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Sabin vaccine See polio vaccine.

salicylic acid A drug used to treat a variety of skin disorders, including dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis, ichthyosis, acne, and warts. The drug is also sometimes used for fungal infections. For the treatment of warts, salicylic acid pads can be very effective; it is important not to cut too large a square to place over the wart at the risk of irritating the surrounding skin. The perimeter of the wart should be lightly coated with petroleum jelly to protect the adjacent skin.

Side Effects

This drug may cause inflammation and skin ulcers if used for a long period of time or if applied to a large area of skin.

Salk vaccine See polio vaccine.

salmonella poisoning Known medically as sal-monellosis, this major type of food poisoning is caused by bacteria that multiply rapidly at room temperatures. Every year about four million cases of salmonellosis are reported in the United States. Children are the most likely to get salmonellosis, and young children are among those most likely to have severe infections. Experts estimate that about 600 people die each year with acute salmonellosis.

Salmonellosis is very common in this country; bonemeal, fertilizer, and pet foods all may be implicated in the spread of the disease. In particular, recent outbreaks have been linked to chickens and eggs; it is estimated that 35 percent of all chickens in processing plants harbor the bacteria.

The largest outbreak ever recorded occurred in 1994 and involved more than 200,000 Americans.

In this case, commercially pasteurized ice cream premix was contaminated by bacteria during transport to a Minnesota ice cream plant in tanker trailers that had previously carried nonpasteurized liquid eggs. The outbreak ended only after sales of the ice cream were stopped.

Unfortunately, salmonella resistant to standard antibiotics used to treat infection in children are emerging across the country. Between 1996 and 1998 doctors recorded 13 cases of salmonella infection resistant to the antibiotic ceftriaxone. Another possible 28 cases occurred in 1999. Because there are several million salmonella infections each year, researchers believe this means that several thousand are probably caused by the ceftriaxone-resistant strain.

Cause

Salmonellosis is caused by infection with the Salmonella bacteria; even extremely small amounts can cause food poisoning. The incidence of salmo-nellosis appears to be spreading in epidemic proportions. Bacteria are now commonly found in eggs and poultry. It is also found in raw meat, fish, raw milk, bonemeal, fertilizer, and pet foods as well as carried by small pet turtles and in marijuana. It also can be transferred to food from the excrement of infected animals or people. one type of the bacterium (S. enteritidis) has been found in the eggs of chickens with the disease.

Symptoms while tiny amounts of the bacteria can be ingested without harm in otherwise healthy children, a minimal amount can cause symptoms within 12 to 72 hours. Symptoms vary, depending on the amount of bacteria ingested, but include headache, nausea and vomiting, fever, stomach cramps, and

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