Acknowledgments

Relevant works generated from KMK's laboratory were supported in part by a grant from Lee Kum Kee Group Ltd., Hong Kong and the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong (HKUST 6130 02M). 1. Lebedev AA. Limonnik (Schisandra chinensis). Tashkent, Uzbek SSR Medicina Publishing House, 1971. 2. Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. Beijing, China The Peoples Medical Publishing House, 1988. 3. Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Medical References 1972 7 3. 4. Liu GT. Pharmacological actions...

Interactions Between Modern and Chinese Medicinal Drugs

The interactions between Chinese herbs and modern drugs are a common issue, yet reports on them are very rare. According to research on 1000 elderly patients admitted through the accident and emergency department, 538 of them have used over 1087 types of drugs, and 30 of them have been affected by the side effects of these drugs (26). In fact either within the hospital or outside, when patients self-prescribe, multidrug therapies are commonly practiced. Prescribed drugs, proprietary drugs,...

References

Complementary and alternative medicine (cam) use by older adults a comparison of self-report and physician chart documentation. J Gerontol Biol Sci Med Sci 2002 57 M223-M227. 2. Ernst E, Schmidt K. Health risks over the Internet advice offered by ''medical herbalists'' to a pregnant woman. Wien Med Wochenschr 2002 152 190-192. 3. Surh Y. Molecular mechanisms of chemopreventive effects of selected dietary and medicinal phenolic substances. Mutat Res 1999 428 305-327. 4....

Ephedra Ephedra SiNiCA

Traditional Chinese medicine has for centuries touted the use of ephedra for the treatment of asthma, congestion, and bronchitis. Also known as ma huang, it predominantly consists of two alkaloids, ephedrine and pseudo-ephedrine. Ephedrine is a sympathomimetic drug, structurally similar to amphetamines. Its effects on the body include central nervous system stimulation, cardiac stimulation (ionotropic and chronotropic), bronchodilation, and elevation in blood pressure. Pseudoephedrine is an...

Curcumin Downregulates Cyclin D1 Expression

Cyclin D1, a component subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-4 and Cdk6, is a rate-limiting factor in progression of cells through the first-gap (G1) phase of the cell cycle (67). Cyclin D1 has been shown to be overex-pressed in many cancers including breast, esophagus, head and neck, and prostate (68-73). It is possible that the antiproliferative effects of curcumin are due to inhibition of cyclin D1 expression. We found that curcumin can Figure 1 Role of curcumin in prevention and therapy...

Occurrence Synthesis And Chemistry

Nonflavonoid classes of phenolic compounds, such as RSV, are synthesized by a variety of plants in response to injury or fungal infection (Langcake and Pryce, 1976). Although RSV does not enjoy a wide distribution in the plant kingdom, its occurrence has been documented in trees, including eucalyptus, spruce, and the tropical deciduous tree Bauhinia racemosa, in a few flowering plants such as Veratrum grandiflorum and Veratrum formosanum (two species of lilly), in Pterolobium hexapetallum...

Cardiovascular Effects

Many investigators have focused on the cardiovascular effects of ligusticum since the traditional use of chuanxiong was to improve blood circulation. Tetramethylpyrazine isolated from L. wallichii Franch has been shown to have positive effects on portal-hypertensive rat models (28). Sprague-Dawley rats were used and portal hypertension was induced by partial ligation of the portal vein. Two weeks after the ligation, the rats were cannulated for measurement of mean arterial pressure, portal...

Antioxidant Properties in Food and Biological Systems

During storage of prepared or dehydrated food, lipid autoxidative degradation products such as hydroperoxides, malondialdehydes, aldehydes, ketones, and hydroxy fatty acids may occur if the food is not properly protected by antioxidants. These products not only result in unpleasant flavors but may also be a health risk (25). Lipid oxidation is an autocatalyzed radical chain reaction induced by free radicals (26). Polyphenolic antioxidants possess a relatively reactive phenolic hydrogen atom,...

A C odorata Extract Enhances Proliferation of Fibroblasts Keratinocytes and Endothelial Cells Phan et al 1998 2001b

This study showed that the extract from the leaves of C. odorata at concentrations of 10 Ag mL and 100 Ag mL enhanced the growth of fibroblasts and endothelial cells. The extract at concentrations from 0.1 to 5 Ag mL significantly stimulated the expansion of human keratinocyte colonies in monolayer in basal medium as it did in growth medium (Fig. 3). With increasing doses of the extract, from 50 to 300 Ag mL, colonies did not further expand, Figure 3 Growth of human dermal fibroblasts (a, c)...

Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat

Different from its use as an attractive flower for horticulture purposes in Europe, chrysanthemum of the Compositae family, in particular its flower, has been used as a traditional medicine in several Asian countries, such as China, Korea, and Japan, for several centuries. The flower of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat, owing to its broad pharmacological effects as well as its fragrance, is also used as a beverage chrysanthemum tea. This chapter will focus on both the broad and specific...

Contact Angle Measurements Xps Vase and AFM

A Kruss Contact Angle Measuring System, Model G-10 was used for all contact angle measurements. A mass of approximately 20 mg H2O was deposited onto the surface the readings were taken 30 sec after deposition at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra were acquired using Physical Electronics 5600 multitechnique system with monochromatic Al Ka X-ray source (1486.6 eV). The radiation was focused on the sample at an electron takeoff angle (TOA) of 45 3 relative to the...

Formulation

A synergistic effect by using the leaves of E. ulmoides Oliver, Eucomiaceae (Du-Zhong leaf) and the roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Ginseng) has been reported (4). The formula consists of amounts that exert no effect when used individually. Several formula ratios of ginseng and Du-Zhong leaf, 1 1, 1 2, 1 3, and 1 4, were tested. It was demonstrated that the formula ratio of ginseng to Du-Zhong leaf of 1 3 was the most effective for stimulation of collagen synthesis and prevention of...

In Vitro Studies

The decolorization of the acid) (ABTS) radical cation is an accurate assay for screening the antioxidant activities of either lipophilic substances or food extracts (55). The total antioxidant capacity of either the DCM lipophilic extracts or the methanolic hydrophilic extracts from fruits of the yellow, red, and white Sicilian cultivars of prickly pear has been evaluated by the reaction with the ABTS radical cation, generated by reacting ABTS with potassium persulfate (9), and expressed as...

Scavenging Activity on DPPH Radical Superoxide Anion and Hydroxyl Radical

Free radicals are produced in cells by cellular metabolism and by exogenous agents. The extracts of C. tora, especially roasted and unroasted samples, were evaluated for their free-radical, 2,2-diphenyl-1-piperylhydrazyl radical (DPPH'), superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. Choi et al. (29) found that the methanolic extracts of the seed of C. tora have a scavenging activity on the DPPH radical. 2-Hydroxyemodin cassiaside and ru-brofusarin gentiobioside were isolated from...

Total Phenolic Compounds

C. tora contains many phenolic compounds, such as emodin, rhein, chry-sophanol, and obtusin, some of which belong to anthraquinones (56). Some anthraquinones have been reported to have antioxidant activity (57). The total polyphenols in extracts of C. tora decreased significantly (p > 0.05) during roasting. The amount of polyphenols in extracts of C. tora decreased from 180.64 mg g (unroasted) to 103.55 mg of gallic acid g extracts of C. tora after roasting at 250 C. This means that...

Acacetin

Acacetin is a flavonoid that occurs in plants as a glycoside with attached glucose, rhamnose, or glucuronic acid moieties. In the aglycone form, it is an antioxidant in vitro although this is a common property ofmost flavonoids. It induces UGT defense mechanisms in cells in vitro (90), inhibits cytochrome P450s CYP1A and CYP1B1 (91), induces terminal differentiation of HL-60 cells (92), inhibits topoisomerase l-catalyzed DNA ligation (93), and inhibits B(a)P-induced mutagenesis in hamster...

Abbreviations

EGF, epidermal growth factor EGFR, EGF receptor NF-kB, nuclear factor-nB TNF, tumor necrosis factor H2O2, hydrogen peroxide AP-1, activating protein-1 JNK, c-jun N-terminal kinase MMP, matrix metal-loprotease COX, cyclooxygenase iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells VSMC, vascular smooth muscle cells HDL, high-density lipoprotein TBARS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance LDL, low-density lipoprotein VLDL, very-low density lipoprotein ASA,...

Effects on Tumor Cell Cytotoxicity and Differentiation

Saponin and nonsaponin compounds have been reported to show cytotoxic activities against various kinds of cancer cell lines in culture. The major active components are ginsenoside Rh2, a peculiar component of red ginseng, and also polyacetylenes, panaxydol, panaxynol, and panaxytriol. In addition, ace-tylpanaxydol and panaxydolchlorohydrin, showing cytotoxicity against lymph-oid leukemia L1210, have been isolated from Korean ginseng root (45). The critical early even in the cytotoxicity of...

Immune Effects

Epimedium has been reported to significantly enhance the phagocytic activity of macrophages (25), to stimulate the migration of T-lymphocytes from the thymus to peripheral organs, and to promote both the proliferation of bone marrow cells and the synthesis of DNA. The n-butanol fraction of E. hunanense and epimedin C isolated from the fraction significantly enhanced the response of spleen antibody-forming cells to nearly normal in the mice treated with the immunosuppressant hydrocortisone...

Polysaccharides

Plant polysaccharides are reported to confer anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, antiulcer, and anticancer effects (7,16,50). Fungi are remarkable for the variety of high-molecular-weight polysaccharide structures that they produce, and bioactive polyglycans are found in all parts of the mushroom. Polysaccharides from the G. lucidum mushroom have been extracted from the fruit body, mycelia, and spores, and exopolysaccharides are produced by mycelia cultured in fermenters. Analysis of the...

Preparation of Crude Total Ethanol Extract

Fresh leaves of C. odorata (10 kg) were collected, washed, and dried in the sun for 5 days and then in a 45 C incubator for another 3 days. A 1-kg amount of clean, dried leaves was powdered, divided into three batches, and then extracted with 4000 mL of absolute ethanol in a Soxhlet apparatus for 12 hr per batch. Twelve liters of the ethanol fraction was evaporated under vacuum using a Rotary Vacuum Evaporator, RE 100, Bibby, UK Chlorophyll, resin, and lipids were removed by Whatman paper...

Antiatherosclerosis and Antiplatelet Effects of Ginsenosides

Endothelial cell damage is considered to be the initial step in the genesis of thrombosis and arteriosclerosis, the common precursors of cardiovascular disoders. Platelet hyperfunction, such as enhanced platelet aggregation associated with overproduction of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), a potent platelet aggregative and vasoconstrictive substance, has been frequently encountered in patients with cardiovascular thrombotic diseases. Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2), a potent antiplatelet aggregative and...

Biological Activities

So far, quassinoids from this plant have been reported to exhibit a wide range of activities in animals, both in vivo and in vitro (28,30-34,36-42,45,51,52). Detailed investigations on this plant showed that some of the quas-sinoids, one of the major bioactive groups in this plant, had antimalarial activities against drug-resistant Malaysian and non-Malaysian Plasmodium falciparum isolates, and some were found to have favorable potency compared to chloroquine (28,30,32 33,41,45,51). Most of the...

In Vivo Studies with Humans

A strong protection of the body's antioxidant system, and reduction of oxidative stress by regular ingestion of prickly pear, has recently been observed in an in vivo study in which eight healthy volunteers, aged 20-55, received six fruits per day (400 g edible pulp), for 2 weeks during which they were allowed to eat according to their usual diet, with the exception of fruits (31). Plasma measurements, before and after the 2-week trial, have shown a very marked elevation of vitamin C and...

Enzymatic and Nonenzymatic Lipid Peroxidation Systems

It is now clear that oxygen species such as superoxide anion hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, and other free radicals are proposed as agents that attack polyunsaturated fatty acid in the cell membranes giving rise to lipid peroxidation (34). C. tora has been reported to have antioxidant properties in vitro that act as reducing agents, hydrogen donors, free-radical quenchers, and metal ion chelators (32). In view of this, Yen and Chung (33) evaluated the antioxidant properties of water...

British Library

In 1985, the British Library, owing to lack of coverage on Medline, commenced work on compiling the Allied and Alternative Medicine database (AMED), which was later changed to the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database. AMED was started to assist complementary medicine practitioners and paramedical staff locate articles that were relevant to their practice. At the time that the British Library started AMED in 1985, Medline was particularly poor in the areas of complementary medicine and...

Higher MolecularWeight Components

The presence of oligosaccharides in higher plants is common. Early studies confirmed their presence in Echinacea species but, other than assigning molecular weights of approximately 50 kDa to these, structural information was limited (3). Pharmacological studies suggested that they possessed weak antihyaluronidase activity (84, as synopsized in Ref. 3). Studies of particular relevance to immunostimulation were reported by the Wagner group starting in 1981 (85-87). Two immunostimulatory...

Hydrogen PeroxideInduced Oxidative DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes

Hydrogen peroxide is a well-known ROS produced intracellular during physiological and pathological processes, and causes oxidative DNA damage in cells. (37) As mentioned earlier, several noncell studies have demonstrated that Cassia seed was capable of reducing lipid peroxidation caused by ROS. The effect of C. tora on hydrogen-peroxide-induced oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes was assessed using single-cell gel electropheresis (comet assay). Water extracts of C. tora prepared under...

Antinutritional Effects of Glucosinolate Hydrolytic Products

It cannot be ignored that the beneficial effects of consuming cruciferous vegetables is important in the proposed prevention of chronic human disease. It must also be noted that deleterious effects can also be attributed to high exposure to ITCs and other GSL hydrolytic products. In addition to acting as feeding deterrents for herbivores, some GSL metabolites also show goitrogenic activity in mammals. For example, the use of oilseed rape meal as animal feed was severally hampered owing to high...

Consumption In Humans

Evaluation of the protective effect of licorice root extract on the resistance of LDL to ex vivo oxidation was studied in normolipidemic human subjects (84), as well as in hypercholesterolemic patients (85). LDL, which was isolated from the plasma of 10 healthy volunteers after consumption of 100 mg of licorice root ethanolic extract per day, for a period of 2 weeks, was more resistant to copper-ion-induced oxidation, as well as to AAPH-induced oxidation, by 44 and by 36 , respectively, in...

Traditional

Epimedium is one of the most popular and effective kidney yang tonics of Chinese herbalism. Its first recorded use dates back to the ancient text Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (ca. 200 B.C.-A.D. 100). The herb is listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (1) as having action to '' reinforce the kidney yang, strengthen tendons and bones, and relieve rheumatic conditions and indicated ''for impotence, seminal emission, weakness of the limbs, rheumatoid arthralgia with numbness and...

Antioxidant Effects

Methanol extracts of 180 Oriental herbs were screened for their antioxidant activities by determining the peroxide values of linoleic acid during storage at 50 C (43). Among the herbal extracts tested, 44 selected herbal extracts were further studied in a methyl linoleate system for an extended storage time. Eleven herbs had particularly high antioxidant activities, where the antiox-idative effects of most herbal extracts were greatly dependent on the extraction solvent used. However, E....

Antitumor Activities of Ginsenosides

Oral administration of ginsenoside Rh2 has been reported to have an inhibitory effect on tumor growth in nude mice bearing human ovarian cancer cells (HRA), resulting in remarkable retardation of the tumor growth. In particular, tumor growth in mice treated with 15, 30, and 120 M of Rh2 was significantly inhibited, compared to that in CDDP (cis-diaminedichloro-platinum) (II)-treated mice as well as in untreated mice (66). Further investigation showed that p.o. but not i.p. treatment with...

Hepatoprotective Activity

Chemicals such as CCl4-catabolized radicals induce lipid peroxidation, damage the membranes of liver cells and organelles, cause the swelling and necrosis of hepatocytes, and result in the release of cytosolic enzymes such as AST, ALT, and LDH into the blood. Therefore, CCl4-induced liver injury has been employed as a convenient model for investigating radical-induced damage and its prevention in animals. Acteoside, 2'-O-acetylacteoside, and isoacteoside inhibited both hepa-tocyte lipid...

Rational

Lack of training for T CAM providers Lack of training for allopathic practitioners on T CAM Lack of communication between T CAM and allopathic practitioners and between allopathic practitioners and consumers Lack of information for the public on rational use of T CAM These are tasks that have been repeatedly identified by numerous groups in recent years it would be a significant advancement if the WHO is now able to stimulate action by bringing attention, and more important, funding, to address...

Salt

Salt does not damage DNA and is not genotoxic. However, importantly, it severely impinges on the stability of cell, and cells exposed to high levels of salt undergo rapid cell duplication. Therefore, there is severe damage to the stomach with possible alteration, especially in the tissue also generating ROS and carrying a bacterium discovered in 1984, Helicobacter pylori (reviewed in ref. 8). Eventually, stomach cancer and possibly ulcers stem from excessive salt intake in infected cells (9)....

Bamboo Leaf Lophatherum gracile

Bamboo leaf is the young stem and leaf of L. gracile Brongn., which have been used for bringing down fevers and diuresis. Melanosis coli has been associated with ingestion of bamboo leaf extract (17), a potential safety hazard. The his-tological changes in the colonic mucosa were compared with those in patients who had melanosis coli as a result of anthraquinone ingestion (aloe, etc.). Because bamboo leaf extract was not ordinarily ingested by humans, the possibility of its deposition in the...

Immunomodulatory Antitumor Activities of Ginseng Polysaccharide

It has long been reported that ginseng strengthens the resistance of an organism to harmful physical, chemical, and biological stresses. This capability is related to its regulation of the immune system, which plays an important role in the protective mechanism of the body. Recently, an acidic polysaccharide named ginsan has been isolated from white ginseng, peeled dried ginseng, and identified as an ideal nontoxic antineoplastic immunostim-ulator. It acts by activating multiple effector arms...

Intestinal Microflora and Immune Defenses Are Improved in Tea Drinkers

Tea polyphenols affect viruses and bacteria (110). Enterobacteriaceae in the intestinal tract have mostly unpleasant properties since they generate smelly chemicals of the type of skatole and related indoles. The tea polyphenols suppress the growth of these bacteria but have no adverse effects on beneficial bacteria such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Also, the consequence is a lower pH of the intestinal contents since there is increased formation of organic acids. In particular, butyric...

Variable Angle Ellypsometry VASE

VASE measurements generated estimated thickness values for the layers formed on the chip surface during processing. A summary of the values obtained is shown in Table 2. Based on the topography detected by AFM, a roughness layer was calculated (16.8 A) and included in the calculated spectra. The thickness of the MPTS layer, 38.8 7 A was larger than expected for a monolayer, suggesting the formation of multiple layers of MPTS during the Figure 3 AFM images of Si-based TCM microarray. oligo, (c)...

Cardioactive Effects

It has been confirmed that acteoside has cardioactive effects (48). Intravenous administration of acteoside resulted in a significant decrease in blood pressure in Wistar rats (49). In the Langendorff rat heart preparation, acteoside induces a significant dose-dependent increment in chronotropism, inotro-pism, and coronary perfusion (50). These cardioactive effects appear to be associated with a striking increase in the level of intracellular cyclic 3,5-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) (51)....

Knowledge Production

Comparative research should be promoted, where modern and traditional approaches to managing the same conditions are compared in terms of clinical outcomes and cost. Clinical research should follow national and international health priorities e.g., cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, TB, malaria, HIV AIDS, etc. and mainstream research funds should encourage a component of research into traditional means for treating specific conditions. To ensure a rational basis for the use of...

Other Pharmacological Effects

Sch C and some other lignans were found to inhibit the growth of human immunodeficiency virus (HlV)-infected H9 cells at effective concentrations (EC) ranging from 0.006 to 1.2 Ag mL (65). Recently, halogenated derivatives of gomisin J (Fig. 1g) have been shown to possess anti-HIV activities by inhibiting reverse transcriptase activity as well as expressing cytoprotective action in HIV-infected H9 cells (66). In addition, the growth and clonogenicity as well as the topoisomerase II activity of...

Curcumin Suppresses the Induction of Adhesion Molecules

The expression of various cell surface adhesion molecules, such as intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1, on endothelial cells is absolutely critical for tumor metastasis (50). The expression of these molecules is in part regulated by nuclear factor NF-kB (51). We have shown that treatment of endothelial cells with curcumin blocks the cell surface expression of adhesion molecules and this accompanies the...

In Vitro Study of Effects of the Extract on Adhesion Molecule and Matrix Production by Keratinocytes

First- or second-passage keratinocytes were seeded onto 12-well slides at a density of 2 x 103 cells well in keratinocyte growth medium (KGM). After 48 hr the medium was replaced by keratinocyte basal medium (KBM) containing various concentrations of the extract, with one set being maintained in KGM as a control. At 70-80 confluence, the slides were washed three times in PBS, air-dried, and stored at 70 C until required for indirect immunoflu-orescence. A standard indirect immunofluorescent...

Knowledge Management and Utilization

To ensure sound standards of practice based on recognized levels of training and the use of therapies that are safe and effective, information is needed on best practice across a wide range of professional and industrial issues. A coordinated development strategy with multiple national and international partners will be required to develop such an information resource to inform and support national policy development in natural health care. Aware that other countries are also grappling with...

Antifungal Activity

Antifungal peptides have been purified from the bark of E. ulmoides Oliver (28). Their primary structures consists of 41 residues with a N-terminal blockage by pyroglutamic acid and all contain 10 cysteines, which are cross-linked to form five disulfide bridges with a pairing pattern (C1-C5, C2-C9, C3-C6, C4-C7, C8-C10). They exhibit relatively broad spectra of antifungal activities against eight pathogenic fungi from cotton, wheat, potato, tomato, and tobacco. Their inhibition activity can be...

Curcumin Downregulates Cyclooxygenase2 COX2 Expression

Overexpression of COX-2 has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of cancers, including colon (53), lung (54), and breast (55) cancers. The role of COX-2 in suppression of apoptosis and tumor cell proliferation has been demonstrated (56). Furthermore, celebrex, a specific inhibitor of COX-2, has been shown to suppress mammary carcinogenesis in animals (57). Several groups have shown that curcumin downregulates the expression of COX-2 protein in different tumor cells (44,58) most...

Microbiological Effects

There has been interest over the years in the effects of phenylethanoid glycosides on microorganisms. Although acteoside exerted weak antibacterial effects on Escherichia coli, it had antiplasmid effects, including F'lac plasmid elimination, and inhibited kanamycin resistance transfer in E. coli (55). Similar results were observed with its isomer isoacteoside (56,57). In addition, acteoside and arenarioside exhibited a moderate antimicrobial activity against Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus...

Curcumin Inhibits Angiogenesis

For most solid tumors, including breast cancer, angiogenesis (blood vessel formation) is essential for tumor growth and metastasis (59). The precise mechanism that leads to angiogenesis is not fully understood, but growth factors that cause proliferation of endothelial cells have been shown to play a critical role in this process. Curcumin has been shown to suppress the proliferation of human vascular endothelial cells in vitro (60) and abrogate the fibroblast growth-factor-2-induced angiogenic...

Emodin

Emodin is anti-inflammatory against carageenan-induced edema in rats (110) and emodin and its metabolites have a long half-life in the plasma of rats ( 50 hr) (111). Emodin exhibits a range of anticarcinogenic activities in vitro, including inhibition of formation of DNA adducts induced by 1-nitropyrene (112), modulation of cellular transformation and proliferation (113), inhibition of NF-kB activation and expression of adhesion molecules (114), inhibition of casein kinase II (114a), and...

Atherogenic Modifications Of Ldl And Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people with a Western lifestyle. The early atherosclerotic lesion is characterized by the accumulation of arterial foam cells derived mainly from cholesterol-loaded macrophages (1,2). Most of the accumulated cholesterol in foam cells originates from plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is inter nalized into the cells via the LDL receptor. Native LDL, however, does not induce cellular cholesterol accumulation, because...

Introduction

The use of herbal medications has soared over the last decade. In 1997, an estimated 12 of the population used over-the-counter herbal products, resulting in billions of dollars in sales for the herbal industry (1). Herbal therapy has become popular for a number of reasons. First, herbs are relatively inexpensive when compared to prescription medications. They may be viewed by consumers as cost-effective alternatives to conventional therapies. Second, they are ''natural'' substances that are...

Research Environment

Research into traditional medicine is needed at both national and international levels. If this need is to be met, dedicated funding will be required to be allocated by international funders and governments. To ensure a rational basis for the use of plant-based medicines, priority is needed for infrastructure development in traditional medicine. This will include Research oriented to the safe and effective production of herbal medicines as a central feature of public health programs in...

Traditional Medicine

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), up to 80 of people in the developing world use traditional medicine as part of their primary health care, and therefore, it is becoming increasing popular in countries in the North, too. Traditional medicine incorporates plants, animals, and mineral-based medicines, spiritual therapies, as well as manual techniques or exercise (1). In Ethiopia, 90 of the population uses traditional medicine for primary health care in Benin, India, and Rwanda,...

Chinese Yam Dioscorea opposita

Major constituents of chinese yam are saponins, mannan, phytic acid, and starch (40) and some varieties are rich in essential amino acids (36 ) and minerals (Se, Fe, Zn, Mn) (41). The related D. opposita, D.fordii, D.persimilis, and D. alata are similar in content of polysaccharides, allatonin, and amino acids but differ in the ratio of monosaccharides. Pharmacological experiments with mice showed that they strengthen physique, help digestion, and increase immunity. It was suggested that these...

Curcumin Suppresses the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase MMP9 and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase iNOS

MMPs make up a family of proteases that play a critical role in tumor metastasis (for references see Ref. 63). MMP-9 is one of the proteases that has been shown to be regulated by NF-kB activation (64), and curcumin has been shown to suppress its expression (64). Curcumin has also been demonstrated to downregulate iNOS expression, also regulated by NF-kB and involved in tumor metastasis (65). All these observations suggest that curcumin must have antimetastatic activity. Indeed, there is a...

Fabrication Of SiBased Toxic Tcm Microarrays

There are currently two main types of microarrays c-DNA- and oligonucle-otide-based arrays. These arrays may be made using different surfaces as solid supports. Glass and nitrocellulose are the still the most commonly used owing to their low cost and general availability (11-13), but they lack the versatility of Si surfaces such as the possibility of integration with other Si-based components such as micro PCR reactors (14), microfluidic transport, micro-capillary electrophoresis (15) and...

Glucosinolates

To date, 116 GSLs have been identified in a diverse range of plant families represented in the order Capparales (16). All share a common feature of a h-D-thioglucose moiety, sulfonated oxime residue, and a variable side chain (Fig. 1 Table 1). The current chemical classification of GSLs recognizes three groups comprising aliphatic, aromatic, and indolyl GSLs based on the amino acid from which they are derived (17). The primary source of aliphatic GSLs is the amino acid methionine and to a...

Misidentification Substitution Or Contamination

Misidentification or mislabeling of herbs may result in unexpected adverse clinical effects. One problem in the identification of herbal ingredients is that the plant materials can be named in four different ways the common English name, the transliterated name, the Latinized pharmaceutical name, and the scientific name. The Chinese names of different substances are sometimes similar and a raw material may have several Chinese proprietary names. It is desirable that plants are referred to by...

Species Description

H. perforatum, commonly called the common St. John's wort, klamathweed, tiptonweed, goatweed, and enolaweed (1), is a native of Europe, but has spread to temperate locations in Asia, Africa, North and South America, and Australia (2,3). It thrives in poor soils, and is commonly found in meadows, fields, waste areas, roadsides, and abandoned mines and quarries (1,2,4). Individuals of St. John's wort are freely branching perennials that typically range from 40 to 80 cm tall (Fig. 1) (1,2). The...

Tea As A Healthpromoting Beverage

Tea is a frequently used beverage worldwide. Tea is a hot-water extract of the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. Upon harvest, the best teas are obtained by collecting the top two leaves and the bud of the tea bush (10,11). The leaves contain the polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate and an enzyme, polyphenol oxidase. When the leaves are withered and steamed, the polyphenol oxidase is inactivated, yielding green tea upon drying. If the withering step is omitted, and the leaves are steamed,...

Antioxidant Composition Of Fruits Of O Fcus Indica

Organic extracts in dichloromethane (DCM) and aqueous extracts in methanol of the yellow, red, and white fruits from Sicilian cultivars of O. ficus indica have been analyzed for lipid-soluble and water-soluble antioxidants, respectively (54). Very limited amounts of lipophilic antioxidant vitamins have been found, a-tocopherol, trans- h-Carotene, and retinyl palmitate representing the major compounds, with minor variations among the cultivars. Retinyl oleate and trans-retinol are absent. In...

Chemical Constituents

A number of studies have been conducted to elucidate the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of the aerial parts of Epimedium herb. Several methods such as column chromatography, liquid chromatography, pulse polarography, coulometric titration, and fluorometry have been used to study the flavonoids from Epimedium species (8). The main constituents in Epimedium plants are the prenylflavone glycosides. Among the important active constituents isolated from the aerial parts of...

Some Botanical Considerations

Botanically, the North American Echinacea genus consists of nine species and multiple varieties with E. purpurea, E. angustifolia, and E. pallida finding most use medicinally. The genus belongs to the Heliantheae, the largest tribe within the family Compositae (Asteraceae). Various authorities have described this genus and the presently accepted scheme is based on the comparative morphological and anatomical studies of McGreggor (3,49). E. angustifolia (Braumeria angustifolia), E. atrorubens...

Iiiwhat Is Ginkgo Biloba Extract

Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761, is a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba. It contains 24 flavonoids and 6 terpene lactones. The flavonoids are nearly exclusively flavonol-O-glycosides (combination of the phenolic aglycones quercetin, kaempferol, or isorhamnetin with glucose or rhamnose or both in different positions of the flavonol moiety). The terpenoids are ginkgolides (3.1 of the extract) and bilobalide (2.9 ), both found exclusively in the Ginkgo biloba tree. Ginkgolides are diterpenes,...

Iisimaroubaceae

The Simaroubaceae, as defined in Engler's Syllabus (3), consist of six subfamilies with 32 genera and over 170 arboreous or shrubby species. The largest genus is Picramnia with ca. 40 species native to the New World tropics. Indeed the entire family is of pantropical occurrence with the exception of the genera Picrasma and Ailanthus, which extend to temperate Asia (4). The genera of Simaroubaceae are mostly well defined, but the family is only loosely knit (5). However, only eight genera and 10...

In an In Vitro Model of Wound Reepithelialization Phan et al 2001b

In this study, the effect of C. odorata extract on keratinocyte migration, an important phenomenon in wound healing, was investigated in vitro. It was shown that concentrations of extract from 5 to 60 Ag mL always led to faster migration ofkeratinocytes and closure ofthe scratch although there was not a clear dose-dependent relationship (Fig. 4). Until the wound is resurfaced by epithelium and the protective stratum corneum is reestablished, the patient remains at risk of infection, and...

Integrating Traditional and Complementary Medicine into National Health Care

Learning from the International Experience University of Oxford Medical School Oxford, England As the global public's use of traditional and complementary medicine increases, governments are being challenged to develop sound policies, regulations, and trade standards (Bodeker, 2001). Public access to their health care system of choice and public safety are both important dimensions of the policy challenge. * This paper draws on work reported in two previous papers ''Planning for Cost-effective...

Policy Framework

With respect to policy action, country experience can be organized into eight broad areas of principle (1) Equity. (2) Ethics. (3) Governance. (4) Financing. (5) Knowledge production. (6) Knowledge management and utilization. (7) Capacity development. (8) Research environment. This framework draws on that developed by the Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED) and it served for the policy recommendations on traditional medicine made at the COHRED conference on health research...

Anticarcinogenic Activity

The main weapons in the war against cancer have been early detection and surgical removal, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and attempts to develop gene therapy. However, the result have been less than ideal, and the dominant strategy is now changing from therapeutic approaches to prevention of cancer by identifying effective natural products as chemopreventive agents. One promising candidate with cancer-preventive effects is ginseng. Its usefulness as an anticarcinogen has been shown by extensive...

Concluding Remarks

The body of evidence presented in this chapter speaks volumes for the clinical potential of wine polyphenolics such as RSV and related compounds. The relatively simple chemical structure enables RSV to interact with receptors and enzymes, giving rise to biological effects such as suppression of growth, induction of differentiation, inhibition of ROS production, cell cycle regulation, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, downregulation of proinflammatory mediators, regulation of gene expression by...

Doseresponse Relationships

Sometimes dose-dependent reversal of effects is encountered in efficacy studies, wherein higher or lower dosages can produce different effects. There are suggestions that these findings should not be interpreted to mean that phytomedicines are not efficacious. For example, extracts of goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea) in low doses have no diuretic effect, whereas in therapeutic doses (6-12 g dried herb per dose) diuretic effects can be demonstrated (22). Still higher doses in animals again result...

Glucosinolates And Their Biological Function A Flavor Components

Glucosinolates are sulfur-containing glycosides and are some of the most abundant secondary metabolites in Brassica species they function in plant insect interactions and as feeding deterrents for plant herbivores. These very same phytochemicals are also recognized by humans, particularly the ITCs, as the characteristic flavor components associated with cruciferous vegetables and salad crops. During tissue damage ITCs are often released and can be recognized by their often spicy and pungent...

Production Of Tongkat

It is found that this crop grows well in deep sandy loams mixed with plenty of organic matter. The plants are propagated usually from seeds (fresh seeds collected from tree burst fruits) that take about a week to germinate. The seedlings will then grow to a height of 10-15 cm after 2 months and at this stage, they can be removed from the nursery bed and potted, then later transferred to permanent positions when they are 6 months old. Intercropping tongkat Ali with other grown timber species is...

Selection Of The Active Ingredients And Their Mechanism Of Action

The CFI discussed above consist of a complex mixture of phytochemicals, and for most, only partial analysis has been performed. However, often (one of) the active ingredients have been identified for some of the extracts. These active ingredients are often flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates, but also terpenes, other phenolics, steroids, etc. Most flavonoids and hydroxycinnam-ates are found in the plant and in extracts from the plant attached to a sugar or organic acid, and consequently have a...

Toxicity Of Sm

So far, only a few studies have been conducted in mice or rats to evaluate the toxicity of SM. In one study, intraperitoneal injection of SM at adose of33.75 g kg day was given to mice for 14 days. No significant changes in body weight, food intake, condition of the fur, or other general appearance of the mice was observed, and also no change in blood picture, hepatic function, or liver function was found. The mice were then killed and the heart, liver, spleen, and kidney were examined...

Ivcompounds Isolated From L Chuanxiong

Isolation of the chemical constituents of L. chuanxiong began in the 1920s. The major components identified were ligustilide, butylidenephthalide, cnid-ilide, neocnidilide, butylphthalide, cindium lactone, sedamonic acid, and sedanolide (8-11). Pregnenolone, tetramethylpyrazine, coniferylferulate, sen-kyunolide-A, ligustilides, and their mono- and dihydroxyphthalide derivatives (senkyunolide B-L) have also been described (12-18). A significant amount of minor components, like the oxygenated...

Ivoptimal Dosage Determination

To achieve the desired highest antitumor effect, the amount of lentinan given to the experimental model should be optimized. Initially, lentinan showed little effectiveness, primarily because the dosages used were above or below what was later found to be optimal. Chihara and co-workers (7) and Aoki (34) showed that lentinan caused complete regression of sarcoma 180 transplanted into the mice at a dose of 1 mg kg for 10 days (intraperitoneal route), while a larger dose of 80 mg kg for 5 days...

Summary

Although licorice has been known to be a useful medicinal plant for the past 3000 years, it is still luring investigators to explore new medicinal properties of this plant. In a separate chapter, Aviram et al. review the therapeutic effects of licorice extract and its major antioxidant constituents of glabridin on atherosclerosis via inhibition of the LDL oxidation molecular mechanism. The second part of the chapter reviews the potential of licorice extract and its constituents as HRT for...

Ixeffects Of Cordyceps On The Cardiovascular System

The antiarrhythmic effects of different extracts including petroleum extract from cultured Cordyceps were tested by using experimental arrhythmia in rats induced by aconitine and barium chloride. Pretreatment of petroleum extract of Cordyceps at the dose of 200 mg kg by oral administration significantly antagonized the drug-induced arrhythmia, and prolonged the onset time of arrhythmia (85.0 12.3 sec vs. 25.0 19.8 sec, control), decreased the duration of persistence (19.8 15.3 min vs. 40.8 17.2...

Chrysanthemum morifolium Flower

The flower of C. morifolium Ramat is a commonly used medical herb with mild action and a popular beverage with an aromatic odor in China. It is used for treating colds and eyes with redness and pain (43). It is potentially anticarcinogenic, since the flowers contain chlorogenic acid, flavonoids, and pentacyclic triterpenes. The flavonoids from C. morifolium have been found to exhibit anti-HIV activity (44). Several active anti-HIV compounds, including acacetin-7-O-h-D-galactopyranoside and...

L Clove Eugenia caryophyllata

Bioassay-directed fractionation of clove terpenes from the plant E. caryophyllata has led to the isolation of the following five active known compounds h-caryophyllene, h-caryophyllene oxide, a-humulene, a-humulene epoxide, and eugenol. These compounds showed significant activity as inducers of the detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase in the mouse liver and small intestine (49). Eugenol, an active principle of clove, is an effective secretagogue in rats, causing dose-dependent...

L Nobiletin

Nobiletin is a flavonoid that occurs exclusively in citrus fruits. It is antimeta-static in mice and inhibited peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer, at least partly through inhibition of metalloproteinases (128). Nobiletin protected against the appearance of gastric hemorrhagic lesions induced by ethanol but not aspirin in the guinea pig, and alone had no effect on the potential difference. Nobiletin also relaxed the contractions induced by acetylcholine, electrical stimulation, and...

Molecular Aspects of Health

Lester Packer Choon Nam Ong Barry Halliwell Although great care has been taken to provide accurate and current information, neither the author(s) nor the publisher, nor anyone else associated with this publication, shall be liable for any loss, damage, or liability directly or indirectly caused or alleged to be caused by this book. The material contained herein is not intended to provide specific advice or recommendations for any specific situation. Trademark notice Product or corporate names...

N Rhein

Rhein is a highly biologically active anthraquinone that is a component of senna. It has a number of effects on the gastrointestinal tract, including induction of ion secretion, chemotaxis, and apoptosis in the intestinal Caco2 cell line via nitric oxide generation (131), inhibits the growth of Helicobacter pylori (132), modifies the peristaltic reflex of the inverted guinea pig ileum (133), inhibits glucose uptake (134), and decreases transit time in rats with a prostaglandin-dependent...

Of A Paniculata Extract And Some Diterpenoid Derivatives

A. paniculata extract was fractionated with solvents to obtain three fractions with different polarity FA (ethyl acetate fraction), FB (butanol fraction), and FC (aqueous fraction). These were tested in the anesthetized normoten-sive Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat to evaluate their effects on the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). MAP is the average systolic pressure that drives blood through the systemic organs and is thus a critical cardiovascular parameter. We found that FA did not reduce MAP in...

Unsaturated Alkyl Amides

Secondary substituents of this type have a somewhat restricted distribution in higher plants. They are, however, fairly common in Echinacea species and are Formula Chart No. 4 Unsaturated keto alcohols of echinacea. Formula Chart No. 4 Unsaturated keto alcohols of echinacea. Formula Chart No. 5 Unsaturated polyenes and acetylenes of echinacea. Formula Chart No. 5 Unsaturated polyenes and acetylenes of echinacea. believed to be primarily responsible for the tingling and local anesthetic effects...

Antigenotoxicity Of Chrysophanol Emodin And Rhein

Natural herbs contain a large number of potential anticancer materials. For example, within Rhei rhizoma, Scutellariae radix, and Rehmanniae radix, there is antimutagenicity that suppresses B a P (59). The major active components in Cassia seed are probably a derivative of anthraquinones (AQ) (17,56) and its mechanism was considered as suppressing exogenic activation enzymes (47). As for DNA damage induced by B a P in HepG2 cells, chrysophanol had 78 inhibitory effect, as well as rhein (71 ),...

Effects Of Da And Dda On Isolated Rat Thoracic Aorta

Further studies were done with DA and DDA to investigate their effects on phenylephrine- and high-K + -induced contractions of the rat thoracic aorta. The results showed that both DA and DDA had a vasorelaxant property as they inhibited contractions induced by phenylephrine and high K+ in a concentration-dependent manner in endothelium-intact aorta. They also antagonized the concentration-response curve of phenylephrine in a non-competitive manner. The effect was attenuated in...

Scientific Investigations A Phytochemistry

The immense and diverse therapeutic uses described in folk medicine have prompted numerous scientists to carry out scientific investigations pertaining to both the phytochemistry and the biological effects of tongkat Ali, for the past 40 years. Scientific investigations on this plant showed that it contains a series of quassinoids (16,24-45) that are responsible for the bitter taste, tirucallane-type triterpenes (36), squalene derivatives (46-48), biphenylneolignans (49), canthin-6-one...

The Medicinal And Therapeutic Value Of Lentinan

The beneficial effects of lentinan have been known for a long time and their activities have been identified. Many experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of lentinan. Results from various experiments are promising. In Japan, lentinan is currently classified as a drug for its known effects. Lentinan has been marketed for the past 10 years in Japan for the treatment of gastric cancer, in combination with tegafur. It was safely administrated to 50,000 patients in Japan,...

Conclusions

Phytochemicals and phytomedicines are now an expanding research field. A great number of active agents occurring in plants and herbs have been discovered, which is fundamental to finding rationale for the health effects of these herbs, in many cases used for centuries as traditional remedies. The knowledge of the mechanisms and molecular basis of action is the final objective to understand the mode of action of the discovered principles. Many antioxidant substances are listed among the...

Human Studies On Ligusticum Herbs A Cerebrovascular and Coagulation Effects

In Chinese studies, injections of ligusticum, ligustrazine, ligustylid, and ferulic acid were reported to have better effects on ischemic strokes than standard drugs such as papaverine, dextran, and aspirin-persantin (46). Injections of ligusticum extract, containing ligustrazine, ligustylid, and ferulic acid, were reported to improve brain microvascular circulation in patients with transient ischemic attacks, through inhibition of thrombus formation and platelet aggregation (47). In this...

Vicurcumin Enhances Wound Healing

Tissue repair and wound healing are complex processes that involve inflammation, granulation, and remodeling of the tissue. Sidhu et al. examined the wound-healing capacity of curcumin in rats and guinea pigs (105). Punch wounds in curcumin-treated animals closed faster in treated than in untreated animals. Biopsies of the wound showed reepithelialization of the epidermis and increased migration of various cells including myofibroblasts, fibroblasts, and macrophages in the wound bed. Multiple...

Cordyceps Restores Liver Function

Cordyceps could be used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis and related disease conditions (54). The protective effect of Cordyceps on bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG)- and lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury was determined in mice Cordyceps markedly inhibited the activities of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, decreased the liver- and spleen-enlarged index, reduced the level of lipid peroxide in serum and hepatic tissue in mice, and reduced the level of serum TNF-a (55). In...

Toxicity

There is comparatively little information in print about the side effects and toxicity of echinacea preparations. The clinical studies rarely report side effects or intolerance following oral use in ordinary doses although a number of patients do not like the taste (160). This generally agrees with historic data. Parenteral administration is comparatively less common but shivering and other flu-like symptoms have been reported (perhaps resulting from macrophage stimulation resulting in release...

Bottomup Versus Topdown Effect

Modern therapeutic research is essentially based on the study of mechanisms of action treatment targets can thus be defined and drugs developed spe cifically against them. The efficacy of the products thus developed should be guaranteed by the logic of this approach they should work because they act directly on one of the steps involved in pathogenesis. This is what we might call a bottom-up strategy, which involves starting from an elementary target, located downstream, to exert a systemic...

Chronic

One unanswered question that also requires more study relates to whether echinacea should be used on a continual basis. Work in healthy individuals indicates that a period of initial stimulation (typically 1-7 days) is followed by a period (typically after about 11 days) when the immune system no longer responds as before (3,8). Accordingly, echinacea is often prescribed in 10-day treatment periods followed by 2 weeks of no administration. This appears to be prudent but the evidence underlying...

Summary And Conclusions

Ginger is recognized by the Food and Drug Administration as a food additive that is ''generally recognized as safe.'' Ginger has been shown to possess diverse pharmacological properties but its specific biological effects are largely unknown and remain to be determined. Very few mechanistic studies exist, and as indicated in this chapter, the data regarding the effectiveness and safety of ginger administration are often contradictory. Thus as with any food or drug compound, moderate consumption...