international nonprofit organization of more than 10,000 members with obsessive-compulsive disORDER (OCD) and related disorders, their families, friends, professionals, and other concerned individuals. Founded by a group of individuals with OCD in 1986, the mission of the OCF is to educate the public and professional communities about OCD and related disorders; to help people with OCD and related disorders, their family and friends; and to support research into the causes and effective treatments of OCD and related disorders. (For contact information see Appendix I.)
occupational therapist A medical professional trained in occupational therapy who uses "occupation" (purposeful activity) to help children with physical, developmental, or emotional disabilities lead independent, productive, and satisfying lives. An occupational therapist may evaluate children with developmental or neuromuscular problems in order to plan treatment activities, or conduct group or individual treatment to help children in a mental health center learn to cope with daily activities. They also may recommend changes in layout and design of the home or school to allow children with injuries or disabilities greater access and mobility.
Occupational therapists work in a variety of different settings, including hospitals, rehabilitation centers, schools, private practice, and government agencies.
oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) A behavior disorder characterized by uncooperative, defiant, negative, irritable, and annoying behavior toward parents, teachers, and other authority figures in children and teens. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is reported to affect between 2 and 16 percent of children and adolescents in the general population, usually appearing by age eight. ODD is more common in boys than in girls and may be more common among those children whose parents are having marital problems. Oppo-sitional defiant disorder often coexists with other mental health disorders such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, conduct disorder, and attention
DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER.
Most symptoms seen in teens with oppositional defiant disorder also occur occasionally in healthy adolescents, but those with ODD experience more frequent symptoms that interfere with learning, school adjustment, and relationships. Children with ODD argue excessively, refuse to comply with appropriate requests, and always question rules and refuse to follow them. Their behavior is intended to annoy or upset others, and the child often blames others and is easily annoyed by them. Often, the ODD child has an angry attitude, speaking harshly, or unkindly and deliberately behaving in ways that seek revenge.
Treatment may include individual therapy, family therapy, peer group therapy, or medication.
Individual psychotherapy Therapists often use cognitive-behavioral approaches with an ODD child to improve problem solving skills, communication skills, impulse control, and anger management skills.
Family therapy Family therapy is often focused on making changes within the family system, such as improving communication skills and family interactions. Parenting children with ODD can be very difficult and trying for parents. Parents need support and understanding as well as techniques that aid in developing more effective parenting approaches.
Peer group therapy This method of treatment focuses on helping the affected child develop social skills and interpersonal skills.
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