Intelligence quotient 277

Auditory Memory There are two kinds of auditory memory: Long-term auditory memory is the ability to recall something heard long ago, whereas short-term auditory memory is the ability to remember something heard very recently. Children with problems in this area may find it difficult to remember people's names, memorize and recall telephone numbers, follow multistep spoken directions, recall stories they have been told, or remember lines from songs.

Treatment

There are things that can be done to help a child make it easier to process information. These include:

• simplify directions

• maintain eye contact while speaking

• speak slowly, especially when providing new information

• ask the child to repeat the information

Children with learning disabilities often have strong preferences for one type of information processing over another, which are sometimes called "learning or working styles." Something as simple as giving instructions both orally and in writing can be of enormous help to some children with learning disabilities.

intelligence As commonly used, intelligence refers to the level of intellectual functioning and capacity of an individual—the ability to learn or understand.

Recently some experts have suggested that intelligence is not a single phenomenon, but that there exist "multiple intelligences," a number of discrete "intelligences," and that an individual will possess a unique pattern of strengths and abilities across this range of intellectual functions.

In the context of learning disabilities, the concept of intelligence is important for two reasons. First, there can often be significant discrepancies between intellectual ability and academic performance. Second, learning disabilities have often been misunderstood as a sign of lower intelligence despite extensive research and the achievement of many notable individuals with learning disabilities such as Albert Einstein, Thomas Edison, and Nelson Rockefeller.

Intelligence is measured by intelligence tests, which provide an intelligence quotient (IQ), a measure of intellectual development that is the ratio of a child's mental age to his chronological age, multiplied by 100.

intelligence quotient (IQ) A measurement of intelligence based on performance on intelligence tests. Use of intelligence testing remains controversial because of the limitations of testing for specific abilities and knowledge, and because of possible cultural bias in the design of tests.

Nonetheless, intelligence quotient (IQ) is used in educational and psychological settings in combination with other types of tests in order to evaluate a child's mental capacity and to recommend appropriate remediation or treatment.

For children with learning disabilities, IQ scores can demonstrate superior intelligence despite weak language skills or poor academic performance. Conversely, poor performance on intelligence tests can inaccurately reflect true ability and potential, with many capable individuals outperforming the level of achievement their IQ scores might have predicted.

IQ is generally based on a mean of 100, with scores ranging in classification from "mentally retarded" at the low end to "very superior" at the high end.

The concept of intelligence has existed for centuries, but it was not until this century that scientists began testing it and debating whether or not they should. Intelligence testing was developed in the late 19th century as France's Alfred Binet began work on tests of individual differences, which led him to study "subnormal" children in Paris schools. Several years later Binet and Paris physician Theodore Simon recommended that an accurate diagnosis of intelligence be established for schoolchildren. The result was the Simon-Binet test of intelligence, which first appeared in 1905 and was revised in 1908.

Binet thought of the test as a tool for selecting students who needed special remedial teaching, not as a measure of absolute innate ability. The test was translated into English for the American audience

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