarding traditional and complementary therapies is ''Are they safe '' Recent studies in England have found that there has been adulteration with steroids of some traditional Chinese dermatological preparations. In an analysis of...

Efficacy and Beyond Research Methodologies for Traditional and Complementary and Medicine

Consumer satisfaction is of importance in evaluating health services. Satisfaction with care is one component of well-being, which has in turn been identified by WHO as a marker of good health. Our own research at Oxford University suggests that a search for satisfaction in the treatment of chronic disease is the primary reason why people in Britain particularly women seek the services of complementary health care providers. Consumer satisfaction studies merit a high place in national research...

Medical Education

We already noted that 90 of U.S. medical schools are providing various courses on alternative medicine. These are not compulsory commitments. Only some students, perhaps more mature or postgraduate students, would be interested in those courses. Recent information from Japan indicated that starting very soon, all medical students in Japan would be required to go through 150 hr of undergraduate study in a variety of Kampo medicine (which is Chinese medicine) (20). This appears a genuinely...

Synergisms And Other Combinatorial Effects

Synergistic interactions are thought to be of importance in phytomedicines, to understand the efficacy of apparently low doses of active constituents in a herbal product. This concept, that a whole or partially purified extract of a plant offers advantages over a single isolated ingredient, also underpins the philosophy of herbal medicine. Clinical evidence to support the occurrence of synergy in phytomedicines is, however, scanty. Typically herbal medicines consist of hundreds of compounds...

Identification Harvesting and Manufacturing

Herbal products can have very similar appearances, especially between subspecies or even varieties within a same family. These can be more difficult to discern if the herb is in the dried form. This poses a great problem as different species, even if they are within the same genus, can have very different chemical constituents (28,29). Misidentification of herbs leading to inappropriate usage of a herb is a cause of morbidity and mortality among consumers. An outbreak of rapidly progressive...

Inadequate Regulation

Since 1994 and the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), herbal remedies in the United States are classified as dietary supplements and not as drugs or food, and are regulated far less stringently than conventional pharmaceuticals. Under the DSHEA regulations, herbal remedies are commodities sold for '' stimulating, maintaining, supporting, regulating, and promoting'' health rather than for treating disease. Dietary supplements may carry a statement that...

Commission E Evaluation Methods And Criteria

Unlike the FDA drug reviews in which data are passively submitted for evaluation by the manufacturer, members of Commission E actively collect and review data, both published and unpublished, from various sources, including from Experimental, pharmacological, and toxicological studies Clinical studies Patient case records from physicians' files Unpublished proprietary data submitted by manufacturers Clinical data are reviewed to ensure that the herbal medicines are reasonably safe when used...

Traditional Chinese Herbs

The pharmacopoeia of traditional Chinese herbs includes the richest and oldest sources of medicinal plants. Herbal medicines have been used for millennia in China and one of the earliest texts is the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing published in 101 B.C. Each subsequent emperor and dynasty has continued to commission written pharmacopoeia on medicinal herbs. One of the most prominent texts, Ben Cao Gang Mu, first published in the Ming dynasty in the late 1500s, is still a reference source for current TCM...

The Way Forward for TCM

Nevertheless it cannot be denied that this ancient Chinese materia medica harbors many potentially lifesaving bioactive compounds. The isolation of the important antimalarial drug artemesinin from the Chinese herb Qing hao su (Artemesia annua) is a case in point. The modernization of the TCM industry and its acceptance into mainstream medical practice will depend on how the industry addresses the problems of Unauthenicated botanical raw material Nonstandardization of herbal products with...

P Sea Buckthorn Hippophae rhamnoides

The fruit of H. rhamnoides L. is a traditional herbal medicine mainly used in Tibet and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regions to regulate the function of stomach and intestines, and treat syndromes such as indigestion, abdominal pains, etc. (43). It has been well documented to have antioxidant, immuno-stimulative, regenerative, and antiulcerogenic properties (59), a protective effect against injuries in mice (60), and effects on hyperlipidemic serum cultured smooth-muscle cells in vitro (61). The...

S Orange Oil Phyllanthus emblica

The fruit of P. emblica L. is a traditional herbal medicine mainly used in Tibet to regulate and promote the function of stomach and intestines, and treat syndromes such as indigestion, abdominal distension, etc. (43). Various parts of the medicinal plant have been used by 17 countries and nations of the world in their medical treatment. The medicinal plant is thought to have an antihepatitis, anticancer, and antitumor action and is regarded as a traditional immunomodulator and a natural...

Concluding Remarks

G. lucidum is a well-regarded Asian herbal remedy with a long and impressive range of applications. Global consumption of G. lucidum is high, and an increasingly large series of patented and commercially available products that incorporate G. lucidum as an active ingredient are available as food supplements. These include extracts and isolated constituents in various formulations and these are marketed worldwide in the form of capsules, creams, hair tonics, and syrups (6,182). The various...

Effects Of Shosaikoto On Hepatic Fibrosis

In the injured liver, HSCs in the space of Disse are generally thought to be the primary target cells for inflammatory stimuli (32), and to produce ECM components, while in intact liver lobules they function as the primary storage area for retinoids (33). It has been shown that the activation of HSCs in injured livers leads to their proliferation and transformation into myofibro- blast-like cells. This is accompanied by a loss of cellular retinoid, and the synthesis of a-SMA and large...