In addition to the above types of apnea, the cessation of breathing also can occur in connection with Apparent Life-Threatening Events (ALTEs). An ALTE itself is not a sleep disorder but an event that is a combination of apnea, change in color, change in muscle tone, choking, or gagging. Most ALTEs can be frightening to see, but they usually are uncomplicated and do not recur. However, some ALTEs (especially in young infants) are associated with medical conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), infections, or neurological disorders. These medical conditions require treatment, so all children who experience an ALTE should be seen by a doctor immediately.
appendicitis Infection of the appendix, a small piece of tissue that connects to the beginning of the large intestine, usually at the lower right side of the abdomen. Appendicitis is the most common reason for a child to need emergency abdominal surgery. Young people between the ages of 11 and 20 are most often affected, and most cases of appendicitis occur in the winter between October and May. A family history of appendicitis may increase a child's risk for the illness, especially in boys. Having cystic fibrosis also increases a child's risk for appendicitis.
The inside of the appendix usually opens into the large intestine. When the inside of the appendix is blocked by a piece of stool or something that a child swallowed, the appendix becomes swollen and easily infected by bacteria. if the infected appendix is not removed, an abscess may form and eventually burst or perforate. This may happen as soon as 48 to 72 hours after symptoms begin.
Symptoms in older children, the classic symptoms of appendicitis are abdominal pain, fever, and vomiting. Abdominal pain usually begins in the center of the abdomen near the navel; often the pain then moves down and to the right, roughly where the appendix is located in the lower right part of the abdomen. After the abdominal pain begins, children with appendicitis usually develop a slight fever, lose their appetite, and may vomit. The fact that abdominal pain begins before nausea and vomiting instead of after is one clue to suspect appendicitis rather than an intestinal infection.
Other symptoms that may be seen in older children with appendicitis include diarrhea (small stools with mucus), urinating often or having an uncomfortably strong urge to urinate, constipation, and sometimes breathing problems.
in children younger than age two, the most common symptoms are vomiting and a bloated or swollen abdomen. There may be abdominal pain, but children may be too young to describe this pain. Because appendicitis is rare in infants, and their symptoms are not "classic," the diagnosis of appendicitis is often delayed.
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.