Different Mechanisms Of Action Of Bioactive Constituents

Observed effects may be the sum total of different classes of compounds having diverse mechanisms of action. The most widely used herbal medicine in Germany and Western countries is Gingko biloba (see Chapter 7). It is prescribed for ''brain dysfunction and to improve memory and cognition. In randomized placebo-controlled trials, the herb has been shown to improve memory impairment, cognitive performance, dementia, tinnitus, and intermittent claudication (9-11). The bioactive components of...

References

The challenges facing TCM in the West. Asia Pacific Biotech News 2001 5 3-11. 2. Ernst E. Herbal medications for common ailments in the elderly. Drugs Aging 1999 15 423-428. 3. Izzo AA, Ernst E. Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs a systematic review. Drugs 2001 6 2163-2175. 4. Fung SKW. Commercial development of TCM in Hong Kong. Asia-Pacific Biotech News 2000 4 488-510. 5. Engler HS, Spencer KC, Gilbert LE. Preventing cyanide release from leaves. Nature 2000 406...

Cordyceps Has Antitumor Activity

Antitumor activity of Cordyceps has been domonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. In mice inoculated i.p. with 1 x 106 Ehrlich carcinoma or 1 x 105MethA fibrosarcoma, water extract prepared from dried Cordyceps (1 mg protein mouse), when injected i.p. to mice, increased the median survival time of the Ehrlich carcinoma-injected mice to 316 and Meth A fibrosarcoma-injected mice to 312 of the control. On the other hand, a cytotoxic effect of Cordyceps was not found on both tumor cells in vitro....

Emerging European Regulation on the Safety of Herbal Medicines

The European Community definition of a medicinal product is '' Any substance or combination of substances presented for treating or preventing disease in human beings or animals'' ''Any substance or combination of substances which may be administered to human beings or animals with a view to making a medical diagnosis or restoring, correcting or modifying physiological function in human beings or in animals is likewise considered a medicinal product'' and Any ''medicinal product'' requires a...

Understanding Chinese Herbal Medicine

While herbal utilization as means of cure in communities in Europe and the United States might involve single herbs, Chinese herbal medicine uses a combination of different herbs. Although exceptional situations do occur when only one or two herbs are used, the majority of ancient effective formulae consist of multiple herbs. The use of multiple herbs is based on two considerations first, to enhance efficacy and, second, to maintain safety. Herbs of similar effects are expected to augment one...

Problems Associated With The Use Of Herbal Medicines

Despite the popularity of botanical supplements, many herbal products on the market are of low quality and dubious efficacy. Scientists, clinicians, and consumers are often concerned about safety, effectiveness, and consistency of herbal preparations. Their apprehension about these qualities is due to a plurality of unknowns. These include a variety of poorly controlled factors such as raw herb quality, processing methods used to make the preparations, the complex biochemical heterogeneity of...

Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine As A Model Of Antioxidantbasedcompounds Formula

In this sense, traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCM) is interesting because herbs have been used to treat many complex disorders such as diabete mellitus, cancer, and others for which Western medicine may not have an appropriate diagnostic name. TCM is usually prescribed with several herbal constituents having different functions and the synergistic action exhibited by the multicomponent formula is effective for the management of many complicated diseases (8). Moreover, their therapeutic...

Social and Economic Costs of Changes in IP Legislation

By requiring patents to be applied to pharmaceuticals, it is argued by many commentators that TRIPS will have the effect of pricing common drugs out of the reach of most people in poor countries. If herbal medicines are patented either domestically or internationally the medicines used as the first and last resort for health care by the poor will also become unaffordable. Some examples illustrate the point. There was a 200 increase in cost of medicines after the 1979 introduction of...

Potential Conflicts Arising from Allocation of Resources to Traditional Health Care Services

Resentment can arise from underfunded sections of the modern medical sector when resources are allocated to the development of traditional medicine. A traditional birth attendant (TBA) training program in Nigeria attracted resentment from underfunded rural midwives as resources were given to birth attendants when maternity centers lacked equipment (Matthews et al., 1995). Another potential conflict is that if traditional health care services are made available under medical insurance schemes,...

Capacity Development

Capacity of the traditional sector must be strengthened in the following areas safety, efficacy, standardization, current utilization, cost-effectiveness, customer satisfaction, priority diseases (TB, malaria, AIDS, etc.), and prevention of disease. A primary concern regarding traditional and complementary therapies is ''Are they safe '' Recent studies in England have found that there has been adulteration with steroids of some traditional Chinese dermatological preparations. In an analysis of...

Efficacy and Beyond Research Methodologies for Traditional and Complementary and Medicine

Consumer satisfaction is of importance in evaluating health services. Satisfaction with care is one component of well-being, which has in turn been identified by WHO as a marker of good health. Our own research at Oxford University suggests that a search for satisfaction in the treatment of chronic disease is the primary reason why people in Britain particularly women seek the services of complementary health care providers. Consumer satisfaction studies merit a high place in national research...

Medical Education

We already noted that 90 of U.S. medical schools are providing various courses on alternative medicine. These are not compulsory commitments. Only some students, perhaps more mature or postgraduate students, would be interested in those courses. Recent information from Japan indicated that starting very soon, all medical students in Japan would be required to go through 150 hr of undergraduate study in a variety of Kampo medicine (which is Chinese medicine) (20). This appears a genuinely...

Synergisms And Other Combinatorial Effects

Synergistic interactions are thought to be of importance in phytomedicines, to understand the efficacy of apparently low doses of active constituents in a herbal product. This concept, that a whole or partially purified extract of a plant offers advantages over a single isolated ingredient, also underpins the philosophy of herbal medicine. Clinical evidence to support the occurrence of synergy in phytomedicines is, however, scanty. Typically herbal medicines consist of hundreds of compounds...

Identification Harvesting and Manufacturing

Herbal products can have very similar appearances, especially between subspecies or even varieties within a same family. These can be more difficult to discern if the herb is in the dried form. This poses a great problem as different species, even if they are within the same genus, can have very different chemical constituents (28,29). Misidentification of herbs leading to inappropriate usage of a herb is a cause of morbidity and mortality among consumers. An outbreak of rapidly progressive...

Inadequate Regulation

Since 1994 and the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), herbal remedies in the United States are classified as dietary supplements and not as drugs or food, and are regulated far less stringently than conventional pharmaceuticals. Under the DSHEA regulations, herbal remedies are commodities sold for '' stimulating, maintaining, supporting, regulating, and promoting'' health rather than for treating disease. Dietary supplements may carry a statement that...

Commission E Evaluation Methods And Criteria

Unlike the FDA drug reviews in which data are passively submitted for evaluation by the manufacturer, members of Commission E actively collect and review data, both published and unpublished, from various sources, including from Experimental, pharmacological, and toxicological studies Clinical studies Patient case records from physicians' files Unpublished proprietary data submitted by manufacturers Clinical data are reviewed to ensure that the herbal medicines are reasonably safe when used...

Traditional Chinese Herbs

The pharmacopoeia of traditional Chinese herbs includes the richest and oldest sources of medicinal plants. Herbal medicines have been used for millennia in China and one of the earliest texts is the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing published in 101 B.C. Each subsequent emperor and dynasty has continued to commission written pharmacopoeia on medicinal herbs. One of the most prominent texts, Ben Cao Gang Mu, first published in the Ming dynasty in the late 1500s, is still a reference source for current TCM...

The Way Forward for TCM

Nevertheless it cannot be denied that this ancient Chinese materia medica harbors many potentially lifesaving bioactive compounds. The isolation of the important antimalarial drug artemesinin from the Chinese herb Qing hao su (Artemesia annua) is a case in point. The modernization of the TCM industry and its acceptance into mainstream medical practice will depend on how the industry addresses the problems of Unauthenicated botanical raw material Nonstandardization of herbal products with...

P Sea Buckthorn Hippophae rhamnoides

The fruit of H. rhamnoides L. is a traditional herbal medicine mainly used in Tibet and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regions to regulate the function of stomach and intestines, and treat syndromes such as indigestion, abdominal pains, etc. (43). It has been well documented to have antioxidant, immuno-stimulative, regenerative, and antiulcerogenic properties (59), a protective effect against injuries in mice (60), and effects on hyperlipidemic serum cultured smooth-muscle cells in vitro (61). The...

S Orange Oil Phyllanthus emblica

The fruit of P. emblica L. is a traditional herbal medicine mainly used in Tibet to regulate and promote the function of stomach and intestines, and treat syndromes such as indigestion, abdominal distension, etc. (43). Various parts of the medicinal plant have been used by 17 countries and nations of the world in their medical treatment. The medicinal plant is thought to have an antihepatitis, anticancer, and antitumor action and is regarded as a traditional immunomodulator and a natural...

Concluding Remarks

G. lucidum is a well-regarded Asian herbal remedy with a long and impressive range of applications. Global consumption of G. lucidum is high, and an increasingly large series of patented and commercially available products that incorporate G. lucidum as an active ingredient are available as food supplements. These include extracts and isolated constituents in various formulations and these are marketed worldwide in the form of capsules, creams, hair tonics, and syrups (6,182). The various...

Effects Of Shosaikoto On Hepatic Fibrosis

In the injured liver, HSCs in the space of Disse are generally thought to be the primary target cells for inflammatory stimuli (32), and to produce ECM components, while in intact liver lobules they function as the primary storage area for retinoids (33). It has been shown that the activation of HSCs in injured livers leads to their proliferation and transformation into myofibro- blast-like cells. This is accompanied by a loss of cellular retinoid, and the synthesis of a-SMA and large...

Conclusion And Comment

Modern physical and chemical analyses as well as in vitro and in vivo bioassays provide powerful tools for a better understanding of the chemical and biological aspects of B. hancei. Phenylpropanoid glycosides are the major constituents of B. hancei and are believed to be responsible for the various actions of this herbal medicine. Although acteoside is a representative main constituent of the phenylethanoids present in the species, the efficacy of B. hancei is ascribable to a complex mixture...

Regulatorypolicy Issues

The increasing number of adverse events reported in association with use of ephedra-containing dietary supplements has raised some concerns among health care professionals (68,69) about the accessibility and widespread use of these products by the general population. In addition, highly publicized reports of catastrophic adverse outcomes associated with ephedra use have drawn the attention of concerned lawmakers at the state and national levels. Indeed, several states, including Texas, New...

Vproblem 4 The Product May Have Been Deliberately Adulterated

The deliberate addition of compounds to herbal preparations is an even more worrisome problem. Adulterants include phenylbutazone, indomethacin, dexamethasone, prednisolone, acetaminophen, fenfluramine, and aminopy-rine (11,22,30). Phenylbutazone can cause severe agranulocytosis, which is why its use as a drug is now very limited, but several cases of damage by herbs containing it as an adulterant have been reported (22,31,32). In 2002 in Singapore the Health Sciences Authority identified...

Priority Diseases

There is a prevailing prejudice that traditional and complementary medicine is useful for chronic low-level conditions, whereas mainstream medicine is useful for acute and infectious disease. The development of multidrug-resistant strains of malaria and TB has challenged such views of late and there is a new search for benefits in ancient approaches. Malaria. The two most effective drugs used in conventional medicine to treat malaria originate from plants quinine from bark of the Peruvian...

Viiiresearch

A few advocates of alternative medicine might claim that whatever modern medicine offers, the same could be achieved with alternative medicine (like herbal medicine) provided research and resources could be pumped in. Given the obvious successes of modern science, this approach of research with that amplitude of ambition is probably unnecessary. In China, where Chinese medicine originated, political leaders called for the ''modernization'' of Chinese medicine, which means accepting all the...

Introduction

Herbal, botanical, or phytomedicines are medicinal products containing active ingredients of exclusively plant origin. These medicines may be consumed as comminuted powders or as decoctions. Their production may involve concentration or purification processes resulting in extracts, tinctures, fatty or essential oils, or expressed plant juices. This review of herbal medicines excludes products that consist primarily of chemically defined constituents. The demand for herbal remedies is rising in...

T Poria Poria cocos

The sclerotium of P. cocos has long been used as a sedative and diuretic in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. There are two reported active anticancer components in poria, triterpenes and polysacchrides. Triterpene poricoic acids G and H have antitumor-promoting activity (79). Poricoic acid B showed a strong inhibitory activity against inflammation in mice (80). Poria extract has been shown to enhance the secretion of immune stimulators (IL-1-h, IL-6, and TNF-a) but suppressed the secretion...

Ginkgo Ginkgo biloba

The fruits and seeds of ginkgo have been used in TCM for thousands of years and leaf extracts are one of the most commonly used European herbal extracts (22,106). The active components have been attributed with a number of activities that promote small-vessel blood flow, including that in the cerebral arteries, as well as antiplatelet and other hemorrheological actions, antihy-poxic, neuroprotective, membrane-stabilizing, and capillary-fragility-decreasing effects (21,22,106). Ginkgo has been...

Modern Health Science

Modern science has been built on an empirical principle. There must be an objective, measurable explanation to an observation. A subjective observation must be proven with objective means, otherwise the observation was not taken as of value (3). Based on this simple concept, the successes of modern science have been remarkable. Medical science has moved along in the same pathway and in the past 60 years we have witnessed tremendous advances. Probably all systems of healing, whether developing...

Problems Expected In An Integrated Setting A Adverse Effects of Herbal Preparations

While alternative medicine is finding more users and health food and related preparations are gaining a bigger market, adverse effects occurring after their consumption have been making headlines ever since. Thus antirheumatoid herbal preparations were found to be nephrotoxic in the Netherlands, and many mortalities have been reported in Japan, China, and Singapore after ingestion of slimming preparations. Expectedly, disasters could be related to the illegal, intentional mixing of dangerous...

Antihypertensive Effects

High blood pressure is associated with decreased life expectancy and increased risk of stroke, coronary heart disease, and other end-organ diseases such as renal failure. Ginseng contains active compounds that normalize blood pressure. The effect of a certain drug on blood pressure can be analyzed by investigating the effect of the drug on the smooth muscle of blood vessels. It is well established that blood vessel smooth muscle tone is regulated by the available intracellular Ca2+...

With Arthritis

Deodhar et al. were the first to report on the antirheumatic activity of curcumin in human subjects (107). They performed a short-term, doubleblind, crossover study in 18 patients with ''definite'' rheumatoid arthritis to compare the antirheumatic activity of curcumin (1200 mg day) with that of phenylbutazone (300 mg day). Subjective and objective assessment in patients who were taking corticosteroids just prior to the study showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements in morning stiffness,...

Effects Of Cordyceps On The Kidney

Cordyceps has been used extensively to improve kidney function and to protect against the damage caused by certain nephrotoxic chemicals (50,51). In kidney-transplanted recipients, Cordyceps protected the kidney from cyclosporine-mediated nephrotoxicity. Sixty-nine kidney-transplanted recipients, who had stable transplant renal function at least 3 months after grafting, were divided into two groups at random. Each recipient was given cyclosporine at the dose of 5 mg kg day for 15 days. Group A...

Conclusion

Our recent studies reveled that the component herbs in SMS contributing to the antioxidant property and GPX preservation are Shisandra and Ophiopo-gon, respectively. Ginseng seems to act as organizer in this formula (11,14). Although the importance of Shisandra as antioxidant has been suggested elesewhere (15,16) as well as in our study, the antioxidant property of other components in SMS are still in discussion. On the other hand, previous studies indicated that ginseng saponins improve brain...

Structural Property Of Ginseng

Ginsenosides, known as saponins, are the major components of ginseng (Fig. 1). Ginsenosides have a steroidal skeleton with a modified side chain at C-20 (7,8). They differ from one another by the type of sugar moieties, their number, and their site of attachment. Among the saponins, the genuine sapogenins 20(S)-protopanaxa-diol and -triol have been identified as 20(S) 12p-hydroxyl-and 20(S) 6a, 12p-dihydroxy-dammarenediol-II, respectively (9). Some partly deglycosylated saponins such as...

Antiinflammatory Effects Of Ginger

Ginger and other natural compounds have been suggested to be effective against inflammation, osteoarthritis, and rheumatism (44). But because of inconsistencies in clinical studies, the effectiveness and safety of ginger for treatment of arthritis have been debated (45). Early animal studies suggested that 6 -gingerol perfused into rat hindlimb possessed thermogenic activity, characterized by increased oxygen consumption and lactate efflux (46). The thermogenesis was at least partly associated...

Ginger As An Antinausea Agent

The most common use of ginger throughout history has probably been its utilization in alleviating symptoms of nausea and vomiting. The benefits and dangers of herbal treatment in liver and gastrointestinal distress have been reviewed recently (53) and several controlled studies have shown that ginger is generally effective as an antiemetic (54). Ginger root is commonly recommended for preventing seasickness (55), but in contrast, patients receiving ginger extract for treating osteoarthritis...

Discussion

Systematic reviews (including meta-analyses) represent the most conclusive evidence for or against efficacy and safety. This holds for all medical interventions, and HMPs are no exception. However, this approach is not totally free of limitations. For instance, if one submits flawed RCTs to a systematic review, the result will necessarily be flawed as well. Publication bias is another important problem. We know that negative trials tend to remain unpublished (21). Thus the published evidence...

Uses Described in Folk Medicine

The bark is very bitter and is prescribed for indigestion, as a vermifuge, and it is used as a medication for lumbago in South Vietnam (15). In Cambodia, the roots are used as antidotal, and in jaundice, dropsy, and cachexia. The whole plant is very bitter and supposed to be a febrifuge (15). The fruits and flowers are antidysenteric (10,15). In Malaysia, the roots are used to cure boils (10,17,18), wounds, ulcers (10,18,19), fever, as a tonic after birth (10,18), and for intestinal worms (10)....

Ixst Johns Wort Hypericum Perforatum

John's wort is used mostly for mild to moderate depression. There are numerous systematic reviews of St. John's wort. The first meta-analysis (17) included 23 RCTs with a total of 1757 patients. The methodological quality of trials was variable but some were excellent. The results of the meta-analysis clearly showed that St. John's wort is more effective than placebo or as effective as synthetic antidepressants. This finding has been confirmed by several subsequent systematic reviews. The...

Iiihistory Of G Lucidum As A Medicinal Mushroom

The first book wholly devoted to the description of herbs and their medicinal value is called Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, written in the Eastern Han dynasty of China (a.d. 25-220). This book is also known as Classic of the Materia Medica or Shen-nong's Herbal Classic and describes botanical, zoological, and mineral substances. It was composed in the second century under the pseudonym of Shen-nong, the Holy Farmer (31). The book, which has been continually updated and extended, describes the...

Black Cohosh Cimicifuga Racemosa

Black cohosh is a plant native to North America that has traditionally been used by Native Americans for a number of gynecological conditions. Its modern use has been predominantly for treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. The active ingredients in black cohosh have yet to be identified. The estrogenic isoflavone formononetin was thought to be partially responsible for its actions however, this isoflavone has recently been shown to be entirely absent in some black cohosh...

Aconites

One of the major causes of serious and sometimes fatal toxicity in Hong Kong has been the use of aconites from the dried rootstocks of Aconitum carmichaeli and A. kusnezoffii (5-7). These preparations are commonly used in TCM for their anti-inflammatory analgesic effects. They contain C19-diterpenoid esters, aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, and other derivatives, which activate sodium channels resulting in neurological and cardiac toxicity. Aconitine was previously popular in Western...

Acknowledgments

Relevant works generated from KMK's laboratory were supported in part by a grant from Lee Kum Kee Group Ltd., Hong Kong and the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong (HKUST 6130 02M). 1. Lebedev AA. Limonnik (Schisandra chinensis). Tashkent, Uzbek SSR Medicina Publishing House, 1971. 2. Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. Beijing, China The Peoples Medical Publishing House, 1988. 3. Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Medical References 1972 7 3. 4. Liu GT. Pharmacological actions...

Interactions Between Modern and Chinese Medicinal Drugs

The interactions between Chinese herbs and modern drugs are a common issue, yet reports on them are very rare. According to research on 1000 elderly patients admitted through the accident and emergency department, 538 of them have used over 1087 types of drugs, and 30 of them have been affected by the side effects of these drugs (26). In fact either within the hospital or outside, when patients self-prescribe, multidrug therapies are commonly practiced. Prescribed drugs, proprietary drugs,...

Ephedra Ephedra SiNiCA

Traditional Chinese medicine has for centuries touted the use of ephedra for the treatment of asthma, congestion, and bronchitis. Also known as ma huang, it predominantly consists of two alkaloids, ephedrine and pseudo-ephedrine. Ephedrine is a sympathomimetic drug, structurally similar to amphetamines. Its effects on the body include central nervous system stimulation, cardiac stimulation (ionotropic and chronotropic), bronchodilation, and elevation in blood pressure. Pseudoephedrine is an...

Curcumin Downregulates Cyclin D1 Expression

Cyclin D1, a component subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-4 and Cdk6, is a rate-limiting factor in progression of cells through the first-gap (G1) phase of the cell cycle (67). Cyclin D1 has been shown to be overex-pressed in many cancers including breast, esophagus, head and neck, and prostate (68-73). It is possible that the antiproliferative effects of curcumin are due to inhibition of cyclin D1 expression. We found that curcumin can Figure 1 Role of curcumin in prevention and therapy...

Occurrence Synthesis And Chemistry

Nonflavonoid classes of phenolic compounds, such as RSV, are synthesized by a variety of plants in response to injury or fungal infection (Langcake and Pryce, 1976). Although RSV does not enjoy a wide distribution in the plant kingdom, its occurrence has been documented in trees, including eucalyptus, spruce, and the tropical deciduous tree Bauhinia racemosa, in a few flowering plants such as Veratrum grandiflorum and Veratrum formosanum (two species of lilly), in Pterolobium hexapetallum...

Cardiovascular Effects

Many investigators have focused on the cardiovascular effects of ligusticum since the traditional use of chuanxiong was to improve blood circulation. Tetramethylpyrazine isolated from L. wallichii Franch has been shown to have positive effects on portal-hypertensive rat models (28). Sprague-Dawley rats were used and portal hypertension was induced by partial ligation of the portal vein. Two weeks after the ligation, the rats were cannulated for measurement of mean arterial pressure, portal...

Antioxidant Properties in Food and Biological Systems

During storage of prepared or dehydrated food, lipid autoxidative degradation products such as hydroperoxides, malondialdehydes, aldehydes, ketones, and hydroxy fatty acids may occur if the food is not properly protected by antioxidants. These products not only result in unpleasant flavors but may also be a health risk (25). Lipid oxidation is an autocatalyzed radical chain reaction induced by free radicals (26). Polyphenolic antioxidants possess a relatively reactive phenolic hydrogen atom,...

A C odorata Extract Enhances Proliferation of Fibroblasts Keratinocytes and Endothelial Cells Phan et al 1998 2001b

This study showed that the extract from the leaves of C. odorata at concentrations of 10 Ag mL and 100 Ag mL enhanced the growth of fibroblasts and endothelial cells. The extract at concentrations from 0.1 to 5 Ag mL significantly stimulated the expansion of human keratinocyte colonies in monolayer in basal medium as it did in growth medium (Fig. 3). With increasing doses of the extract, from 50 to 300 Ag mL, colonies did not further expand, Figure 3 Growth of human dermal fibroblasts (a, c)...

Contact Angle Measurements Xps Vase and AFM

A Kruss Contact Angle Measuring System, Model G-10 was used for all contact angle measurements. A mass of approximately 20 mg H2O was deposited onto the surface the readings were taken 30 sec after deposition at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra were acquired using Physical Electronics 5600 multitechnique system with monochromatic Al Ka X-ray source (1486.6 eV). The radiation was focused on the sample at an electron takeoff angle (TOA) of 45 3 relative to the...

Genetic Characterization

In plant genomes, genes for the ribosomal RNA (rDNA) are normally clustered in an array of multiple tandemly repeated copies of the cistron of 18S-ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-28S (5). The coding regions of 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA sequence are highly conserved, whereas sequence homology within the ITS1 and ITS2 regions is much lower across the plant kingdom. Based on these features of the plant rDNA, molecular markers, such as random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and restriction fragment length...

In Vitro Studies

The decolorization of the acid) (ABTS) radical cation is an accurate assay for screening the antioxidant activities of either lipophilic substances or food extracts (55). The total antioxidant capacity of either the DCM lipophilic extracts or the methanolic hydrophilic extracts from fruits of the yellow, red, and white Sicilian cultivars of prickly pear has been evaluated by the reaction with the ABTS radical cation, generated by reacting ABTS with potassium persulfate (9), and expressed as...

Naphthodianthrones

The most researched class of compounds isolated from H. perforatum is the naphthodianthrones, which occur in concentrations ranging from 0.1 up to 0.3 (9,25,26). The most common naphthodianthrones include hypericin, pseudohypericin, isohypericin, and protohypericin (10,21). Of those, hyper-icin is the best known and, to date, the most studied. Hypericin is a reddish pigment that is responsible for the red color of St. John's wort oils. Hypericin is found in greatest abundance in the flowers,...

Scavenging Activity on DPPH Radical Superoxide Anion and Hydroxyl Radical

Free radicals are produced in cells by cellular metabolism and by exogenous agents. The extracts of C. tora, especially roasted and unroasted samples, were evaluated for their free-radical, 2,2-diphenyl-1-piperylhydrazyl radical (DPPH'), superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. Choi et al. (29) found that the methanolic extracts of the seed of C. tora have a scavenging activity on the DPPH radical. 2-Hydroxyemodin cassiaside and ru-brofusarin gentiobioside were isolated from...

Total Phenolic Compounds

C. tora contains many phenolic compounds, such as emodin, rhein, chry-sophanol, and obtusin, some of which belong to anthraquinones (56). Some anthraquinones have been reported to have antioxidant activity (57). The total polyphenols in extracts of C. tora decreased significantly (p > 0.05) during roasting. The amount of polyphenols in extracts of C. tora decreased from 180.64 mg g (unroasted) to 103.55 mg of gallic acid g extracts of C. tora after roasting at 250 C. This means that...

Acacetin

Acacetin is a flavonoid that occurs in plants as a glycoside with attached glucose, rhamnose, or glucuronic acid moieties. In the aglycone form, it is an antioxidant in vitro although this is a common property ofmost flavonoids. It induces UGT defense mechanisms in cells in vitro (90), inhibits cytochrome P450s CYP1A and CYP1B1 (91), induces terminal differentiation of HL-60 cells (92), inhibits topoisomerase l-catalyzed DNA ligation (93), and inhibits B(a)P-induced mutagenesis in hamster...

Abbreviations

EGF, epidermal growth factor EGFR, EGF receptor NF-kB, nuclear factor-nB TNF, tumor necrosis factor H2O2, hydrogen peroxide AP-1, activating protein-1 JNK, c-jun N-terminal kinase MMP, matrix metal-loprotease COX, cyclooxygenase iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells VSMC, vascular smooth muscle cells HDL, high-density lipoprotein TBARS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance LDL, low-density lipoprotein VLDL, very-low density lipoprotein ASA,...

Effects on Tumor Cell Cytotoxicity and Differentiation

Saponin and nonsaponin compounds have been reported to show cytotoxic activities against various kinds of cancer cell lines in culture. The major active components are ginsenoside Rh2, a peculiar component of red ginseng, and also polyacetylenes, panaxydol, panaxynol, and panaxytriol. In addition, ace-tylpanaxydol and panaxydolchlorohydrin, showing cytotoxicity against lymph-oid leukemia L1210, have been isolated from Korean ginseng root (45). The critical early even in the cytotoxicity of...

Immune Effects

Epimedium has been reported to significantly enhance the phagocytic activity of macrophages (25), to stimulate the migration of T-lymphocytes from the thymus to peripheral organs, and to promote both the proliferation of bone marrow cells and the synthesis of DNA. The n-butanol fraction of E. hunanense and epimedin C isolated from the fraction significantly enhanced the response of spleen antibody-forming cells to nearly normal in the mice treated with the immunosuppressant hydrocortisone...

Polysaccharides

Plant polysaccharides are reported to confer anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, antiulcer, and anticancer effects (7,16,50). Fungi are remarkable for the variety of high-molecular-weight polysaccharide structures that they produce, and bioactive polyglycans are found in all parts of the mushroom. Polysaccharides from the G. lucidum mushroom have been extracted from the fruit body, mycelia, and spores, and exopolysaccharides are produced by mycelia cultured in fermenters. Analysis of the...

Biological Activities

So far, quassinoids from this plant have been reported to exhibit a wide range of activities in animals, both in vivo and in vitro (28,30-34,36-42,45,51,52). Detailed investigations on this plant showed that some of the quas-sinoids, one of the major bioactive groups in this plant, had antimalarial activities against drug-resistant Malaysian and non-Malaysian Plasmodium falciparum isolates, and some were found to have favorable potency compared to chloroquine (28,30,32 33,41,45,51). Most of the...

Efficacy Studies with the Crude Extract

A limited number of studies have been performed in Chinese laboratories to demonstrate the efficacy of the herb on a particular illness treatment based on the use of the crude extracts. Most of these studies were unable to demonstrate either the specific molecular mechanism or the mode of action of the herbal extracts. The nature of the bioactive compound was also not known. Chuanxiong was administered to dogs to test its efficacy on muscle function, and specifically to see whether the use of a...

In Vivo Studies with Humans

A strong protection of the body's antioxidant system, and reduction of oxidative stress by regular ingestion of prickly pear, has recently been observed in an in vivo study in which eight healthy volunteers, aged 20-55, received six fruits per day (400 g edible pulp), for 2 weeks during which they were allowed to eat according to their usual diet, with the exception of fruits (31). Plasma measurements, before and after the 2-week trial, have shown a very marked elevation of vitamin C and...

Enzymatic and Nonenzymatic Lipid Peroxidation Systems

It is now clear that oxygen species such as superoxide anion hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, and other free radicals are proposed as agents that attack polyunsaturated fatty acid in the cell membranes giving rise to lipid peroxidation (34). C. tora has been reported to have antioxidant properties in vitro that act as reducing agents, hydrogen donors, free-radical quenchers, and metal ion chelators (32). In view of this, Yen and Chung (33) evaluated the antioxidant properties of water...

British Library

In 1985, the British Library, owing to lack of coverage on Medline, commenced work on compiling the Allied and Alternative Medicine database (AMED), which was later changed to the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database. AMED was started to assist complementary medicine practitioners and paramedical staff locate articles that were relevant to their practice. At the time that the British Library started AMED in 1985, Medline was particularly poor in the areas of complementary medicine and...

Higher MolecularWeight Components

The presence of oligosaccharides in higher plants is common. Early studies confirmed their presence in Echinacea species but, other than assigning molecular weights of approximately 50 kDa to these, structural information was limited (3). Pharmacological studies suggested that they possessed weak antihyaluronidase activity (84, as synopsized in Ref. 3). Studies of particular relevance to immunostimulation were reported by the Wagner group starting in 1981 (85-87). Two immunostimulatory...

Hydrogen PeroxideInduced Oxidative DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes

Hydrogen peroxide is a well-known ROS produced intracellular during physiological and pathological processes, and causes oxidative DNA damage in cells. (37) As mentioned earlier, several noncell studies have demonstrated that Cassia seed was capable of reducing lipid peroxidation caused by ROS. The effect of C. tora on hydrogen-peroxide-induced oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes was assessed using single-cell gel electropheresis (comet assay). Water extracts of C. tora prepared under...

Antinutritional Effects of Glucosinolate Hydrolytic Products

It cannot be ignored that the beneficial effects of consuming cruciferous vegetables is important in the proposed prevention of chronic human disease. It must also be noted that deleterious effects can also be attributed to high exposure to ITCs and other GSL hydrolytic products. In addition to acting as feeding deterrents for herbivores, some GSL metabolites also show goitrogenic activity in mammals. For example, the use of oilseed rape meal as animal feed was severally hampered owing to high...

Consumption In Humans

Evaluation of the protective effect of licorice root extract on the resistance of LDL to ex vivo oxidation was studied in normolipidemic human subjects (84), as well as in hypercholesterolemic patients (85). LDL, which was isolated from the plasma of 10 healthy volunteers after consumption of 100 mg of licorice root ethanolic extract per day, for a period of 2 weeks, was more resistant to copper-ion-induced oxidation, as well as to AAPH-induced oxidation, by 44 and by 36 , respectively, in...

Traditional

Epimedium is one of the most popular and effective kidney yang tonics of Chinese herbalism. Its first recorded use dates back to the ancient text Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (ca. 200 B.C.-A.D. 100). The herb is listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (1) as having action to '' reinforce the kidney yang, strengthen tendons and bones, and relieve rheumatic conditions and indicated ''for impotence, seminal emission, weakness of the limbs, rheumatoid arthralgia with numbness and...

Additional Compounds

Other compounds of various classes have been determined to occur in H. perforatum. These include tannins (concentrations vary from 3 to 16 ), xanthones (1.28 mg 100 g), phenolic compounds (caffic acid, chlorogenic acid, and p-coumaric acid), and hyperfolin. Other compounds include acids (nico-tinic, myristic, palmitic, stearic), carotenoids, choline, pectin, hydrocarbons, and long-chain alcohols (21). Amino acids that occur include cysteine, GABA (g-aminobutyric acid), glutamine, leucine,...

Financing

A fundamental working principle of sectoral development here is that dedicated government funding is needed to ensure that the traditional and complementary health sector develops as needed. In the industrialized countries, where almost half of the population regularly uses complementary medicine, insurance coverage for this is still relatively new. Americans and Australians typically pay out of pocket for CM services. Americans spend more out of pocket on CM than on all U.S. hospitalizations...

Antioxidant Effects

Methanol extracts of 180 Oriental herbs were screened for their antioxidant activities by determining the peroxide values of linoleic acid during storage at 50 C (43). Among the herbal extracts tested, 44 selected herbal extracts were further studied in a methyl linoleate system for an extended storage time. Eleven herbs had particularly high antioxidant activities, where the antiox-idative effects of most herbal extracts were greatly dependent on the extraction solvent used. However, E....

Antitumor Activities of Ginsenosides

Oral administration of ginsenoside Rh2 has been reported to have an inhibitory effect on tumor growth in nude mice bearing human ovarian cancer cells (HRA), resulting in remarkable retardation of the tumor growth. In particular, tumor growth in mice treated with 15, 30, and 120 M of Rh2 was significantly inhibited, compared to that in CDDP (cis-diaminedichloro-platinum) (II)-treated mice as well as in untreated mice (66). Further investigation showed that p.o. but not i.p. treatment with...

Hepatoprotective Activity

Chemicals such as CCl4-catabolized radicals induce lipid peroxidation, damage the membranes of liver cells and organelles, cause the swelling and necrosis of hepatocytes, and result in the release of cytosolic enzymes such as AST, ALT, and LDH into the blood. Therefore, CCl4-induced liver injury has been employed as a convenient model for investigating radical-induced damage and its prevention in animals. Acteoside, 2'-O-acetylacteoside, and isoacteoside inhibited both hepa-tocyte lipid...

Bamboo Leaf Lophatherum gracile

Bamboo leaf is the young stem and leaf of L. gracile Brongn., which have been used for bringing down fevers and diuresis. Melanosis coli has been associated with ingestion of bamboo leaf extract (17), a potential safety hazard. The his-tological changes in the colonic mucosa were compared with those in patients who had melanosis coli as a result of anthraquinone ingestion (aloe, etc.). Because bamboo leaf extract was not ordinarily ingested by humans, the possibility of its deposition in the...

Immunomodulatory Antitumor Activities of Ginseng Polysaccharide

It has long been reported that ginseng strengthens the resistance of an organism to harmful physical, chemical, and biological stresses. This capability is related to its regulation of the immune system, which plays an important role in the protective mechanism of the body. Recently, an acidic polysaccharide named ginsan has been isolated from white ginseng, peeled dried ginseng, and identified as an ideal nontoxic antineoplastic immunostim-ulator. It acts by activating multiple effector arms...

Intestinal Microflora and Immune Defenses Are Improved in Tea Drinkers

Tea polyphenols affect viruses and bacteria (110). Enterobacteriaceae in the intestinal tract have mostly unpleasant properties since they generate smelly chemicals of the type of skatole and related indoles. The tea polyphenols suppress the growth of these bacteria but have no adverse effects on beneficial bacteria such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Also, the consequence is a lower pH of the intestinal contents since there is increased formation of organic acids. In particular, butyric...

Variable Angle Ellypsometry VASE

VASE measurements generated estimated thickness values for the layers formed on the chip surface during processing. A summary of the values obtained is shown in Table 2. Based on the topography detected by AFM, a roughness layer was calculated (16.8 A) and included in the calculated spectra. The thickness of the MPTS layer, 38.8 7 A was larger than expected for a monolayer, suggesting the formation of multiple layers of MPTS during the Figure 3 AFM images of Si-based TCM microarray. oligo, (c)...

Other Pharmacological Effects

Sch C and some other lignans were found to inhibit the growth of human immunodeficiency virus (HlV)-infected H9 cells at effective concentrations (EC) ranging from 0.006 to 1.2 Ag mL (65). Recently, halogenated derivatives of gomisin J (Fig. 1g) have been shown to possess anti-HIV activities by inhibiting reverse transcriptase activity as well as expressing cytoprotective action in HIV-infected H9 cells (66). In addition, the growth and clonogenicity as well as the topoisomerase II activity of...

Curcumin Suppresses the Induction of Adhesion Molecules

The expression of various cell surface adhesion molecules, such as intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1, on endothelial cells is absolutely critical for tumor metastasis (50). The expression of these molecules is in part regulated by nuclear factor NF-kB (51). We have shown that treatment of endothelial cells with curcumin blocks the cell surface expression of adhesion molecules and this accompanies the...

In Vitro Study of Effects of the Extract on Adhesion Molecule and Matrix Production by Keratinocytes

First- or second-passage keratinocytes were seeded onto 12-well slides at a density of 2 x 103 cells well in keratinocyte growth medium (KGM). After 48 hr the medium was replaced by keratinocyte basal medium (KBM) containing various concentrations of the extract, with one set being maintained in KGM as a control. At 70-80 confluence, the slides were washed three times in PBS, air-dried, and stored at 70 C until required for indirect immunoflu-orescence. A standard indirect immunofluorescent...

Curcumin Downregulates Cyclooxygenase2 COX2 Expression

Overexpression of COX-2 has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of cancers, including colon (53), lung (54), and breast (55) cancers. The role of COX-2 in suppression of apoptosis and tumor cell proliferation has been demonstrated (56). Furthermore, celebrex, a specific inhibitor of COX-2, has been shown to suppress mammary carcinogenesis in animals (57). Several groups have shown that curcumin downregulates the expression of COX-2 protein in different tumor cells (44,58) most...

Microbiological Effects

There has been interest over the years in the effects of phenylethanoid glycosides on microorganisms. Although acteoside exerted weak antibacterial effects on Escherichia coli, it had antiplasmid effects, including F'lac plasmid elimination, and inhibited kanamycin resistance transfer in E. coli (55). Similar results were observed with its isomer isoacteoside (56,57). In addition, acteoside and arenarioside exhibited a moderate antimicrobial activity against Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus...

Curcumin Inhibits Angiogenesis

For most solid tumors, including breast cancer, angiogenesis (blood vessel formation) is essential for tumor growth and metastasis (59). The precise mechanism that leads to angiogenesis is not fully understood, but growth factors that cause proliferation of endothelial cells have been shown to play a critical role in this process. Curcumin has been shown to suppress the proliferation of human vascular endothelial cells in vitro (60) and abrogate the fibroblast growth-factor-2-induced angiogenic...

Emodin

Emodin is anti-inflammatory against carageenan-induced edema in rats (110) and emodin and its metabolites have a long half-life in the plasma of rats ( 50 hr) (111). Emodin exhibits a range of anticarcinogenic activities in vitro, including inhibition of formation of DNA adducts induced by 1-nitropyrene (112), modulation of cellular transformation and proliferation (113), inhibition of NF-kB activation and expression of adhesion molecules (114), inhibition of casein kinase II (114a), and...

Atherogenic Modifications Of Ldl And Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people with a Western lifestyle. The early atherosclerotic lesion is characterized by the accumulation of arterial foam cells derived mainly from cholesterol-loaded macrophages (1,2). Most of the accumulated cholesterol in foam cells originates from plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is inter nalized into the cells via the LDL receptor. Native LDL, however, does not induce cellular cholesterol accumulation, because...

Research Environment

Research into traditional medicine is needed at both national and international levels. If this need is to be met, dedicated funding will be required to be allocated by international funders and governments. To ensure a rational basis for the use of plant-based medicines, priority is needed for infrastructure development in traditional medicine. This will include Research oriented to the safe and effective production of herbal medicines as a central feature of public health programs in...

Traditional Medicine

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), up to 80 of people in the developing world use traditional medicine as part of their primary health care, and therefore, it is becoming increasing popular in countries in the North, too. Traditional medicine incorporates plants, animals, and mineral-based medicines, spiritual therapies, as well as manual techniques or exercise (1). In Ethiopia, 90 of the population uses traditional medicine for primary health care in Benin, India, and Rwanda,...

Curcumin Suppresses the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase MMP9 and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase iNOS

MMPs make up a family of proteases that play a critical role in tumor metastasis (for references see Ref. 63). MMP-9 is one of the proteases that has been shown to be regulated by NF-kB activation (64), and curcumin has been shown to suppress its expression (64). Curcumin has also been demonstrated to downregulate iNOS expression, also regulated by NF-kB and involved in tumor metastasis (65). All these observations suggest that curcumin must have antimetastatic activity. Indeed, there is a...

Fabrication Of SiBased Toxic Tcm Microarrays

There are currently two main types of microarrays c-DNA- and oligonucle-otide-based arrays. These arrays may be made using different surfaces as solid supports. Glass and nitrocellulose are the still the most commonly used owing to their low cost and general availability (11-13), but they lack the versatility of Si surfaces such as the possibility of integration with other Si-based components such as micro PCR reactors (14), microfluidic transport, micro-capillary electrophoresis (15) and...

Misidentification Substitution Or Contamination

Misidentification or mislabeling of herbs may result in unexpected adverse clinical effects. One problem in the identification of herbal ingredients is that the plant materials can be named in four different ways the common English name, the transliterated name, the Latinized pharmaceutical name, and the scientific name. The Chinese names of different substances are sometimes similar and a raw material may have several Chinese proprietary names. It is desirable that plants are referred to by...

Species Description

H. perforatum, commonly called the common St. John's wort, klamathweed, tiptonweed, goatweed, and enolaweed (1), is a native of Europe, but has spread to temperate locations in Asia, Africa, North and South America, and Australia (2,3). It thrives in poor soils, and is commonly found in meadows, fields, waste areas, roadsides, and abandoned mines and quarries (1,2,4). Individuals of St. John's wort are freely branching perennials that typically range from 40 to 80 cm tall (Fig. 1) (1,2). The...

Tea As A Healthpromoting Beverage

Tea is a frequently used beverage worldwide. Tea is a hot-water extract of the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. Upon harvest, the best teas are obtained by collecting the top two leaves and the bud of the tea bush (10,11). The leaves contain the polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate and an enzyme, polyphenol oxidase. When the leaves are withered and steamed, the polyphenol oxidase is inactivated, yielding green tea upon drying. If the withering step is omitted, and the leaves are steamed,...

Antioxidant Composition Of Fruits Of O Fcus Indica

Organic extracts in dichloromethane (DCM) and aqueous extracts in methanol of the yellow, red, and white fruits from Sicilian cultivars of O. ficus indica have been analyzed for lipid-soluble and water-soluble antioxidants, respectively (54). Very limited amounts of lipophilic antioxidant vitamins have been found, a-tocopherol, trans- h-Carotene, and retinyl palmitate representing the major compounds, with minor variations among the cultivars. Retinyl oleate and trans-retinol are absent. In...

Chemical Constituents

A number of studies have been conducted to elucidate the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of the aerial parts of Epimedium herb. Several methods such as column chromatography, liquid chromatography, pulse polarography, coulometric titration, and fluorometry have been used to study the flavonoids from Epimedium species (8). The main constituents in Epimedium plants are the prenylflavone glycosides. Among the important active constituents isolated from the aerial parts of...