Strict hand-washing is important to prevent the spread of adenoviruses to other infants, children, and adults. There are vaccines for adenovirus serotypes 4 and 7, but these are available only to prevent infection among military recruits. Strict infection control practices are effective at stopping outbreaks of adenovirus-associated disease in hospitals; adequately chlorinating pools can prevent swimming pool-associated outbreaks of adenovirus conjunctivitis.

ADHD See attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

adjustment disorder A maladaptive emotional or behavioral reaction to a stressful event or change in a child's life, such as a family move, divorce, loss of a pet, or birth of a sibling. The reaction must occur within three months of the stressful event to be considered an adjustment disorder. Because adjustment disorders are a reaction to stress, there is not a single direct cause between the stressful event and the reaction.

Children and adolescents vary in their temperament, past experiences, vulnerability, and coping skills. Their developmental stage and the capacity of their support system to meet their needs may contribute to their reaction to a particular stress.

Adjustment disorders are quite common in children and adolescents, but the characteristics of the disorder in those groups are different than they are in adults. Youthful symptoms of adjustment disorders are more behavioral—children are more likely to act out, while adults experience more depressive symptoms.

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