Prompt treatment is essential; the longer a case is untreated, the worse the outcome. HGE responds to doxycyclines and other tetracycline antibiotics; it does not respond to amoxicillin and other antibiotics used to treat Lyme disease.

The antibiotic suppresses the growth of microbes but does not kill them, so the immune system must fight off the infection. Co-infection with another type of bacteria at the same time can suppress the immune system, increasing a patient's vulnerability to other infections. In these cases, treatment time may need to be longer.

Signs of the disease fade away within two months and the disease does not appear to cause the chronic, arthritis-like symptoms that haunt Lyme disease patients for years.

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