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Applying spermicides with nonoxynol-9 to affected or treated areas may be helpful in reducing transmission of the virus. Everyone with genital lesions, and all partners of persons with genital lesions, should alert new sexual partners about HPV infection risk and take precautions to limit spread of HPV.

parabens, sensitivity to The parabens (methyl-, propyl-, and butyl-) are the most common preservatives used in foods, drugs, and cosmetics, but they can cause a severe redness, swelling, itching, and pain. They can also cause anaphylactic shock in susceptible individuals.

Parabens can be found in mayonnaise, salad dressings, spiced sauces, mustard, processed vegetables, frozen dairy products, some baked goods, jellies and jams, soft drinks, fruit juices, syrups, and candies. in medications, they are used in many dermatologic creams; eye, ear, and nose drops; rectal and vaginal medications; bandages; and local anesthetics. Cosmetics containing parabens include foundations, powders, cover-up sticks, bronzers, makeup removers, blushes, highlighters, lipsticks, quick-dry nail products, mascaras, eye shadows, and eyeliners. However, considering how widespread the use of parabens is, sensitivity to this preservative is low. (See also allergies.)

parainfluenza A common virus that causes respiratory infections in infants and young children. Types I and II may cause croup; type III also may cause bronchiolitis and bronchopneumonia. Types i, iii, and iV are associated with sore throats and the common cold.

The parainfluenza virus is part of the group of germs that includes the respiratory syncytial virus and the agents causing measles and mumps.

Between 90 percent and 100 percent of children over age five have antibodies to type iii, and about 75 percent have antibodies to type i and type ii. The different types occur at different times of the year and have different symptoms. Type i causes biennial outbreaks of croup in the fall during odd-numbered years. Type II causes annual or biennial fall outbreaks, while type iii occurs mostly during the spring and early summer months each year, although the virus can be found throughout the year.


Symptoms vary depending on the type of infection. Cold-like symptoms such as a runny nose and mild cough are common. Life-threatening respiratory symptoms may occur in young infants with bronchiolitis.


Most infection in adults and older children are mild and do not require treatment. Treatment may be necessary if breathing difficulties or respiratory distress develop.

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