Help For Hearing Loss Sufferers

Hearing Aids Inside Out

Hearing Aids Inside Out

Have you recently experienced hearing loss? Most probably you need hearing aids, but don't know much about them. To learn everything you need to know about hearing aids, read the eBook, Hearing Aids Inside Out. The book comprises 113 pages of excellent content utterly free of technical jargon, written in simple language, and in a flowing style that can easily be read and understood by all.

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Breaking The Sound Barriers

Living with a deaf child is one of the hardest things that you will ever deal with in your life; the barriers to their learning and potential happiness can seem like you will never cross them. However, it is easier than you thing to learn how to communicate with your deaf child on a level that you both are able to understand. This ebook guide is designed to teach you how to truly communicate with your child so that it minimizes frustration for both of you, and allows you child to learn at a much higher level than almost anyone would have believed. You will also hear the success stories of deaf children that have gone on to achieve amazing success in their lives. Having a deaf child is a blessing, not a curse. This guide will show you how best to love and care for your child!

Breaking The Sound Barriers Overview


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Levels of Hearing Loss

Hearing loss is measured in decibels (dB) and is generally subdivided into three major groups. A loss greater than 55 dB is considered severe to moderate. Hearing loss is termed severe if it averages between 70 and 90 dB. Averaged across all frequencies, a hearing loss in the better ear of 90 dB or greater is consid In addition to the degree of hearing loss, the frequency range that is affected profoundly influences hearing ability. A child with mild hearing loss across the frequencies used for producing speech may have more difficulties. Speech will sound quite distorted and less intelligible for a child with 55 dB loss, who will hear more vowels than consonants, since vowels are transmitted at higher frequencies. A complete au-diometric assessment of a child's hearing loss must, therefore, provide information for each ear, across a range of frequencies.

Hearing Disorders

Hearing disorders may be caused by a wide variety of problems either at birth or any time thereafter. Profound hearing loss from birth or an early age makes the acquisition of spoken language very difficult. However, deaf infants and children all go through the same developmental speech stages in acquiring gestural language such as American Sign Language. Hearing loss acquired through disease, injury, or noise may be more subtle, but if not treated it may interfere with a child's ability to acquire spoken language.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Manifestations of SLE occur through a variety of pathogenetic mechanisms. Lesional skin biopsies can demonstrate inflammation and degeneration of the dermo-epidermal junction. Granular deposits of immunoglobulins and complement components can be seen, often in a band-like pattern, under immunofluorescent microscopy. Frank vasculitis can affect small blood vessels as well. Whether otorhinolaryngeal manifestations such as autoimmune hearing loss seen in association with SLE result primarily from autoantibody-mediated events, or vasculitis, or a combination of inflammatory and immune events, is largely unknown. Some neurologic manifestations of SLE have been associated with antiphospholipid antibodies, giving rise to the possibility that pathogenesis could be linked to thrombosis.

American Sign Language

Oyer, and William H. Haas. Speech, Language and Hearing Disorders A Guide for the Teacher. Boston Allyn and Bacon, 2001. Padden, Carol, and Tom Humphries. Deaf in America Voices from a Culture. Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press, 1988. Paul, Peter V. Literacy and Deafness The Development of Reading, Writing, and Literate Thought. Boston Allyn and Bacon, 1998. Paul, Peter V., and Stephen P. Quigley. Language and Deafness, 2nd

What Makes A Fat Man

At length, because he thought he was going deaf, he went to an ear, nose and throat surgeon called William Harvey (no relation to the Harvey who discovered the circulation of the blood). This remarkable man saw at once that Banting's real trouble was obesity, not deafness, and put him on an entirely new kind of diet.

Ginkgo Ginkgo Bloba

Ginkgo biloba is the top-selling herb in the United States. It has been used for a variety of medical conditions including asthma, deafness, and male impotence (68). It is predominantly used currently for the treatment of dementia, memory impairment, symptomatic peripheral vascular disease, and tinnitus. It is thought to have a number of biological effects including increasing blood flow, inhibiting platelet-activating factor, altering neuronal metabolism, and working as an antioxidant (69). Owing to its effect on blood flow and fluidity, ginkgo has also been used for the treatment of tinnitus. Current evidence does not support its use for this indication (76). Limited preliminary evidence does exist for the use of ginkgo for the prevention of acute mountain sickness (77) and sudden deafness (78).

Animal Models for AIED

Animal models have definitively demonstrated that the immune response of the inner ear can lead to reversible or permanent damage to the delicate inner ear structures. One of the first animal models for AIED was developed by Beickert who immunized guinea pigs with homologous inner ear tissue. Although the guinea pigs developed cochlear lesions, hearing loss was not demonstrated and antibodies to inner ear antigens were not identified (24). Yoo developed an animal model for AIED based on type II collagen. Rats were immunized with bovine type I and type II collagen. Rats immunized with type I collagen or with denatured collagen had no change in hearing, whereas rats immunized with type II collagen had hearing loss based on auditory brainstem recordings. High levels of antibodies to type II collagen were identified. Upon sacrifice, histologic findings were of cochlear nerve degeneration and perineural vasculitis (25). Harris developed an animal model of AIED when he immunized guinea pigs...

Clinical Manifestations

The clinical manifestations of AIED are a consequence of injury to the delicate inner ear structures. As the inner ear is injured, patients sustain fluctuating or rapidly progressing sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, aural fullness, and vertigo attacks. Patients often complain of a decrease in hearing acuity or difficulty in understanding words. They may also have difficulty with balance. The pattern of sensorineural hearing loss can vary, but the most common finding is a loss across all frequencies, or a flat pattern. Low frequency sensorineural hearing loss is also quite common. The hearing loss may be unilateral or bilateral. When the presentation is unilateral, symptoms often become bilateral over the course of days to weeks. Sometimes, however, there is a delay of many months to years before the contralateral ear becomes involved, and, in rare cases, the loss can be unilateral throughout the entire course of the illness. Patients also note aural fullness, which may fluctuate...

The clinical of VHL disease

VHL patient can also have low-grade adenocarcinomas of the temporal bone, also known as endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST), pancreatic tumor, and epididymal or board ligament cystadenomas (Gruber et al., 1980 Neumann and Wiestler, 1991 Maher et al., 2004 Kaelin et al., 2007). ELST in VHL cases can be detected by MRI or CT imaging in up to 11 of patients (Manski TJ, et al., 1997). Although often asymptomatic, the most frequent clinical presentation is hearing loss (mean age 22 years), but tinnitus and vertigo also occur in many cases. In addition to the inherited risk for developing cancer, VHL patients develop cystic disease in various organs including the kidney, pancreas, and liver (Hough et al., 1994 Lubensky et al., 1998 Maher et al., 1990b Maher, 2004).

Prevention of Birth Defects

Because several birth defects are caused by infections, prevention initiatives also emphasize immunization and information. For example, because of widespread vaccination for rubella (German measles), the birth defects caused by this infection rarely occur in the United States. Information about the risk of birth defects resulting from maternal infection with syphilis or other sexually transmitted diseases may stimulate the development of services to help women at greatest risk. Cytomegalovirus, the most common of the congenital viral infections, affects almost 40,000 infants each year. It can be passed through bodily fluids, such as saliva, blood, and breast milk. It is often passed to a pregnant woman from a child who is infected but is not showing symptoms for example, an infected child may sneeze and then touch a pregnant woman, thus infecting her. An infant born to a mother who has contracted cytomegalovirus is at an increased risk for mental retardation and vision or hearing...

The interaction of insulin resistance and Bcell function

Mitochondrial diabetes, also called maternally inherited diabetes and deafness, is characterized by a progressive decline in ( -cell function. Cases of mitochondrial diabetes are often misdiagnosed as type 1 or type 2 diabetes depending on degree and age of progression of the insulinopenia. The diagnosis should be suspected when there is a marked history of diabetes associated with bilateral deafness in most carriers that follows a maternal inheritance. The most common mutation associated with this type of diabetes is the A3243G mutation in the mitochondrial DNA-encoded tRNA. The molecular mechanism by which the A3243G mutation affects insulin secretion may involve an attenuation of cytosolic ADP-ATP levels causing the resetting of the glucose sensor in the pancreatic (-cell 46 . The A3243G mutation is present in heteroplasmic form (the patient carries a mixture of normal and mutant mitochondria) and there is a trend toward a lower age of onset at high heteroplasmy values 47 . Hearing...

Morphological Variables

The effort made by anthropologists to describe the morphological variables of the ear as exhaustively as possible is of great value and interest to us. The reader could actually be helped to differentiate some morphological characteristics with a more pronounced hereditary tendency than others acquired later in the patient's life (see the next section). Figure 3.8 reports the first which received particular consideration in the literature as a possible dominant or recessive trait.7 In this description I have excluded any malformations associated with hereditary deafness, renal and vertebral anomalies and chromosome abnormalities such as trisomy 18 syndrome. The frequency of the illustrated characteristics is very variable for example, according to Lange, in 908 subjects the curled helix was visible in 60.1 Darwin's tubercle in 59.8 the

Complications And Prognosis

Rarely, patients with chronic IK may develop progressive corneal opacification, which decreases visual acuity. Such patients may require corneal transplantation. Cataracts may also occur and require extraction. Serious posterior segment eye disease can lead to decreased visual acuity. The hearing decline is the major debilitating complication of CS. Progression to deafness is frequent and occurs in approximately 25 to 50 of patients. Many patients have benefited from a cochlear implant, which has dramatically improved their quality of life. Vestibular symptoms usually improve with time, but as many as 20 of patients may have persistent oscillopsia.

TABLE 1 Clinical Manifestations in Wegeners Granulomatosis

The middle ear is affected in at least one-third to one-half of all patients (9). Clinical features include otalgia, otitis media, and serous, purulent, or bloody discharge. Patients with chronic otitis media may present with conductive hearing loss due to thickened, scarred, or perforated tympanic membranes. Chronic otitis media can also lead to the development of a cholesteatoma (Fig. 3). Over time, the cholesteatoma increases in size and as a consequence can destroy the middle ear bones or the mastoid, or may erode into the inner ear and cause permanent hearing loss or dizziness. The facial nerve may be involved by the growth of the cholesteatoma, resulting in facial paralysis. Less often (< 5 cases), hearing loss may be due to sensory neural involvement (Chapter 28). Vestibular disease may result in intermittent ( 5 ) or persistent (< 1 ) vertigo. The external ear is rarely the site of chondritis and can be associated with edema, erythema, and pain that may be identical to...

Ectodermal dysplasia 165

Individuals affected by EDs have abnormalities of sweat glands, tooth buds, hair follicles, and nail development. Some types of EDs are mild while others are devastating. Many individuals affected by EDs cannot perspire. Air conditioning in the home, school, and workplace is a necessity. Other symptoms may include deficient tears and saliva, frequent respiratory infections, poor hearing or vision, missing fingers or toes, cleft lip and or palate, poor immune system, sensitivity to light, and lack of breast development.

Ear Infectionsotitis Media

Otitis media, commonly called an ear infection, is the most frequent illness of early childhood except for the common cold. Otitis media is an inflammation of the middle ear. There are two types (1) acute otitis media, an infection of the middle ear with accompanying fluid and (2) otitis media with effusion, in which the middle ear fluid is not infected. Fluid in the middle ear can persist for several weeks or months after an infection is gone. Otitis media is more common in boys, children from low-income families, those exposed to tobacco smoke, bottle-fed children (compared to breast-fed children), and children who are under two years of age and attend child care. In most cases, otitis media is accompanied by mild to moderate hearing loss (equivalent to plugging one's ears with a finger), which goes away once the fluid resolves. Some studies have shown that frequent hearing loss in children with otitis media may lead to speech, language, and school difficulties. Other studies,...

Head and Neck Manifestations

Tuberculous otitis media is rare and usually represents hematogenous spread. Roughly one-half of the cases have no other evidence of present or past TB. The classic clinical picture is painless otorrhea with multiple tympanic perforations, exuberant granulation tissue, early severe hearing loss, and mastoid bone necrosis (see Chapter 25 for further discussion of otorrhea). The finding of multiple tympanic membrane perforations is most likely TB, possibly pathognomonic. Nonetheless, the diagnosis is difficult, even when tissue is available. Tuberculous otitis may be complicated by facial nerve paralysis, which is discussed in detail in Chapter 29. Response to drug therapy is excellent, and surgery usually is not required.

History of Food Folklore

Curative properties have also been ascribed to many foods for thousands of years. In ancient Rome, cabbage was considered the perfect medicinal plant and was prescribed frequently for a wide range of ailments including warts, deafness, and drunkenness. Apples, herbs, garlic, honey, milk, peppers, and many other foods were also highly regarded in ancient cultures for their therapeutic qualities. The prescription of foods as medicines was not necessarily based on scientific fact but instead was often based on early medical theories or magic. The ancient Greeks believed that the body was composed of four humors blood (hot and moist), phlegm (cold and moist), yellow bile (hot and dry), and black bile (cold and dry). Health was thought to result from a balance of the humors, and illness resulted from an imbalance. To counteract imbalances and restore health, physicians often prescribed specific foods, based on their perceived degree of 'heat' and 'moisture'. For example, fever, a 'hot'...

Hearing problems genetic 239

Hearing problems, genetic Deafness may be caused by a wide variety of inherited abnormalities, most of which are present at birth and do not improve. These genetic types of deafness are responsible for about half of all types of deafness in children. There are about 200 different types of genetic hearing problems ranging in degree from mild to profound. Although some types of hearing loss are associated with other physical characteristics or medical problems (such as changes in the eye or hair color), most types of genetic hearing loss do not involve other types of physical changes. The ability to hear is just one of many different physical traits that are handed down in families. There are several ways that genes can influence a child's ability to hear. Each child receives half of its genetic material from each parent. There are many different gene locations that affect hearing and many different varieties of genes. Different forms of deafness may involve different gene locations....

Language Impairment Developmental

It has been estimated that approximately thirteen percent of all children have some form of language impairment (Beitchman et al. 1986a). The most common known causes of developmental language impairments are hearing loss (including intermittent hearing loss resulting from chronic otitis media), general mental retardation, neurological disorders such as lesions or epilepsy affecting the auditory processing or language areas of the brain, and motor defects affecting the oral musculature. Many other developmental disorders, such as pervasive developmental disability (including AUTISM), attention deficit disorder, central auditory processing disorder, and Down's syndrome, may include delay in language development. In addition to these known causes of developmental language impairment, a recent epidemiological study of monolingual English-speaking kindergarten children in the United States found

Applications Future Challenges

The draft sequence already is having an impact on finding genes associated with disease. Genes have been pinpointed and associated with numerous diseases and disorders including breast cancer, muscle disease, deafness, and blindness. Additionally, finding the DNA sequences underlying such common diseases as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, arthritis, and cancers is being aided by the human SNP maps generated in the HGP in cooperation with the private sector. These genes and SNPs provide focused targets for the development of effective new therapies.

Epidemiology Of Tinnitus

It has been found through epidemiologic studies that although chronic tinnitus is quite common and is found in both men and women, young and old, it is typically the elderly male who has spent a lifetime working in an industrial job who is most commonly diagnosed with tinnitus (1), pp. 16-41 . Interestingly, across multiple epidemiologic studies from different countries, the prevalence of tinnitus shows a strong correlation with level of hearing loss. The more severe the hearing loss, the stronger is the perception of tinnitus. Although there is also a direct correlation with increasing age, male sex, lower income, lower education, and poor overall health status (1), pp. 16-41 , surveys of the available literature suggest that once hearing level is accounted for, the above correlations are no longer as strong.

Food Borne Infections during Pregnancy

Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that can be transmitted to the fetus in utero through transpla-cental transmission, causing stillbirth, miscarriage, or mental retardation. The parasite has been found in raw, inadequately cooked or cured meat, cat feces, and unwashed raw fruit and vegetables. It has also occasionally been reported in unpasteur-ized goat milk. In the United Kingdom, toxoplasmosis occurs in approximately 2.5-5.5 in 1000 pregnant women (1750-2850 cases per year), generally causing flu-like symptoms, swollen lymph glands, or muscle aches and pains that last for a few days to several weeks. If a pregnant woman contracts the infection, there is an approximately 30-40 chance of fetal infection (congenital toxo-plasmosis). Infants who became infected before birth may develop growth problems, vision and hearing loss, hydrocephalus, brain damage, epilepsy, and other problems. In Europe, congenital toxoplasmosis affects between 1 and 10 in 10 000 newborns, of whom 1 or 2 develop...

Wegeners Granulomatosis

Wegener's granulomatosis is an idiopathic vasculitis of small arteries, arterioles, and capillaries primarily affecting the upper aerodigestive tract, lungs, and kidneys. Typical presentation is in middle-aged patients with a slight male predominance. Otologic manifestations are common and range from 19 to 45 of cases (103). They include conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, and serous otitis media. Neurologic involvement is frequent with nearly half of patients demonstrating either peripheral or central neuropathy (104). Cranial nerve involvement was reported in 6.5 of patients (105). When the ear is affected by the disorder, facial nerve involvement has been estimated at 5 (103,106). Injury to the facial nerve may be from destructive granulomatous lesions involving the skull base, necrotizing vasculitis, or compressive effect due to granuloma in the middle ear (107). Pathologically, the disorder is characterized by noncaseating granulomas with...

Sign Language and the Brain

The behavioral literature on cerebral lateralization for sign language is based largely upon tachistoscopic visual half-field studies. As a whole, these studies yield inconsistent and contradictory findings, ranging from reports of right-hemisphere dominance, left-hemisphere dominance, and no hemsipheric asymmetries for sign language processing in the deaf. Methodological factors such as variability in inclusion criteria for deaf subjects (e.g., etiology and degree of hearing loss), variability in language background and schooling (e.g., native signers, nonnative signers, oral schooling, sign-based schooling) and stimulus characteristics (e.g., manual-alphabet handshapes, static drawings of ASL signs and moving signs) contribute to the wide range of findings. Discussion here will be limited to studies using profoundly deaf, native signing adults as subjects. Poizner, Battison, and Lane (1979) compared the contribution of movement in sign language stimuli. They reported a left visual...


Together with folic acid and vitamin B6, vitamin B12 has been shown to reduce high plasma levels of homocysteine, which has been proposed as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (including atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease), cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease and venous thromboembolism (Clarke et al 1991, den Heijer et al 1996, Hung et al 2003, Lobo et al 1999, Malinow et al 1989, Selhub et al 1995), exudative ARMD, noise-induced hearing loss, cognitive dysfunction, and adverse pregnancy outcomes (Bjorke Monsen & Ueland 2003, Gok et al 2004, Nowak et al 2005). Noise-induced hearing loss Homocysteine levels are significantly higher in subjects with noise-induced hearing loss as compared to healthy controls (Gok et al

Treating cervical cancer

Neurotoxicity and cognitive effects (chemo-brain) can be profoundly debilitating in patients who are already cognitively impaired (demented, disoriented, confused, etc.). Elderly patients with a history of falling, hearing loss, or peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage from, for example, diabetes) have decreased energy and are highly vulnerable to neurotoxic chemotherapy like the taxanes or platinum compounds. Many of the medicines used to control nausea (antiemetics) or decrease the side effects of certain chemo-therapeutic agents are also potential neurotoxins. These medicines include dexamethasone (psychosis and agitation),

Plate Xii Skin Alterations Related To Cutaneous Structure Depressed Area Crease Incisure

Plate XIIA Depressed area and hyperemia on the ear lobe in a 35-year-old female with otosclerosis (hearing loss and tinnitus). Plate XIIB Double crease on the ear lobe in a 70-year-old male affected by coronary heart disease and hypertension. Two further incisures on the border of the ear lobe are the possible expression of sensorineural hearing loss due to exposure to noise. Plate XIIB Double crease on the ear lobe in a 70-year-old male affected by coronary heart disease and hypertension. Two further incisures on the border of the ear lobe are the possible expression of sensorineural hearing loss due to exposure to noise.

Symptoms Syndromes and the Value of Psychiatric Diagnostics in Patients Who Have Functional Somatic Disorders

(4) One pseudoneurologic symptom a history of at least one symptom or deficit suggesting a neurologic condition not limited to pain (conversion symptoms, such as impaired coordination or balance, paralysis, or localized weakness difficulty swallowing or lump in throat aphonia urinary retention hallucinations loss of touch or pain sensation double vision blindness deafness seizures dissociative symptoms, such as amnesia or loss of consciousness other than fainting)

Condylomata acuminata

Often, the effect these microorganisms have on the fetus depends on the stage of pregnancy at which the infection was acquired. For example, a rubella infection at the 9th or 10th week of pregnancy may cause deafness, heart disease, and other damage. If the same infection occurs much later in pregnancy, no harm usually results. While not usually a serious disease, those with impaired immunity may have more severe symptoms. Cytomegalovirus also may cause significant problems during pregnancy if a woman has an acute infection, which would be transmitted to her unborn child. This can lead to minor impairments affecting hearing, vision, or mental capacity a few of these babies are born with severe brain damage, including mental retardation or severe hearing loss.

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

Hearing loss and infectious disease Hearing loss affects about three and a half percent of children up to age 17. Although ear infections are the most common cause of hearing loss in the United States, there are other infectious causes many of which can be treated successfully. The most common of these are bacterial MENINGITIS and CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION, but there is a long list of other infectious agents viruses, bacteria, and parasites that can lead to hearing problems. Hearing loss can also be a side effect of antibiotics (such as the aminoglycosides). Bacterial meningitis Hearing loss related to this disease can be caused by streptococcus pneumoniae (18 to 30 percent), Neisseria meningitidis (10 percent), and Haemophilus influenzae (6 percent). In pneumococcal meningitis, the incidence and severity of hearing loss is strongly linked to the length of time the disease lasts. Because of vaccination, H. influenzae is no longer a major cause of meningitis in the United States,...

Pathogenic Autoantibodies

Autoantibodies potentially contribute to neuropathology by a variety of mechanisms, including immune complex mediated vasculitis, direct targeting of surface antigen leading to injury to myelin or neuronal tissue, and targeting of postganglionic receptors by functional autoantibody. Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are associated with stroke, migraine, seizures, and transverse myelitis.73 Although described in 5 to 14 of pSS patients, aPL antibody seems not to be associated with CNS disease in pSS.9,74,75 However, a single small study suggested a possible role for aPL antibody in hearing loss in pSS. Clinically significant sensorineural hearing loss was found in 5 of 30 women and hearing loss correlated with the presence of anticardiolipin anti-bodies.76 Patients with pSS and CNS disease have not been found to have evidence of antineuronal antibodies or antiribosomal antibodies. Neither antibody was found in paired serum CSF samples from patients with active CNS-SS, suggesting that...

Drugs Used to Treat Infectious Diseases

Side Effects Mild side effects occasionally occur, including skin rash, fever, headache, nausea and vomiting, and tingling sensations. Others include renal failure and deafness. Side Effects Possible adverse effects include nausea and vomiting, rash, itching, diarrhea, hearing loss, dizziness, and tinnitus (ringing in the ears). Application of this medication to the skin may lead to allergic reactions. Side Effects Rectal bleeding, palpitations, hearing loss, swelling, nausea, and vomiting. Side Effects Large doses of this drug are needed, and therefore there is a high risk of adverse effects due to severe poisoning headache, fever, nausea and vomiting, confusion, hearing loss, ringing in the ears, and blurred vision. Side Effects Its most serious adverse affect is the possibility of damage to the inner ear, disturbing balance and causing dizziness, ringing in the ears and deafness. For this reason, patients with labyrinthine disease should not take this drug. It must also be used...

Clostridium perfringens infection 117

Most children with clefts do not have other birth defects or any problems with intelligence or abilities. However, some children with clefts do have a higher chance of fluid in the ear because the cleft can interfere with the function of the middle ear. If untreated, frequent ear infections and even hearing loss can result. To permit proper drainage and air circulation, a small plastic ventilation tube may be inserted in the eardrum. This relatively minor operation may be done later or at the time of the cleft repair.

Manifestations of Lead Toxicity

Neurologic Full-blown lead encephalopathy, including delirium, truncal ataxia, hyperirritability, altered vision, lethargy, vomiting, and coma, is not common. Although peripheral nerve damage and paralysis may still be reported in adults, the most common toxicity observed is learning disability and an associated high-frequency hearing loss occurring in children with blood lead levels previously assumed to be safe. At low blood levels of lead (less than 10 mgdl-1), children may lose IQ points, possibly due to the interference of lead in normal calcium signaling in neurons and possibly by blocking the recently reported learning-induced activation of calcium phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C in the hippocampus. Lead has also produced necrosis of retinal photo-receptor cells and swelling of the endothelial lining of retinal blood vessels in rats. Lead may also damage the auditory nerves in rats, and it may be partially responsible for the high-frequency hearing loss observed in...

The Representation Of The Ear On The

As is well-known, a hearing impairment may be caused by various factors. The female patient in Figure 5.31 came to my practice presenting a bilateral hearing loss due to two different factors the Fig. 5.31 Auricular sensitization in a 51-year-old female patient with bilateral hearing impairment the tender points on the right ear were related to otitis media (A) the tender points on the left ear were related to a plug of wax (B). Fig. 5.31 Auricular sensitization in a 51-year-old female patient with bilateral hearing impairment the tender points on the right ear were related to otitis media (A) the tender points on the left ear were related to a plug of wax (B). right ear (left side of Fig. 5.31) was affected by otitis media catarrhalis, the left (right side of the same figure) by a plug of earwax. Both ears showed two tender points those on the left side disappeared soon after removing the plug but those on the right persisted for as long as medication was necessary to free the...

Jugular foramen syndrome

Primary lesions of the jugular foramen include glomus jugulare tumors, schwannomas, and meningiomas. Metastatic lesions to the jugular foramen are more common than primary neoplasms (36,38-42). Glomus jugulare tumors are the most common primary neoplasms of the jugular foramen. These are vascular tumors arising from neuroectodermally derived paraganglia present at the jugular fossa, the inferior tympanic canaliculus, the promontory, and within the vagus nerve. Paraganglia are very similar histologically and embryologically to the adrenal medulla. They, along with their derivative glomus tumors (jugulare and tympanicum), are typically supplied by the inferior tympanic branch of the ascending pharyngeal artery (43) however, the blood supply to glomus tumors may be very extensive, originating from the external carotid, the internal carotid, and the vertebral arteries (44). These tumors are more common in females (6 1 female-to-male ratio) and usually present in middle age. Functional...

Syndromic congenital heart disease

Down Syndrome is the most common disorder of chromosome dosage with an incidence of 1 in 700 to 1 in 800 live births. The incidence is known to increase tremendously with increased maternal age, particularly above the age of 35. The main clinical manifestations of Down Syndrome are characteristic dysmorphic facies, mental retardation, premature ageing, congenital heart disease, hearing loss, and increased risk of hematologic malignancies.(Pueschel 1990) Noonan Syndrome (NS) is a dysmorphic cardiofacial syndrome inherited mostly in an autosomal dominant fashion, with some cases occurring sporadically. Its incidence ranges between 1 in 1000 to 1 in 2500 live births.(Tartaglia and others 2010) The characteristic physical features are downward eyeslanting of the eyes, hypertelorism, low-set ears, short stature, short and webbed neck, and epicanthic folds.(Tartaglia and others 2010) Congenital Heart Disease is found in 80 to 90 of patients with Noonan Syndrome and valvar pulmonary stenosis...

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

Fennel seeds and seed oil (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) are used to promote health, in prevention of diseases, and as a flavoring agent in food items. The seeds are sweet, laxative, stomachic, and stimulant, and are used as an appetizer. They are also used to treat headache, madness, flu, eye problems, weakness of eyesight, as a brain tonic, and in deafness. Deafness 250 g fennel seeds in powder form plus equal amounts of sweetener and cow's milk are mixed and stored in clay pots. This is advised, with cow's milk, in the morning and evening, for deafness and as a brain tonic (Kabir-ud-Din & Mahmood, 1937 Chughtai, 1950).


This type of group therapy is contraindicated for patients who are suicidal, paranoid, and extremely aggressive. It is also contraindicated with patients who cannot attend to group process because of severe cognitive impairment, severe hearing loss, language difficulty, or for patients who constantly devalue others in an attempt to boost their own egos.

Central and Peripheral Nervous System

Age-related hearing loss is a feature of biological aging. It affects the cochlear neural structures and leads to loss of acuity, especially for higher pitched tones. It is speculated that apoptosis of the most vital neural cells drives this hearing loss, based on mutations in the mitochondria due to life-long free-radical stress.

Castor Oil Plant Castor Bean

Traditional Medicinal Uses Its leaf poultice is applied to boils and sores in India to treat headaches and fever in Hawaii. 91 The leaves and roots are used in a decoction for anal prolapse, arthritis, constipation, facial palsy, lymph-adenopathy, strabismus, uteral prolapse, cough, and also as a discutient and expectorant. The heated leaves are applied to gout and swellings as well. 51 The leaves and oil are used for dermatological purposes in Nigeria. 101 Its seeds are used to treat abscesses and skin eruptions, deafness, headache, skin problems, bleeding, constipation, boils, piles and to promote labour. 41 They are rubbed on the temple for headache, powdered for abscesses, boils, and carbuncles. The plant is also used for dogbite, scrofula and several skin infections. The Chinese rub the oil on the body for skin ailments. The seeds are crushed and made into a pulp and rubbed into the palms for palsy, introduced into the urethra in stricture and rubbed on the soles of feet of...


The prognosis for patients with AIED is quite variable. Part of this variability can be explained by the diverse nature of the disorder. Autoimmune injury in general can be from direct antibody injury toward specific epitopes, from immune complex deposits, or from cellmediated attacks by T cells. Depending on the cause of the autoimmune process and the speed with which it is treated, the damage to the cochlea and vestibule can be reversible or permanent. Cogan's syndrome, for example, carries a poor prognosis leading to bilateral profound hearing loss in greater than 60 of cases, even with aggressive treatment (see Complications of AIED include deafness as well as oscillopsia. Cochlear implants are an excellent choice for rehabilitation of patients with AIED who have progressed to unaidable profound bilateral hearing loss. As the autoimmune process damages the inner ear, cochlear nerve function remains intact, allowing for excellent results upon cochlear implantation. There have been...

Herpes Zoster Oticus Varicella Zoster Chicken

Incidence of facial nerve involvement. Herpes zoster oticus, also termed Ramsay Hunt syndrome, is a specific subset of varicella-zoster reactivation. Patients with herpes zoster oticus present with the classic triad of otalgia, auricular vesicles, and facial paralysis. Patients may also develop other cranial neuropathies, as well as hyperacusis and sensorineural hearing loss. In fact, facial nerve involvement is so common with varicella-zoster reactivation that it remains second only to Bell's palsy as the most common cause of acute peripheral facial paralysis in the United States. Treatment is with valacyclovir 1000 mg t.i.d. for seven days, as well as prednisone 1 mg kg day (divided) tapered over 7 to 10 days. Sensorineural hearing loss and vertigo may be present with herpes zoster oticus but not with Bell's palsy. The prognosis is poorer than for Bell's palsy, with only 50 demonstrating satisfactory improvement. The course of facial nerve paralysis evolves more slowly, over three...

Middle Ear Barotrauma

Ear infection The common name for otitis media, this is an infection involving the middle ear (that cavity between the eardrum and the inner ear). A middle ear infection can produce pus or fluid and cause hearing loss. While an ear infection is painful, it is not terribly serious it is easily treated and there are not usually any long-term complications. Some children (especially babies with ear infections within two months of birth) have recurrent ear infections. They seem to run in families and are characterized by persistent fluid in the middle ear and short-term hearing loss. These conditions may require long-term antibiotics or surgery. Acute middle ear infection causes sudden, severe earache, deafness, ringing of the ear (tinnitus), sense of fullness in the ear, and fever. occasionally, the eardrum can burst, which causes a discharge of pus and relief of pain. Parents may notice a baby or young child suffering cold with thick discharge, irritability, pulling or tugging at the...

Psychoeducation and the Early Phases of CT with Older Adults

In these initial sessions, therapists also need to attend to any sensory deficits older patients may have. At least 14 of noninstitutionalized older adults have some type of sensory deficit 35 of older adults age 85 and older have these impairments (Waldrop & Stern, 2003). When conducting therapy with an older adult with visual or hearing problems, the therapist should sit in front of the person in a well-lighted environment when speaking. Although many therapists prefer muted lighting in their offices to instill a calming effect, this may impair an older person's ability to connect to the therapist. Therapists should encourage visually impaired patients to use devices such as magnifying glasses and large-print materials. A therapist may want to consider utilizing other modalities to present therapy modules, such as audiotaping sessions and providing auditory instructions for homework and data collection (e.g., audiotaped thought diaries). Similarly, when conducting therapy with an...

Allergy Skin Tests

Alport's syndrome A genetic disease that causes kidney inflammation in childhood, followed by a sensorineural hearing loss in young adulthood, and eye problems later in life. It is more common among boys than girls. There is no clear relationship between the extent of kidney disease and the onset of deafness. Alport syndrome affects about one in 5,000 Americans, striking boys more often and more severely than girls. There are several varieties of the syndrome, some occurring in childhood and others not causing symptoms until men reach their 20s or 30s. All varieties of the syndrome are characterized by kidney disease that usually progresses to chronic kidney failure and by uremia (the presence of excessive amounts of urea and other waste products in the blood).


Systemic rheumatic disease may present with a variety of manifestations in the head and neck regions. Especially important among these are the dermatologic findings of SLE, DM, and scleroderma. Rashes characteristic of these disorders may also arise later in the course of the diseases. Some of the more frequently reported manifestations to be aware of are autoimmune hearing loss, especially in SLE esophageal dysmotility in scleroderma oropharyngeal and esophageal involvement in DM PM and keratoconjunctivitis sicca and cervical spine involvement in RA.

Genes and Disease

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis can detect abnormal genes, such as those related to Huntington's disease, certain types of deafness, Down's syndrome, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease, or breast and colon cancer in human preembryos before they are implanted in the uterus in the process of in vitro fertilization. Prospective parents concerned about passing a serious gene-based disease to their child often take genetic tests, especially if one or both come from a population known to have a high incidence of gene-related disorders. If an embryo is found to be genetically defective, it can be destroyed.


AIED can be defined as a fluctuating or rapidly progressing sensorineural hearing loss that is responsive to immunosuppressive therapy. Vestibular dysfunction may or may not be present. In some cases, a concurrent systemic autoimmune disorder exists at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, AIED can exist in isolation as an organ-specific disease (primary AIED) or can occur as a nonspecific injury as part of a systemic autoimmune disease (secondary AIED). Currently, there is no diagnostic laboratory test or imaging modality available to confirm the diagnosis with certainty.

Auditory Plasticity

The converging neuronal data from experimental animals suggest that similar changes in response properties of cortical and subcortical neurons also occur in humans. The improvements in performance of human subjects in auditory discrimination tasks, the normal high frequency hearing loss during aging, the change from language-general to language-specific processing of phonetic information during language acquisition, and injuries to the cochlea or central auditory structures, are presumably resulting in changes in single neuron responses and in cortical and subcortical representations. It is quite likely that neuronal plasticity across other sensory modalities and other cognitive functions, particularly in the cerebral cortex, underlies the ability of humans and other mammals to adapt to a changing environment and acquire new skills and behaviors throughout life. Robertson, D., and D. R. Irvine. (1989). Plasticity of frequency organization in auditory cortex of guinea pigs with partial...

Low Birthweight

The percentage of LBW infants in the United States rose during the last two decades of the twentieth century. This increase, coupled with the improved survival of LBW infants, has heightened the need to further understand the long-term outcomes of LBW infants in regard to growth, development, and disease, as well as the impact these children have on the health care system. When compared to normal birth-weight children, LBW children have higher rates of mental retardation, cerebral palsy, blindness, deafness, psychomotor problems, school failure, subnormal growth, and health problems, which are


Symptoms Severe headache, with a sensation of great heaviness at the back of the head. The scalp is sensitive to the cold and to touch. The head may feel sensitive, as if a cold breeze is blowing on it, or numb and wooden. A degree of temporary deafness is a possible associated symptom, and there may be an accompanying feeling of nausea (see above). Symptoms better For pressure on the temples. Symptoms worse For cold for touch for shaking when coughing.

Cytomegalovirus 135

Young children may experience a mild cold or flulike illness with fever. Almost all babies infected before birth are normal about 10 percent are sick. of these 10 percent, 20 to 30 percent have serious symptoms and may die. Symptoms include problems with major organs including the liver, brain, eyes, and lungs other symptoms include convulsions, lethargy, tiny pinpoint rash, and breathing problems. If the infant survives, there may be permanent damage (mental retardation, water on the brain, small brain, hearing loss, eye inflammation, poor coordination, and liver disease).

Ear Infection

A common childhood infection involving the middle ear (that cavity between the eardrum and the inner ear) known medically as otitis media. Symptoms of a middle ear infection include hearing loss and the presence of pus or fluid. The infection may be treated with antibiotics. An ear infection can cause a great deal of pain, but since it can be treated simply and effectively, there are rarely any serious, long-term complications. Serious cases may occur in some children who experience recurring ear infections. This most commonly develops within two months of birth and is characterized by persistent fluid in the middle ear and temporary hearing loss. This condition may be hereditary, and sometimes must be treated with long-term use of antibiotics or surgery.


About one in eight patients with herpes zoster infection has at least one complication of this condition. Major complications include postherpetic neuralgia, uveitis, motor deficits, skin infection, and systemic involvement (with manifestations such as meningoencephalitis, pneumonia, deafness, or dissemination). Postherpetic neuralgia occurs most frequently in patients older than 50 years of age and can be prolonged and intractable despite early antiviral therapy. The pain is often excruciating and does not respond well to conventional methods of pain control. Granulomatous vasculitis has recently been added to the list of complications (25).

Indications Chicory

Acne (f WO2) Adenopathy (f JLH) Ague (f GMH) Alzheimer's (1 COX X15649409) Amenorrhea (f DEP KAB) Anorexia (f12 APA BOU FAD FAH KOM PH2 VVG) Arrhythmia (1 APA) Arthrosis (f1 COX KAB X15649409) Asthma (f WO2) Atony (f BOU) Bacteria (1 FAD X15567253 X15567253) Biliousness (f HJP KAB WBB) Cancer (f1 APA JLH) Cancer, breast (f1 JLH) Cancer, colon (f1 COX X15649409 X15877900) Cancer, face (f1 JLH) Cancer, gum (f1 JLH) Cancer, liver (f1 JLH) Cancer, lung (f1 X7569446) Cancer, mouth (f1 JLH) Cancer, spleen (f1 JLH) Cancer, stomach (f1 JLH) Cancer, tongue (f1 JLH) Cancer, uterus (f1 JLH) Cardiopathy (1 APA FAD) Catarrh (f HHB HJP WBB) Chancre (f1 DEM) Cholecystosis (2 HHB PHR) Conjunctivosis (f GMH) Constipation (f1 FNF) Cramp (f JHP PH2) Cystosis (f VAD) Deafness (f PH2) Dermatosis (f APA FAD PH2) Diabetes (1 FAD) Diarrhea (f PH2 WO2) Dropsy (f NAD) Dysmenorrhea (f WBB WO2) Dyspepsia (f12 APA BOU FAD GHA

Other Factors

If a mother has Rh-negative blood and she gives birth to a child with Rh-positive, the resulting Rh-factor incompatibility can led to deafness in subsequent fetuses. The cells from the first baby trigger the development of antibodies to the Rh-positive blood in the mother while this will not harm the first baby, subsequent pregnancies carry a risk of damaging the hearing mechanism of the fetus when the antibodies attack the red blood cells of any Rh-positive fetus. Kernicterus Extremely high levels of bilirubin in a newborn that occur as a result of jaundice can sometimes lead to a condition called kernicterus that can damage the cochlear nuclei in the brain, causing hearing loss. About 6 percent of newborns experience a sen-sorineural hearing loss ranging from mild to severe if deprived of oxygen at birth. In premature infants, about 5 percent will experience some type of mild-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss. Atresia In about one of every 30,000 live births, a baby is born with...

The Present Study

For the verbal dichotic-listening task participants were first screened so as to eliminate any obvious hearing impairment. The headphones were adjusted and calibrated so that the stimuli were presented at 70-db for each ear. The stimuli consisted of 36 pairs of all possible combinations of the consonant-vowel (CV) stimuli formed by adding a to the stop consonants b , d , g , p , k and t - i.e. ba , da , ga , pa , ka and ta . Stimulus pairs were spoken by a male voice and aligned by computer to ensure simultaneous presentation to left and right ears.These stimulus pairs were inter-leaved with trials on which the same item was presented to the two ears. This was to ensure that the stimuli were being correctly perceived and acted as a control for any hearing impairment. Only the data for the dichotic trials are analysed and referred to below because incorrect reporting of the binaural trials would have indicated a problem with hearing (or reporting), which would have led us to drop the...

High Risk Infants

Not all children with developmental disability have known risk factors at birth and many times the cause of delay is not known. An infant with an established risk typically has a diagnosed medical condition known to be associated with a high probability of developmental disability. Examples of conditions with established risk are chromosomal abnormalities (such as Trisomy 21), sensory impairments (such as visual or hearing impairment), and neurological defects.

Risk Factors

They are also at risk for chronic lung disease, deafness, and brain hemorrhages, which add to their developmental risk. Infants with severe lung disease or neonatal seizures are at increased risk. Some infants have metabolic or endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism or phenylke-tonuria, which place them at increased risk without appropriate intervention. Lastly, acquired infections in infancy, particularly involving the brain, can result in compromised development. Children with developmental delay due to biological risk factors are often diagnosed in infancy.


In view of the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy throughout most of the word, a consultation on prevention of blindness from diabetes mellitus was convened by the WHO unit of Prevention of Blindness and Deafness to review the current status of diabetic retinopathy care and to define approaches for screening, early detection and management in populations in different settings. (See agenda in Annex 1.) The consultation was held within the context of a contractual agreement between the programme for Prevention of Blindness and Deafness, WHO, and the National Eye Institute of the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America. The participants were drawn from all the WHO regions and represented experts in both general diabetes care and ophthalmology. (See Annex 2.) Durng the consultation, the participants sought to build on prior international collaboration and previous successful work of WHO, Member States, the International...

Congenital Syphilis

Children who survive the early disease manifestations will then enter a latent phase. Late symptoms may present years to decades later. Skeletal defects from the osteo-chondritis and periostitis are quite notable, with characteristic facies consisting of a high arched palate, protruding mandible, frontal bossing, and saddle-nose deformity. Other structural defects include palatal and nasal septum perforations, anterior bowing of the lower extremities known as saber shins, and bilateral knee effusions termed Clutton's joints. Hutchinson's triad consists of eighth nerve deafness, interstitial keratitis, and peg-shaped, centrally notched, widely spaced central incisors known as Hutchinson's teeth. Congenital otosyphilis is usually more severe than that seen with acquired syphilis. It typically presents with sudden onset, profound, bilateral hearing loss with rare vestibular symptoms. Untreated, congenital syphilis frequently progresses to neurosyphilis with sequelae similar to the...


Function Thiamin pyrophosphate is an essential co fact or of live enzymes involved in carbohydrate, amino acid intermediary (tricarboxylic acid cycle), and phvtol metabolism thiamin triphosphate is important for brain function. Food sources Good sources are yeast, legumes, enriched grain products, and pork. Requirements Men should get 1.2 nig d women 1.1 mgd needs are slightly higher during pregnancy and lactation. Use of diuretics increases dietary needs. Deficiency Early signs may include anorexia, weight loss, muscle weakness, apathy, confusion, and irritability. Later consequences include edema (wet Ben ben), muscle wasting (dry Beriberi), and psychosis (Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome). Onset of cardiac failure in young infants can be very sudden and rapidly lethal. Alcohol abuse is often associated w ith deficiency, possibly because alcohol interferes w ith thiamin uptake and metabolism a rare genetic disturbance of transporter-mediated cellular uptake results in megaloblastic...

Laura A

During the course of her treatments, she encountered physical changes, including hair loss, weight loss, and surgery scars. Since treatment, she has had to adjust to permanent changes in her body, including hearing loss and organ damage, among others. She has also had to learn new ways to chew food. The experience was physically difficult and at times very scary. Laura says

Substance Abuse

For thousands of years, resins from poppy plants were ingested to produce a pleasurable effect. In paintings, Hypnos, the Greek god of sleep, is shown carrying poppy plants. The Roman god of sleep, Somnus, is pictured carrying the plant. The Greek physician, Galen, wrote that opium cures headaches, dizziness, deafness, epilepsy, poor vision, asthma tightness of breath, colic, jaundice, gall stones, urinary disorders, fevers, dropsy, leprosy, the troubles to which women are subject, and melancholy.

Endocrine System

Paraneoplastic syndrome was first described by Moersch (9). In this syndrome, malignant tumors manifest antibody sites against which immune responses are developed. The immune responses can cross-react with neural tissues, typically cerebellar or brainstem. Thus, unusually, tinnitus may be the first manifestation of a remote pulmonary or renal tumor (10). Soon after the appearance of tinnitus, more severe brainstem or cerebellar symptoms appear, including ataxia, hearing loss, diplopia, and uncontrollable nystagmus.

Autoimmune Diseases

Autoimmune inflammation of the inner ear may occur in isolation as an organ-specific process or may be part of a systemic autoimmune syndrome (20). Evidence is mounting to support the existence of an organ-specific cochlear autoimmune disease. The presence of antibodies to cochlear antigens, such as the 68 kD inner-ear antigen, as well as an impressive response to immunosuppressive medications, implicate autoimmunity as the underlying pathologic process in some patients with idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss. These patients with autoimmune inner-ear disease (more accurately termed immune-mediated inner-ear disease, since proof for autoimmunity is still lacking) have a fluctuating progressive sensorineural hearing loss, often associated with vertigo and tinnitus. Generally, hearing loss progresses rapidly, within a period of weeks and months, to an irreversible end-stage disease. While at any given moment, one ear may be more significantly affected, the process eventually affects...


The major ototoxic agents in use remain cisplatin and aminoglycosides. Cisplatin ototoxicity manifests as hearing loss, while aminoglycosides may cause auditory and or vestibular complaints. Gentamicin and streptomycin are much more likely to present with vestibular complaints, specifically imbalance. In contrast, amikacin, kanamycin, and dihydrostreptomycin are more toxic to the cochlea. Tobramycin carries an approximately equivalent risk of toxicity to the cochlea and vestibular labyrinth. intravenous erythromycin may cause a reversible sensorineural hearing loss. Quinine derivatives and salicylates can cause reversible tinnitus.


Many treatments have been advocated for sudden sensorineural hearing loss, which is presumed to be of viral (or rarely vascular) origin. The diagnosis of autoimmune inner-ear disease is still predicated by a documented response to corticosteroid administration (20). Treatment strategies have varied between reports, but, in general, a dose of prednisone, 40 to 60 mg in the adult for two weeks, is an appropriate therapeutic trial. Substantial improvement on this dosage regimen would then warrant a slow taper of steroids over several months with close observation for recurrence. Even prompt administration of these There are several circumstances that warrant special mention. Patients with M ni re's disease and certain forms of genetic hearing loss may manifest spontaneous fluctuations in hearing. In these situations, the administration of steroids at the onset of the hearing loss may result in a false impression that the subsequent spontaneous improvement in hearing was actually the...


Hearing-aid amplification remains the mainstay of rehabilitation for patients with sensorineural hearing loss. Unfortunately, hearings aids are amplifiers, not clarifiers, and, as such, leave patients less than satisfied. Cochlear implants have revolutionized the management of patients with severe sensorineural hearing loss or deafness. They are the only prosthesis that successfully replaces sensory function. Many objective studies have proven their value in the treatment of pediatric patients' prelingual and postlingual severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss, and in adults with postlingual sensorineural hearing loss. Implant devices and surgical techniques have been refined since their introduction and surgical complications are rare. This remains a rapidly expanding and exciting field as software and hardware become more sophisticated and indications for use of these devices broaden.


The treatment of facial palsy in active tubercular otitis media or mastoiditis is controversial. Singh published a review of 43 patients to assess the role of surgery in tuberculous mastoiditis. Of the patients, 17 had facial paralysis in this study. He found that 92 of patients treated with antituberculosis medical therapy without surgery had recovery of the facial nerve, with only 80 of patients undergoing surgery (cortical mastoidectomy and removal of sequestrum) obtaining recovery. In the surgical patients, facial nerve decompression was not performed as a part of the operation. These results may reflect more severe cases being selected into the surgical group. The authors concluded that the only role for surgery is incision and drainage of a postauricular abscess or removal of sequestrum, if present and chemotherapeutic management is the treatment of choice for tubercular mastoiditis (22). Harbert in 1964 had a similar conclusion and felt that surgical intervention was...


Disasters in Minamata, Japan, in the 1950s and in Iraq in 1971-1972 demonstrated that acute prenatal exposure may result in severe mental retardation, cerebral palsy, blindness, and deafness. However, whether exposure to lower chronic doses, which may occur if pregnant women consume large amounts of fish, can also lead to adverse neurodevelopmental consequences is less certain. Large, long-term prospective epidemio-logical studies of high fish-eating populations have not found a consistent pattern of association between exposure and neuropsychological outcomes. Although subtle neuropsychological changes were reported in a study of children in the Faroe Islands study, where exposure was mainly from whale consumption, a similar study in the Seychelles found no adverse effects from fish consumption alone.

Fibrous Dysplasia

Neuropathy has been well described and is due to direct compressive effects of the abnormal bony remodeling. When the temporal bone is involved, the most common clinical manifestations are external auditory canal stenosis and conductive hearing loss. Although optic neuropathy is more frequent, facial paralysis has also been associated with fibrous dysplasia. Facial palsy has been reported in 9 of patients with temporal bone involvement (121).


One subtype of osteopetroses, termed sclerosteosis, has a proclivity for facial nerve involvement. It is characterized by syndactyly, conductive hearing loss, and sclerosis, and almost always has progressive recurrent facial nerve palsy (123). Attacks of facial paralysis commonly begin in childhood, are recurrent, and often alternate sides of the face. Total nerve degeneration is the rule and recovery with significant synkinesis at three to five months is the usual outcome (124).


Deficiency A lack of iodine may cause spontaneous abortion and birth defects it impairs irreversibly brain and physical development in the fetus and young child causing from mild to severe mental retardation, sometimes also hearing loss or paralysis of the legs. Deficiency in older children and adults stimulates excessive growth of the thyroid gland (goiter), slows metabolic rate, mental and cardiac function, and induces a feeling of fatigue and cold intolerance.

Sensory Impairments

A majority of people with Down's syndrome have a range of significant hearing impairments. Causes can be associated with the auditory nerve (sen-sorineural), stifling of the sound waves entering the auditory apparatus (conductive) or a mixture of both. The main cause of conductive loss is persistent middle-ear infection (otitis media), often with a discharge (effusion), commonly known as glue ear. In adults with Down's syndrome, this may be a predominantly recurring problem, and they will need frequent monitoring, as hearing loss could be significant (Dennis 2000). Adults with Down's syndrome have anatomically distinct narrow ear canals and this frequently causes a build-up of earwax (cerumen), which affects the hearing. In addition to obvious difficulties in daily living and education, hearing impairment should be considered within the assessment process for dementia and for mood and behaviour disorders.

Sign Languages

Signed languages typically appear as the primary communication systems of people for whom the use of spoken languages is blocked, either by deafness or muteness. The best-known sign languages are used by profoundly deaf people, but sign languages have also been noted (though less well studied) in non-deaf members of occupational or cultural groups where hearing or speaking is impossible (e.g., sawmill workers, monks taking vows of silence, cultures where speech is prohibited for long periods during mourning or surrounding puberty Johnson 1978 Kendon 1988). Under any of these circumstances, sign languages appear to arise quite commonly probably every known group of nonspeaking deaf people observed around the world uses some sign language, and even isolated deaf individuals have been observed to develop a sign language to communicate with hearing relatives and friends (Goldin-Meadow and My lander 1984 Coppola et Quigley, S., and P. Paul. (1986). A perspective on academic achievement. In...

Infection Viral

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a double-stranded DNA virus in the herpesvirus family. CMV presents similarly to EBV and patients are commonly misdiagnosed with mononucleosis when acutely infected. CMV is transmitted by direct contact of mucosal surfaces, blood transfusion or organ transplant, maternal breast milk consumption, and rarely by aerosolized viral particles. Symptoms predominantly include fever, lymphadenopathy, and less commonly pharyngitis. Ulceration of the pharynx or esophagus may be present in severe cases, especially in immunocompromised patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). CMV infection during pregnancy may result in fetal hearing loss, visual impairment, and diminished mental and or motor capabilities.

WHO Secretariat

Etya'ale, Medical Officer, Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Dr PH. Huguet, Medical Officer, Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Dr Ivo Kocur, Medical Officer, Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Dr Silvio Mariotti, Medical Officer, Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Dr R. Pararajasegaram, Temporary Adviser, Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Dr G.P. Pokharel (Secretary), Medical Officer, Prevention of Blindness and Deafness DrT. Uketi, Technical Officer, Prevention of Blindness and Deafness


Other head and neck manifestations of infection include sensorineural hearing loss in otosyphilis chancres of the oral cavity in primary syphilis and pharynx in secondary syphilis laryngeal chancres mucous patches or gummata encompassing the full spectrum of stages associated with syphilitic infection and numerous effects of congenital syphilis such as palatal defects, saddle nose deformities, and congenital deafness.

Temper Tantrums

Tantrums consistent with normal toddler development reflect a striving for emotional independence and limited expressive language skills during frustrating events. Other contributing factors include the child's temperament. Intense, persistent children, shy, fearful children, and those with frequent episodes of stranger anxiety are more likely to experience tantrums. A delay in language development, hearing impairment, and disorders of the central nervous system may limit coping strategies and lead to tantrums.


In 1991 Paaske et al reported the results of a randomised, double-blind study of 48 patients with tinnitus that had failed to find a significant effect on symptoms with sustained-release zinc sulfate tablets. Of note, only one subject had low zinc serum levels. More recently, a study of 111 subjects aged 20-59 years found individuals with tinnitus who had normal hearing had significantly lower serum zinc levels than controls, whereas zinc levels were normal for those with accompanying hearing loss (Ochi et al 2003). In addition, a significant correlation between average hearing sensitivity and serum zinc level was observed. Yetiser et al (2002) investigated serum zinc levels and response to supplementation in 40 patients with severe tinnitus of various origins. Some relief in tinnitus symptoms was reported by 57.5 of all subjects who received 220 mg of zinc daily for 2 months however, the effect was considered minor. When results were divided by age, a different finding emerged as 82...


Example In the working phase of group for survivors of abuse and molestation, a client talks about her fierce determination to play piano at age five even though her brother would hit her on the head when he would walk by, abuse of sufficient severity to cause partial deafness. The client describes her drive to succeed despite the brutality in the family and notices that she uses that skill in the dynamics of her very competitive graduate school. Group expresses rage at brother and anger at lack of parental protection, with high level of affect including tears. This is followed by statements of respect for client, noticing numerous behaviorally specific examples of her ability to focus and persevere in the midst of adversity and her support of others in the group. Other members, with some leader support, find parallel events in their own lives.

Common Names Costus

Angina (1 PH2 JAC7 405) Anorexia (f PH2) Arthrosis (f1 KAB X12222664) Asthma (f DEP IHB PH2 SUW) Bacteria (1 HH2 PH2 X15814268) Bronchosis (f1 KAB PH2 WOI) Cancer (f HHB KAP) Cancer, abdomen (f HHB JLH) Cancer, colon (f JLH) Cancer, liver (f JLH) Cancer, spleen (f JLH) Cancer, stomach (1 X15737683) Candida (1 HH2) Cardiopathy (1 PH2 SKJ) Childbirth (f IHB) Cholera (f DEP NAD PH2 SUW) Constipation (fl IHB) Cough (f DEP KAB PH2 SUW) Cramp (f MKK) Deafness (f KAB) Dermatosis (f DEP IHB KAP PH2 SUW) Diabetes (1 JAC7 405) Dysentery (f MKK) Dyspepsia (f DEP KAP NAD) Edema (1 X12222664) Enterosis (f HHB) Epilepsy (f KAB) Erysipelas (f KAB) Fever (f IHB KAB) Fungus (f1 HH2 KAB) Gas (f1 KAB PH2) Gastrosis (1 PH2 X15737683) Headache (f KAB) Helicobacter (1 X15814268) Hepatosis (f JLH) Hiccup (f KAB KAP) High Blood Pressure (f HH2) Hysteria (f KAB) Induration (f JLH) Infection (1 HH2 PH2) Inflammation (f KAB) Insomnia (f1 NAD) Itch (f KAB) Klebsiella (1 HH2) Leprosy (f KAB KAP) Leukoderma (f...

Figure 113

If patients with pure word deafness have a severe deficit in phonemic processing, then their speech perception should improve when they have access to other kinds of information. This is the case. Okada et al. (1963) studied a patient with pure word deafness who could use contextual information. The patient found it much easier to understand spoken questions when they all referred to the same topic than when they did not. In another study, Auerbach et al. (1982) found that patients with pure word deafness had better speech perception when lip-reading was possible. A crucial aspect of pure word deafness is that auditory perception problems are highly selective, and do not apply to non-speech sounds. Evidence that separate systems deal with speech and non-speech sounds was reported by Fujii et al. (1990). They studied a patient who had suffered brain damage within the right hemisphere. He found it very hard to name familiar environmental sounds, but his language abilities were only...

Head and Neck

Ear pain, nystagmus, dizziness, hearing loss, and tinnitus FIGURE 2 Scalp necrosis resulting from infarction of the temporal artery. There is also tongue necrosis and ptosis on the left. The patient had developed sudden hearing loss of the left ear as well. Source Courtesy of Gene G. Hunder, MD, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, U.S.A. FIGURE 2 Scalp necrosis resulting from infarction of the temporal artery. There is also tongue necrosis and ptosis on the left. The patient had developed sudden hearing loss of the left ear as well. Source Courtesy of Gene G. Hunder, MD, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, U.S.A. Audiovestibular Manifestations. Ear pain may be due to involvement of the tympanic artery and may be associated with inner ear disease. Patients may develop dizziness with nystagmus and hearing loss, which may be profound. These symptoms are due to involvement of the labyrinth or the central regions of the cochleovestibular nucleus. Tinnitus may appear. Up to two-thirds of patients with GCA...

Indications Garlic

LIB TGP) Bacillus (1 LAW X10548758) Bacteria (1 JFM PH2) Bite (f FAY JFM) Boil (f1 DAA) Bronchiestasis (1 KAL) Bronchosis (f12 FAD PHR PH2 BOD WHO) Burn (f12 KAL) Callus (f JFM PH2) Cancer (f12 AKT FAD PH2) Cancer, abdomen (f1 AKT FNF JLH) Cancer, bladder (f1 FNF JLH X11341051 X11238811) Cancer, breast (f1 BRU JN131 989s) Cancer, colon (f1 AKT (f1 FNF JLH)) Cancer, esophagus (f1 JN131 1075s) Cancer, gland (1 X11238818) Cancer, liver (f1 BO2 PR14 564) Cancer, lung (f1 BRU FNF JLH JN131 989s) Cancer, prostate (f1 X11102955) Cancer, skin (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, stomach (f1 AKT VOD X11238811) Cancer, uterus (f1 FNF JLH) Candidiasis (f12 CAN KAL TRA VOD) Carbuncle (f FAY) Cardiopathy (f123 BGB EGG FAD SKY VOD) Caries (f1 FNF KAB) Catarrh (f1 AKT BGB) Celiac (1 KAL) Chilblain (f EGG) Childbirth (f JFM KAB) Cholecocystosis (f APA) Cholera (f1 PNC TRA) Chronic Fatigue (f JFM) Circulosis (f DLZ) Coccidiosis (1 KAL) Cold (f12 AKT FAD GHA PHR PNC) Colic (f1 GHA WHO) Colosis (1 KAL LAW) Congestion...

Secondary Syphilis

Secondary Syphilis

One of the areas in which head and neck manifestations become apparent is with central nervous system (CNS) involvement, which may occur in up to 40 of secondary syphilis. This most commonly presents with headache and meningismus acute aseptic meningitis will be apparent in 1 to 2 of patients (7). Symptoms of visual disturbance, hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and facial weakness may appear with cranial nerve or temporal bone involvement. Nerves II through VIII are affected most frequently. Labyrinthine involvement in secondary syphilis is more likely to produce abrupt, bilateral, rapidly progressive hearing loss, with vestibular symptoms less frequent. CNS involvement may also produce various distal neurologic deficits. The likelihood of progressing to late neurosyphilis is increased with CNS involvement during secondary syphilis approximately 8 to 10 of untreated patients will do so (7). The aspect of neurosyphilis most relevant to the otolaryngologist is the phenomenon of...


Sensorineural hearing loss has been reported to occur, but has not been found to correlate with other disease manifestations (20,21). Virtually the entire gastrointestinal tract can be affected in scleroderma. Swallowing dysfunction due to oropharyngeal involvement can occur (22) and increase the risk of aspiration. Esophageal dysmotility and nonobstructive dysphagia are seen in the majority of patients, making symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux very common.

Indications Onion

WHO) Anthrax (1 LIB) Aphonia (f DLZ) Apoplexy (f DEP) Atherosclerosis (2 APA KOM PH2 SHT) Asthma (f1 APA BRU JFM PHR PH2) Atherosclerosis (1 JFM WO2) Bacillus (1 X4064797) Bacteria (1 JFM PH2) Bite (f DEP) Biliousness (f KAB) Bite (f BOU NAD) Bleeding (f KAB) Blister (f1 EGG SKJ) Boil (f1 NAD SKJ) Bronchosis (2 BGB PHR PH2 WHO) Bruise (f EGG PHR WHO) Bugbite (f PHR) Burn (f JLH PHR) Cancer (1 APA JLH) Cancer, breast (f1 FNF JLH JNU) Cancer, colon (f1 JNU) Cancer, esophagus (f1 JNU) Cancer, gland (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, liver (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, lung (f1 JNU) Cancer, rectum (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, stomach (f1 APA BRU FNF JLH JAC7 405) Cancer, uterus (f1 FNF JLH) Candida (f1 X10594976) Carbuncle (f KAB LIB) Cardiopathy (f1 APA JFM JNU) Caries (1 X9354029) Cataract (f BOU) Catarrh (f KAB) Chest Cold (f JFM) Chilblain (f KAP X15664457) Cholecocystosis (f JFM PHR) Cholera (f DEP WHO) Circu-losis (f EGG) Cold (f12 DEM GHA PHR PH2) Colic (f EGG PHR PH2 WHO) Colosis (f KAP) Congestion (f1 APA BGB...

Genetic Diseases

Congenital hearing loss is common, and about one-half of cases are thought to be genetic. Genetic hearing loss is typically classified as syndromic or nonsyndromic. When hearing loss consistently coexists with other pathologic findings, it is considered part of a syndrome when it exists in isolation, it is nonsyndromic. As our focus is on systemic diseases, nonsyndromic hearing loss, which accounts for two-thirds of hereditary hearing loss, will not be discussed extensively. Mutations in the GJB2 gene coding for connexin 26 are now thought to account for over half of the cases of nonsyndromic genetic hearing loss (1). Nearly 100 mutations have been identified, some being quite specific to individual ethnic groups. Hearing loss tends to be moderate to severe, symmetric, and nonprogressive. There are no associated temporal bone malformations, and patients tend to do well after cochlear implantation. There are more than 400 syndromes associated with sensorineural hearing loss. It is...

Infectious Diseases

Hearing loss is an uncommon presenting symptom of a systemic infectious disease but may develop during the course of several viral and bacterial infections. Pathogens may infect the inner ear and auditory pathways in utero, resulting in congenital syndromes that often include deafness, or infection may be acquired after birth. As the fluids of the inner ear are not easily accessible for sampling, the implication of viral pathogens as the causes of sensorineural hearing loss has often depended on circumstantial evidence, including an associated viral illness for example, an upper respiratory infection or demonstration of seroconversion during the time of hearing loss. Cytomegalovirus. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a large, double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the herpesvirus family. Its name is derived from the typical appearance of infected tissues, containing massively enlarged cytomegalic inclusion cells. CMV is the most common congenital infection in the world. Of babies born in the...


An increased risk for ototoxicity has been reported with the coadministration of aminoglycosides and loop diuretics 5-7,33 . Ethacrynic acid has been reported to cause hearing loss when administered alone and in conjunction with aminoglycosides such as kanamycin and streptomycin. Furo-semide has also been identified as an additive risk factor for the increased rates of nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity with aminoglycosides. Ethacrynic acid, furosemide, urea, and mannitol should be used cautiously at the lowest possible doses in patients receiving concurrent aminoglycoside therapy.

Therapy Evaluation

The first component of both the PT and the OT evaluation is to take the history of a PD patient. It is important to determine at what state in the disease process the patient is presenting to the therapist. Information is obtained regarding the patient's ability to perform a variety of functional tasks, including bed mobility, transfers, community ambulation, activities of daily living, work tasks, and recreational tasks. It is important to determine the patient's medication schedule and any on off fluctuations that may affect exercise performance. An account of freezing episodes, falls or near falls, or any specific situations in which mobility seems to be compromised needs to be noted. Comorbidities such as high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, pulmonary problems, cancer history, recent surgical history, depression, and dementia are all factors that affect the patient's ability to participate in a rehabilitation program and must be assessed. It is also important to obtain a...

Subjective Tinnitus

In contrast to objective tinnitus, subjective tinnitus appears to be an inappropriate activation of the auditory system. At some point in the multilink pathway of translation of sound pressure waves in the air to neural code in the brain, there is activity that is not normally present. The higher centers in the brain interpret this inappropriate activity as a sound, despite the absence of a true sound stimulus. It appears that there can be triggers for the inappropriate activity anywhere along the chain of structures in the auditory system. Perhaps the most common cause of tinnitus is not a systemic disease, but a local one hearing loss. It is theorized (4) that autoregulatory mechanisms in the auditory system trying to compensate for the hearing loss are overactive resulting in generation of signals that the higher cortical auditory centers interpret as sound. The sound sensations in subjective tinnitus are quite varied but are commonly described as buzzing, ringing, hissing, or...

Other Causes

There are familial hearing loss disorders that can have associated tinnitus. Williams syndrome, which has manifestations throughout multiple body systems, has a 95 incidence of hyperacusis (12). There has been one report of a familial objective tinnitus that is presumably genetic in nature (1), p. 350 . As described above, tumors on the eighth nerve can present with tinnitus. The condition of neurofibroma type II is familial and results in multiple fibromas on nerves throughout the body. Unfortunately, both auditory nerves are common sites for these fibromas and they may first appear as tinnitus (13).


Autoimmune causes for vertigo include Cogan's syndrome (consisting of dizziness, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and uveitis), systemic lupus erythematosus (Chapter 1) rheumatoid arthritis (Chapter 1) and steroid-responsive autoimmune hearing loss (Chapter 5). Characteristic ocular, cutaneous, and extremity findings in addition to serology are crucial to making the correct diagnosis. Primary neoplasms related to systemic disease that may present with vertigo include neurofibromatosis (NF)-2 and endolymphatic sac tumor. NF-2 is a genetic condition caused by errors in the structure of the tumor suppressor gene merlin, normally responsible for regulating the cell's actin cytoskeleton (7). The condition is characterized by vestibular schwannomas (Fig. 1). Although hearing loss is by far the most common presenting symptom, almost 10 of patients with NF-2 come to medical attention due to vertigo. Over half of patients with NF-2 have been reported to have skin tumors and over...


Biotinidase-deficient patients have higher than normal amounts of biocytin in plasma and urine, and excrete larger than normal amounts of biotin, reflecting the importance of protein binding of biotin to prevent urinary loss. Therapy with 10 mg of biotinper day prevents the development of most symptoms, although some patients develop neurosensory hearing loss and optic atrophy despite therapy with biotin. This reflects the role of biotinidase in tissue uptake of biotin (Section 11.1 Wolf and Feldman, 1982 Wolf and Heard, 1991 Baumgartner and Suormala, 1997, 1999).