Any child over age five who is still wetting the bed should be examined by a pediatric urologist to ensure that there are no other underlying problems that may be causing the problem, such as bladder instability or posterior urethral valves. Because between 18 and 39 percent of children have symptoms of bladder instability, a careful history of the child's complete urinating and bowel habits will be important.

Other studies may include an x ray that examines the urinary tract, called a voiding cys-tourethrogram (VCUG), a renal bladder ultrasound, or a urodynamics study to assess how the bladder and urethral sphincter function in accordance with the brain and spinal cord during the stages of bladder filling and emptying.

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