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of sodium. The advice of a child's doctor or a dietitian may be valuable in learning about the sodium content of various foods. A child's nephrologist can discuss an appropriate diet that meets a child's need for calories and nutrients while minimizing damage to kidneys and avoiding other complications.

knock-knees Many children show a moderate tendency toward knock-knees between the ages of four and six as the body goes through a natural shift of alignment during the first years of life. After this period, the body tends to straighten. Many perfectly normal children are bowlegged and then become knock-kneed during normal development. Special shoes or wedges make no difference. Only when an inward turning of the knees is severe and associated with other problems is further evaluation or treatment necessary.

Most pediatricians can recognize when the condition is severe enough to warrant special care, but parents may want to seek a specialist's opinion if they believe their child's feet or legs are not developing normally. bowed legs, flatfeet, knock-knees, pigeon toe, and toe-walking are all examples of normal variations of the human anatomy that rarely require treatment.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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