This infection is not easy to treat and often requires intravenous antibiotics for several days. If the infection persists, an operation called a mastoidec-tomy may be required. In this procedure, the surgeon makes an incision behind the ear to open up the mastoid bone and remove the infected air cells. A drainage tube is left in place and removed several days after the operation.

Maternal and Child Health Bureau Federal department that provides national leadership in working with states, communities, public and private partners, and families to strengthen maternal and child health. The Children's Bureau was established in 1912; by 1935 the U.S. Congress enacted Title V of the Social Security Act, which authorized the Maternal and Child Health Services programs and provided a foundation and structure for assuring the health of American mothers and children.

The bureau administers seven major programs with a budget of $872.4 million:

• The Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant

• The Healthy Start initiative

• Emergency Medical Services for Children Program

• The Abstinence Education Program

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