Diagnosis

In the past, the only laboratory test for fragile X syndrome was a chromosome test, but in 1991 a DNA test (the FMR-1 gene test) was introduced as the first and most accurate way to detect fragile X syndrome. The chromosome test is still available through most labs, however, and is used for a variety of diagnostic purposes.

frostbite Exposure to very cold temperatures for a long period of time can freeze the skin and underlying tissues. The areas most likely to be affected are the feet, hands, nose, and ears. While anyone can become frostbitten, those with circulatory problems are at greatest risk.

Although it is theoretically possible for tissue to freeze in temperatures at about 32°F, the body's local internal temperature must fall to levels lower than that before freezing occurs at a specific area of the body. The danger of frostbite increases if a child is without adequate food, clothing, or shelter. Wind or wet skin also hasten the outward transfer of heat and increase the risk of frostbite.

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