ADHD and Other Disorders

ADHD can coexist with a number of psychological conditions, including conduct disorders, mood disorders (such as depression), anxiety disorders, and impulse control disorders (such as eating disorders and alcohol abuse). Some children may be depressed as a result of having ADHD, whereas others may have a mood disorder that exists independently of ADHD. Nearly half of all children with ADHD also have oppositional defiant disorder characterized by stubbornness, outbursts of temper, and defiance....

Treatment

HPV is a persistent and hard-to-cure organism, so treatment must usually be repeated. Moreover, an infected woman should be monitored throughout her life for recurrence or development of precan-cerous changes, whether or not warts are apparent. Because the virus remains in the lesions it creates, treatment for HPV consists of controlling infection by removing visible warts or precancer-ous lesions. They can be removed by surgery, by freezing, or by locally applied chemicals. The method depends...

Asperger syndrome Aspergers disorder A

Condition characterized by sustained problems with social interactions and social relatedness, and the development of restricted, repetitive patterns of interests, activities, and behaviors. The disorder is named after Hans Asperger, a Viennese pediatrician who first documented this cluster of characteristics in the 1940s. One type of autism spectrum disorder, Asperger's is a milder form of autism but without the delays in cognitive or language development. In 1994 Asperger's was first...

Academic Skills Disorders

Students with academic skills disorders often lag far behind their classmates in developing reading, writing, or arithmetic skills. The diagnoses in this category include developmental reading disorder developmental writing disorder developmental arithmetic disorder Developmental reading disorder (also known as dyslexia) is quite widespread, affecting between 2 percent and 8 percent of elementary school children. The ability to read requires a rich, intact network of nerve cells that connect...

Accutane See isotretinoin

Acetaminophen (Tylenol) A nonprescription medication found in many over-the-counter pain relievers that is effective for pain relief but not for inflammation. It is often prescribed as a fever reducer. Easier on the stomach than either aspirin or ibuprofen, it does not significantly prolong bleeding. Therefore, children who are about to have a medical procedure that may cause bleeding (such as tooth extractions) or children who have frequent nosebleeds or other bleeding problems can safely take...

Adverse Effects

While most parents believe that children's acetaminophen is perfectly safe because it is a nonpre-scription medication, it does pose a special risk in children. An overdose or even a normal dose combined with other medications, or when a child has not eaten can overwhelm the child's liver. In extreme cases, the liver may be damaged beyond repair. An overdose typically causes nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite, all of which usually disappear in a day or two. However, it is during this time...

After the NICU

After leaving the NICU, infants who were born too soon occasionally still need attention at a high-risk newborn clinic or early intervention program. in addition to the regular well-child visits and immunizations that all infants receive, premature infants also get periodic hearing and eye examinations. Careful attention is paid to the development of the nervous system, including the achievement of motor skills like smiling, sitting, and walking, as well as the positioning and tone of the...

Ages Four to

Children in this age group fear damage to their bodies, so parents need to be careful when explaining what will take place, avoiding phrases that a child may misconstrue. For example, parents should never describe anesthesia as being put to sleep, especially if a child may associate being put to sleep with an experience with a pet, assuming it means death. instead, parents should tell children that the doctors will help a child take a nap for a few hours. When talking about surgery, parents...

Airborne Allergens

Those who react to airborne allergens usually have allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis. Airborne allergens include dust mites, cockroach parts, pollens, and molds Dust mites These microscopic creatures are one of the most common causes of allergies and are present year-round in most parts of the country, although they do not live at high altitudes. Dust mites live in bedding, upholstery, and carpets. Cockroaches The body parts and waste products of these insects are also a major...

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

And broadcasters use the Emergency Alert System (EAS formerly called the Emergency Broadcast System) to air a description of the missing child and suspected abductor. This is the same concept used during severe weather emergencies. The goal of the AMBER Alert is to promptly involve communities to assist in the search for and safe return of abducted children. The AMBER Plan was created in 1996 as a legacy to nine-year-old Amber Hagerman, who was kidnapped and brutally murdered while riding a...

Apnea of Infancy AOI

Persistent apnea of unknown origin is called apnea of infancy, and occurs in children younger than age one who were born after a full-term pregnancy. Infants with this condition can be observed at home with a special monitor prescribed by a sleep specialist that records chest movements and heart rate, relaying readings to a hospital apnea program for future examination. The apnea usually goes away on its own if it does not cause any problems (such as low blood oxygen), it may be considered part...

Appendix

The U.S. poison emergency phone number is (800) 222-1222, and anyone who calls this number 24 hours a day, seven days a week will be connected to a poison expert. Anyone experiencing a poison emergency or who has a question about a poison or about poison prevention should call right away. The U.S. nationwide poison control number is connected to a network of 62 poison centers around the United States, and callers are connected automatically to a local poison center expert in their area,...

Bacterial Pneumonia

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia, occurring most often in winter and spring, when upper respiratory tract infections are most common. In addition to S. pneu-moniae, other bacteria that can cause pneumonia include Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilius influenzae, Legionella pneumophilia, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Symptoms Classic bacterial pneumonia usually begins with a sudden onset of shaking chills, a rapid...

Bacterial pneumonia See pneumonia

Bed-wetting Known medically as nocturnal enuresis, this is the inability of a child to control urinating at night. Some children do not attain nighttime control for several years after they have been completely potty trained during the day. In fact, bed-wetting is not considered abnormal until after age five, and even then the situation eventually improves on its own. Bed-wetting occurs in 15 to 20 percent of all five-year-old children, for an estimated 5 to 6 million children. About 15 percent...

Bodily Kinesthetic

One of the most controversial of Gardner's intelligences is the idea of body kinesthetic intelligence. In Gardner's theory, each person possesses a certain control of movements, balance, agility, and grace. For some extraordinary athletes, strength in bodily kinesthetic intelligence appeared even before they began formal training. Super athletes all seem to have a natural sense of how their bodies should act and react in a demanding physical situation. However some people, argue that physical...

Body Lice

Body lice live and lay eggs on clothing next to the skin, visiting the body only to feed. Body lice affect those who rarely change their clothes and are not a serious problem for American children. Body lice can be killed by placing infested clothing in a hot drier for five minutes, by washing clothes in very hot water, or by burning. listeriosis A food-borne illness that may cause no symptoms in healthy children but is especially dangerous to newborns and very young children. Lis-teriosis...

Body odor

Partial Precocious Puberty Many children with early signs of puberty are actually experiencing partial precocious puberty. Some girls, usually beginning between the ages of six months and three years, may experience breast development that later disappears, or that may remain without other physical changes of puberty. Other girls and boys may experience early growth of pubic or underarm hair without any other changes in sexual development. Children with partial precocious puberty may require...

California encephalitis See encephalitis California

Campylobacteriosis A form of food-borne illness first recognized in the 1970s that causes gastroenteritis or traveler's diarrhea. Much more common than either salmonella poisoning or shigellosis, campylobacteriosis is responsible for between 5 and 14 percent of all diarrheal infections in the world. It may affect between two and four million Americans each year. The Campylobacter organism is actually a group of spiral-shaped bacteria. Most human illness is caused by one species, called...

Call the Doctor

hiccups last longer than 20 to 30 minutes hiccups occur in association with a prolonged cough, muscle weakness on one side of the body, or severe vomiting high blood pressure While high blood pressure is primarily a problem among older Americans, it can occur in children even newborns. About 1 percent of American children have high blood pressure. Blood pressure is the measure of two forces the force as the heart pumps blood into the arteries and through the circulation system, and the force...

Cause

A blister appears after minor skin damage when serum leaks from blood vessels in underlying skin. The serum is usually sterile, and the blister provides valuable protection to the damaged tissue. Blisters often appear after burns, sunburn, or friction (such as damage to the heel from wearing a poorly fitting shoe). In addition, small blisters develop in the early stages of many viral infections, including chicken pox, shingles, and herpes simplex these blisters contain infectious particles...

Cerebrospinal fluid analysis See spinal tap

Cereus A type of food poisoning caused by the Bacillus cereus bacteria, which multiplies in raw foods at room temperature. The B. cereus bacteria produces toxins most often found in steamed or refried rice. It is believed that poisoning with B. cereus is underreported because its symptoms are so similar to other types of food poisoning (especially staphylococcal and Clostridium perfringens poisoning). A wide variety of foods including meats, milk, vegetables, and fish have been associated with...

Children and Suicide

Most people do not realize that children under age 12 are capable of killing themselves. over the last few decades, the suicide rate among young children has risen dramatically. Between 1980 and 1996 the suicide rate among children 10 to 15 has skyrocketed by 100 percent. Most suicides among children between ages five and 14 are among the older children it is fairly rare (although not unheard of) for children under age 10 to take their own lives. The reason why suicide is rare before puberty is...

Choosing a Seat

When choosing any car seat, there are important general guidelines to follow in order to ensure the child's safety. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the best car seat is the one that best fits a child's weight, size, and age, as well as the car. Once a seat has been chosen, it should be tried out, since store displays and illustrations might not show correct the usage. it is up to the adult to learn how to install a car safety seat properly and strap in the child. parents...

Cleft Lip andor Palate

This type of craniofacial condition may lead to a separation of the parts or segments of the lip or roof of the mouth that are usually joined together during the early weeks in fetal development. A cleft lip is a separation of the two sides of the lip and often includes the bones of the maxilla and or the upper gum. A cleft palate is an opening in the roof of the mouth that occurs when the two sides of the palate do not fuse as the unborn baby develops. For a full discussion of this condition,...

Cold common

Around the tonsils and adenoids can trap these germs, where they are then destroyed by the immune system. If a child is not so healthy, the mucous membranes in the nose will either be too thick (causing a stuffy nose and congested throat) or too thin (causing a runny nose). The germs then will not be cleared away. Once the viruses enter the nose, they attach themselves to the cells found there. In response, the body's immune system swings into action. Injured cells in the nose and throat...

Cold sore 121

headache and stiff neck (could be a sign of meningitis) headache and sore throat (could be a sign of strep throat) A cold usually lasts for about 10 days, although it can range from three days to several weeks. A doctor should be consulted if the child still feels sick after 10 days, or if the child's face starts to swell or the teeth become extremely sensitive. These symptoms can signal a bacterial infection in the sinuses or middle ear. When the sinuses become clogged with nasal secretions,...

Complications

Children who develop pneumonia from adenovirus may develop chronic lung disease. Very rarely, this strain of the virus has a 10 percent mortality rate. Children with weakened immune systems are at risk for developing a more severe infection from adenoviruses. A severe complication of intestinal adenovirus is intussusception, an intestinal blockage that occurs when one part of the intestine slides over another section like a telescope. This is a medical emergency and most often occurs in infants...

Contraindications

Ritalin should not be used in children with anxiety, tension, agitation, irregular heart rhythms, severe angina pectoris, or glaucoma, or in anyone with motor tics or a family history or diagnosis of tourette's syndrome. Although a relationship has not been established, suppression of growth (such as weight gain and or height) has been reported with the long-term use of stimulants in children. Therefore, patients who need long-term therapy should be carefully monitored it may be a good idea to...

Convulsion See seizures

Coxsackievirus Any of 30 different enteroviruses associated with a variety of symptoms, primarily affecting children during warm weather. The virus resembles the germ responsible for polio (especially in size). Among the diseases associated with these viruses are herpangina hand, foot, and mouth disease myocarditis and meningitis. Coxsackieviruses are separated into group A and group B viruses, with group B causing more serious infections. These viruses infect a child primarily via the...

Coxsackievirus 125

Cially in the presence of inconsistent rules and harsh discipline, lack of enough supervision or guidance, frequent change in caregivers, poverty, neglect or abuse, and a delinquent peer group. Because antisocial behavior in children and adolescents is very hard to change after it has become ingrained, the earlier the problem is identified and treated the better. Some recent studies have focused on promising ways to prevent conduct disorder among children and adolescents who are at risk for...

Cradle cap

Coxsackievirus A24 and enterovirus 70 with acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (pinkeye) Coxsackieviruses B1-B5 with myocarditis (inflammatory heart disease) Treatment is usually aimed at easing symptoms. Because these viruses spread chiefly by contact with fecal excretions, scrupulous hand washing is always the best defense against spread of these infections. Otherwise, there is no known way to prevent infection with these viruses other than isolating the affected patient. cradle cap A harmless,...

Cyclospora cayetanensis infection 131

If the child has a tendency toward developing croup, there are some ways to prevent the disease from occurring keep a cool-mist vaporizer in the room during sleep give clear fluids to a baby with a cold help calm an overexcited baby with a cold until sleep cryptosporidiosis One of the more recently discovered types of food poisoning caused by a protozoan Cryptosporidium, which means hidden spore in Greek. The tiny invisible microbe infects cells lining the intestinal tract and was identified as...

Cylert

Bowel, patients continue to lose weight even after the diarrhea stops because they cannot absorb nutrients. The organism does not appear to be halted by iodine or chlorine and can even elude filtration systems. The only thing that kills it is boiling the water in which it lives. About a week after ingestion, the disease begins with severe diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, and vomiting. It then progresses to weeks of mild fever, debilitating fatigue, and loss of appetite patients can lose 15 to...

Cystic fibrosis 133

The disease may not show up until adolescence or young adulthood. infants or young children should be tested for CF if they have persistent diarrhea, bulky foul-smelling and greasy stools, frequent wheezing or pneumonia, a chronic cough with thick mucus, salty-tasting skin, or poor growth. Babies born with an intestinal blockage (meconium ileus) also may have CF and should be tested. CF affects different children in different ways and to varying degrees, although the underlying problem is the...

D

Dacryocystitis Inflammation of the lacrimal sac at the corner of the eye, caused by obstruction of the duct that causes tearing and discharge from the eye. In the acute phase, the sac becomes inflamed and painful. The disorder almost always occurs only on one side and is usually seen in infants. Systemic treatment of antibiotics will usually cure the problem. deafness and hearing disorders Federal government projections have estimated that there are about 50,000 deaf and 325,000 hard-of-hearing...

Dermatitis

Four out of five teens who attempt suicide have given clear warnings. Warning signs that should always be taken seriously include suicide threats (direct and indirect) poems, essays, and drawings that refer to death dramatic change in personality or appearance irrational, bizarre behavior overwhelming sense of guilt, shame, or rejection different eating or sleeping patterns severe drop in school performance Experts believe there are many causes of depression. It is likely that a combination of...

Diagnosis

Parents often are able to diagnose hay fever. While a common cold or upper respiratory infection can be confused with allergic rhinitis, parents should suspect rhinitis if the child has irritated eyes and no fever. Food allergies can also cause rhinitis symptoms in 70 percent of infants and young children, but with food allergies there are often other symptoms of skin or stomach irritation as well. A careful history usually reveals the seasonal nature of the complaint and the suspected role of...

Diphtheria skin

Not yet invaded cells but is still circulating in the blood. Antibiotics (penicillin or erythromycin) can help destroy the bacteria and decrease infectious-ness in the respiratory secretions. Patients are kept isolated and in bed for 10 days to two weeks and are fed a liquid or soft diet. Secretions in nose and throat must be suctioned tube feeding may be necessary if swallowing is impossible. A tracheotomy may be necessary if the breathing muscles are paralyzed. A person is infectious from two...

Drowning 153

Among the most common traits are low muscle tone, a flat facial profile, an upward slant to the eyes, an abnormal ear shape, a single deep crease across the center of the palm, and an excessive ability to extend the joints. Other common symptoms include an extra finger with one furrow instead of two, small skin folds on the inner corner of the eyes, too much space between the large and second toe, and an enlarged tongue compared to the size of the mouth. Most people with Down syndrome...

Drug Interactions

Adderall should not be taken with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAoI), because serious (even fatal) interactions can occur. At least 14 days must pass between taking MAoIs and Adderall. Acidifying agents such as guanethidine, reserpine, and fruit juices can interfere with the absorption of Adderall, whereas substances such as Diamox (acetazolamide) increase absorption. Tricyclic antidepressants such as Tofranil become more potent when taken with Adderall. Thorazine (chlorpro-mazine), lithium,...

TaP vaccine

Supervision Whenever young children are swimming, playing, or bathing in water, an adult should constantly watch them. This means that the supervising adult should not read, play cards, talk on the phone, mow the lawn, or do any other distracting activity while watching children. Buddy up Children should never swim alone or in unsupervised places but should always swim with a buddy. Beware of buckets Small children can easily drown in a bucket containing liquid five-gallon industrial...

Dyspraxia

problems with the order of letters in words difficulty with pronouncing words delay in learning the alphabet, numbers, days of the week, months, colors, shapes, and other basic information difficulty understanding subtleties of language such as jokes or slang Modern experts believe dyslexia may be caused by differences in brain structure and function present since birth, with a strong genetic component. A number of studies have indicated a strong heri-tability for dyslexia, predominantly among...

Educable mentally handicapped EMH

Ehrlichia A genus of bacteria that includes several well-known species infecting domestic animals. Ehrlichiae are small, gram-negative bacteria that primarily invade white blood cells, the same cells that fight disease by destroying invading microorganisms. Ehrlichiae typically appear as minute, round bacteria ranging from 1 to 3 micrometers in diameter. The genus is in the same family (Rickettsia) as the bacterium that causes another tick-borne human disease, rocky mountain spotted fever. The...

Ehrlichiosis human monocytic

Its flu-like symptoms are far more severe than those associated with Lyme disease. Severe symptoms of the disease may include prolonged fever, kidney failure, meningoencephalitis, seizures, or coma. Between 2 percent and 3 percent of patients may die from the infection. While many of the symptoms overlap with Lyme, the HGE symptoms tend to peak very quickly, moving from health to severe debilitation in a few hours. Preliminary evidence suggests that infection caused by the E. chaffeensis...

Electrical Burns

Electrical accidents can cause several different types of burns, including flame burns caused by ignited clothing, electrical current injury, or electrothermal burns from arcing current. Sometimes all three types will be found on the same child. Nearly two-thirds of electrical burn injuries among children aged 12 and under are associated with household electrical cords and extension cords. Wall outlets are associated with an additional 14 percent of these injuries. Among children aged 14 and...

Emotional Abuse

Any attitude or behavior that interferes with a child's mental health or social development can be considered emotional abuse, including yelling, name-calling, shaming, negative comparisons to others, labeling as bad or worthless. Emotional abuse also includes the failure to provide the affection and support necessary for the development of a child's emotional, social, physical, and intellectual well-being. This includes ignoring, lack of appropriate physical affection, not saying I love you,...

Encephalitis 169

Symptoms are similar to human granulocytic ehrli-chiosis (ehrlichiosis, human granulocytic), including fever, headache, chills, malaise, sweating, muscle aches, nausea, and vomiting. The infection may range from a mild illness to a severe, life-threatening disease. It may cause leukopenia (reduction of white blood cells), thrombocytopenia (reduction in blood platelets), anemia, or abnormal liver function. Antibiotics are effective if begun early enough in the disease. emergency room information...

Encephalitis California

A virus transmitted to humans via mosquito bite, causing St. Louis encephalitis. More and more cases are related to infection with HIV, the organism responsible for AIDS. Occasionally, encephalitis is a complication of other viral infections such as MEASLES or MUMPS. Usually, symptoms begin with headache, fever, and prostration, leading to hallucinations, confusion, paralysis of one side of the body, and disturbed behavior, speech memory, and eye movement. There is a gradual loss of...

Encephalitis eastern equine 171

When an infected mosquito bites a child, the virus passes into the blood and then travels to the brain and spinal cord. It multiplies in the central nervous system, inflaming and damaging nerve cells, interfering with signals sent from the brain to other parts of the body. Only a small percentage of children with the disease exhibit any symptoms, beginning with fever, irritability, drowsiness, headache, and nausea vomiting. This can lead to convulsions or seizures. Most people recover...

Encephalomyelitis acute disseminated ADE

A neurological disorder characterized by inflammation of the brain and spinal cord caused by damage to the myelin sheath covering the nerves. The myelin sheath is the fatty covering that acts as an insulator on nerve fibers in the brain. ADE appears more often in children and typically follows vaccination or infection. A variety of terminologies is used to describe it, including post infectious, parainfectious, or post-vaccinial ence-phalomyelitis. ADE predominantly affects the white matter of...

Escherichia coli 0157H7 179

Annually the CDC estimates that E. coli alone is responsible for 20,000 cases of food poisoning, although these estimates may not be accurate since physicians are not required to report these poisonings. A study by the Western States Meats Association found that E. coli was present in 1.5 percent of ground pork and also in poultry, and 3.7 percent in beef. In the past, people got E. coli food poisoning by drinking tap water in foreign countries. In the wake of the mass poisonings and deaths...

Exanthem subitem See roseola

Expressive language disorders Impairments in the ability to express ideas through language characterized by problems with vocabulary, grammatical structures, word order, and overall language development. Expressive language disorders may have a severe impact on an individual's ability to generate spoken language and may be associated with other language-based learning disorders, such as reading disability or written expression disorder. Three to 10 percent of all school-age children have an...

F

Failure to thrive A description applied to a child whose weight or rate of weight gain is significantly below others of similar age and sex. Failure to thrive can be caused by a wide variety of problems, such as genetic, physical, psychological, or social factors. Although it is not unusual for newborns to lose a little weight in the first few days, some infants fail to pick up on expected weight gain and growth. Usually caused by inadequate nutrition or a feeding problem, failure to thrive is...

Federation for Children with Special Needs A

Center for parents and parent organizations to work together on behalf of children with special needs and their families. Organized in 1975 as a coalition of parent groups representing children with a variety of disabilities, the federation operates a Parent Center in Massachusetts that offers a variety of services to parents, parent groups, and others who are concerned with children with special needs. The federation tries to provide information, support, and assistance to parents of children...

Foreword

When I graduated from medical school, I was told that the half-life of medical knowledge was about five years in other words, about half of what we graduating physicians were taught as the truth of medical care would be updated, disproved, or found irrelevant within five years. At such a rate of change, physicians require rigorous attention to the advances made in both medicine and in medical care. What we were never taught, however, was that the prime focus within medical care the...

Fourth Degree Burns

Occasionally, burns even deeper than a full thickness of skin occur, such as in an electrical burn, or when a part of the body is trapped in flame. These deep burns enter the muscle and bone and are also called black or char burns. If a fourth-degree burn involves more than a very small area of the body, the prognosis is very grave, since these deep burns can release toxic substances into the blood stream. If the burn involves a small area, it should be cut away down to healthy tissue a charred...

Frontonasal Dysplasia

Also known as median cleft face syndrome, this condition results in a flat, wide nose and wide-set eyes. There is a groove down the middle of the face, and in some cases, the tip of the nose is missing. A gap with extra folds of skin covering it may appear on the front of the head. Treatment of this disorder depends on the severity of the child's physical characteristics. Surgery may correct the divided nose, cleft lip, and other facial deformities. In some cases, more surgery may be needed as...

G

Gastroenteritis Inflammation of the stomach and intestines that appears with a number of gastrointestinal disorders that can be caused by bacteria or viruses. Sudden and violent onset of anorexia, vomiting, nausea, abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea. Bed rest, sedation, and fluids intravenous fluids can be given if necessary. (See also gastrointestinal INFECTIONS.) gastrointestinal infections A condition that usually causes diarrhea, caused by an infection with either viruses, bacteria, or...

Glossary

Adrenal glands A pair of small glands, one located on top of each kidney, that produce steroid hormones, adrenaline, and noradrena-line to help control heart rate, blood pressure, and other important body functions. antibody A protein that is manufactured by white blood cells to identify, neutralize, or destroy bacteria, viruses, and other harmful microorganisms. antigen A substance that can trigger an immune response, causing the production of an antibody as part of the body's defense against...

Governmental Overview

Governmental overview began in 1906 with the passage of the pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat inspection Act, designed to make American food as safe as possible. in addition, two different governmental agencies are responsible for regulating and monitoring the safety of the U.S. food supply. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for ensuring the safety and whole-someness of all food except meat, poultry, and eggs. The Department of Agriculture monitors the safety of...

Group B strep See streptococcal infections

Group B Strep Association A nonprofit organization formed in June 1990 by parents whose babies were victims of group B strep (GBS) infections. The association hopes to increase public awareness of the importance of prenatal screening and prevention of GBS disease and regularly lobbies government agencies. The association has provided information about group B strep, counseling, and support to more than 100,000 families nationwide. (For contact information, see Appendix I.) growing pains...

Hair Entanglements

There have been 49 incidents and 13 deaths since 1978 caused by having a person's hair sucked into the suction fitting of a spa, hot tub, or whirlpool, holding the victim's head under water. Hair entanglement occurs when a bather's hair becomes entangled in a drain cover as the water and hair are drawn through the drain. In some incidents, children were playing a hold your breath the longest game, which allowed their long hair to be sucked into the drain. The CPSC helped develop a voluntary...

Has tics

has tourette's syndrome or a family history of Tourette's syndrome takes a prescription monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). Ordinarily, Concerta should not be given to patients with preexisting severe gastrointestinal narrowing, and it should be used with caution by anyone with a history of drug dependence or alcoholism. Chronic abuse can lead to psychological dependence. conduct disorder A form of antisocial behavior characterized by extremely disobedient behavior in children, including...

Healthy Footwear

Barefoot people have the healthiest feet, but children do need some protection to keep out the cold and ward off injuries. A child needs a flexible, soft shoe that allows freedom for the feet to develop normally. Fashion is not nearly as important as healthy feet, so parents should make sure a child's shoes meet the following guidelines Good fit It is better for a shoe to be too large rather than too small. Shoes should be bought at least a half-inch longer than the child's feet, because...

Heat Exhaustion

Heat exhaustion is a more severe heat illness than heat cramps. It can occur when a child in a hot climate or environment has not been drinking enough fluids. A child can lose up to a quart of sweat during a two-hour sports game, and children are more susceptible to dehydration and heat exhaustion than adults active children who do not drink enough are most at risk. Symptoms Symptoms can include dehydration, fatigue, weakness, clammy skin, headache, nausea and or vomiting, rapid breathing, or...

Heat rash

High temperatures, high humidity, or vigorous exercise in hot weather, this natural cooling system may begin to fail, allowing internal heat to build up to dangerous levels. The result may be heat illness, which can be in the form of heat cramps, heat exhaustion, or heatstroke. These brief, severe cramps in the muscles of the leg, arm, or abdomen may occur during or after vigorous exercise in extreme heat they are painful but not serious. Children are particularly susceptible to heat cramps...

Heatstroke See heat illnesses

Heimlich maneuver The Heimlich maneuver is a series of abdominal thrusts designed to create an artificial cough, which forces a foreign object out of the airway. More than 2,600 children die from accidental choking each year in this country, according to the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP). These accidents are usually attributed to food, liquid, balloons, marbles, or other foreign objects that lodge in the airway and result in suffocation. Children are more susceptible to...

Height and Weight

Because it is important to know a child's height and weight when calculating medication doses, this information should be kept updated constantly. medication, giving Parents are often called upon to administer medication to their children at home. When obtaining a prescription or buying over-the-counter medicine, parents should know the child's exact weight. Most over-the-counter medicines list a chart on the bottle or package that outlines how much medicine should be given, according to...

Heimlich Maneuver on a Baby

The Heimlich maneuver should not be performed on a baby if the baby can cough strongly and breathe, cry, or make a normal voice sound. If the baby cannot do any of these things, there may be a serious airway blockage. No one should try to attempt to retrieve the object blocking the airway unless it is visible in the mouth. If visible, the object can be swept out with a finger. By attempting to retrieve an object that is not visible, a helper risks pushing it farther down the baby's windpipe....

Herpes zoster See shingles

Hiccups Hiccups happen when the muscles of the diaphragm tighten. The diaphragm lies on top of the stomach, a thin shelf-like muscle separating the lungs and heart from the stomach and intestines. The intercostal muscles controlling the diaphragm lie between the ribs. When these muscles function normally, they help a child breathe, speak, sing, and cough. But sometimes the nerves controlling these muscles do not work right, usually in a younger child. Hiccups can be quite common in infants and...

Homosexuality

It has been widely reported in the media that gay and lesbian youth are at higher risk to complete suicide than other youth and that a significant percent of all attempted or completed youth suicides are related to issues of sexual identity. However, there are no national statistics for suicide completion rates among gay, lesbian, or bisexual persons, and in the few studies examining risk factors for suicide completion where an attempt was made to assess sexual orientation, the risk for gay or...

Hordeolum See stye

Hospice, children's A system of comprehensive services for children that provides coordinated home care and inpatient care through an interdisciplinary team coordinated by a physician and nurse. The team provides medical, nursing, psychosocial, and spiritual care as core services, along with trained volunteer and other services as appropriate. Hospice care for children is also attentive to needs related to loss and grieving for all concerned both prior to and following a death. Nursing services...

Hot dry skin

temperature of 105 F or higher Treatment A child with any of the above symptoms should be moved indoors or into the shade, undressed, and sponged or doused with cool (not cold) water. heat rash An irritating skin rash also known as prickly heat that is associated with obstruction of the sweat glands and accompanied by prickly feelings on the skin. The medical term for prickly heat is miliaria rubra, the Latin term for red millet seeds, which refers to the appearance of the rash. A milder form...

Hot tub safety

Admission in words the child can understand. How parents describe the event can affect a child's attitude during the hospital stay. parent and child can pack together for the hospital stay and include a favorite toy the entire family should be included in a pre-hospital discussion. It is a good idea for parents to borrow a library book that describes a hospital stay and read it with the child. A child's questions should always be answered simply and honestly. When to bring up the subject of...

How Accidents Occur

Bottle rockets can fly into a child's face and cause eye injuries, whereas sparklers can ignite clothing (sparklers burn at more than 1,000 F). Firecrackers also can injure a child's hands or face if they explode at close range. Injuries also may occur from standing too close to fireworks when they explode for example, if a child bends over to look more closely at a firework that appears to be a dud, or when a misguided bottle rocket hits a nearby child. Parental supervision is key to avoiding...

How It Works

Once law enforcement has been notified about an abducted child, it must first determine if the case meets the criteria for triggering an alert. Local and state programs establish specific criteria however, the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children suggests that before an alert is activated, law-enforcement officers should confirm a child has been abducted and believe that the circumstances surrounding the abduction indicate that the child is in danger of serious bodily harm or...

How to Apply

The higher the concentration of Retin-A, the faster and more significant the results. However, it is often irritating, and for this reason many doctors start patients with the milder forms (0.025 percent to 0.05 percent cream every other night, slowly increasing the strength and frequency of application). Higher concentrations of the product work best (0.1 percent), but these are more irritating to the skin. Teens should first wash the skin thoroughly with a gentle cleanser, pat dry, and wait...

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis HGE

Human Growth Foundation A nonprofit, volunteer organization dedicated to helping children and adults with disorders of growth and growth hormone through research, education, support, and advocacy. The Human Growth Foundation (HGF) includes concerned parents and friends of children with growth problems and interested health professionals. The foundation was established in 1965 by five families of children with growth disorders. Their primary purpose was to identify other parents and children...

Humidifiers

Treatment regimen that combines reverse tran-scriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors to treat patients who are newly infected with HIv. However, researchers have shown that HAART cannot eradicate HIv entirely from the body. There are a number of drugs to help treat opportunistic infections to which children with HIv are especially prone, including foscarnet and ganci-clovir to treat cytomegalovirus eye infections, fluconazole to treat yeast and other fungal infections, and trimethoprim...

Inattention

often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions) often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities often avoids,...

Infancy

In infancy the skin's oil glands are not very active, although the sweat glands are quite active. Tepid water is recommended for bathing, and a mild soap may be used sparingly to remove skin oil. The diaper area requires special attention Soiled diapers should be changed frequently to avoid the harsh irritants of urine and feces. Removal of fecal material may require gentle rubbing with a cotton ball soaked in an oily solution. Avoid using soap if an irritating rash appears in fact, a great...

Infant Feeding Problems

A breast-fed baby under six months of age who is always restless and failing to gain weight even when emptying the breast may not be getting enough calories. A pediatrician should examine the baby and make recommendations for possible changes in diet or feeding methods. A bottle-fed baby who turns away from the bottle, or who vomits after most feedings, may in fact be getting too much food. Babies who avoid the bottle usually are full persisting in trying to feed is not effective. However, if...

Influenza

However, this virus does not affect people and was different from a 1997 strain that killed six people. What worried authorities was the fact that the 2001 infection was a new and highly virulent strain of avian flu that killed almost 800 chickens in cages in three separate markets during its first 24 hours. To prevent a possible jump to humans, all the chickens, ducks, geese, and quail in the territory's markets, along with all mature poultry on its farms, were slaughtered. The...

Influenza 273

However, an accurate diagnosis of ulcerative colitis may require an examination of the colon by inserting a colonoscope, which allows doctors to see the degree of damage. A biopsy of the colon may help confirm the diagnosis. To diagnose Crohn's disease, barium X rays can reveal characteristic signs of inflammation in the lining of the intestine. An upper gastrointestinal endo-scopy and colonoscopy may be performed to check for evidence of bowel damage caused by inflammation. Medication is the...

Intelligence quotient 277

Auditory Memory There are two kinds of auditory memory Long-term auditory memory is the ability to recall something heard long ago, whereas short-term auditory memory is the ability to remember something heard very recently. Children with problems in this area may find it difficult to remember people's names, memorize and recall telephone numbers, follow multistep spoken directions, recall stories they have been told, or remember lines from songs. There are things that can be done to help a...

International Academy for Child Brain

Development A group of professionals from a variety of disciplines including physicians, psy chologists, and anthropologists who are interested in the physical and psychological processes involved in child brain development. The group seeks to gain recognition of the study of child brain development and establish criteria for child brain developmentalists. The group conducts research, offers courses in child brain development, and bestows awards. Founded in 1985, the group sponsors an annual...

International Adoption

Some parents may prefer to give a home to a child from another country. Most foreign-born children adopted in the United States come from Russia, China, Korea, India, and countries in Eastern Europe, Central America, and South America. More than 700 private U.S. agencies place children from foreign countries a few countries allow families to work with attorneys rather than agencies. However, it is not necessarily easier to look outside the borders of the United States for a child. There are...

Intrapersonal

Related to interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence is the cognitive ability to understand and sense the self. Intrapersonal intelligence allows children to tap into internal feelings and thoughts. A strong intrapersonal intelligence can lead to self-esteem, self-enhancement, and a strength of character that can be used to solve internal problems. On the other hand, a weak intrapersonal intelligence (such as that autistic children) prevents a person from recognizing himself as...

Ipecac syrup of 279

Between five months and nine months. it affects between one and four infants out of 1,000 and is two to three times more common in boys. in infants the causes of intussusception are unknown. Some experts believe that the problem is caused by the aftereffects of a viral intestinal infection. Viral infections can cause swelling of the infection-fighting lymph tissue that normally lines the intestine. Because intussusception is seen most often in spring and fall, this seems to suggest a possible...

Iron

Vomiting when children ingest something poisonous. The antidote, made from roots of the tropical ipecac plant, induces vomiting. In the past, recommendations for using ipecac had been based more on intuition rather on than any hard evidence that home use is effective. Although earlier recommendations advised parents to call a doctor or poison control center before using the syrup, parents have not always heeded that advice. Too often, parents used ipecac inappropriately. Scientific advisers to...

Is often on the go

often blurts out answers before questions have been completed often has difficulty awaiting turn often interrupts or intrudes on others The American Academy of Pediatrics recently developed new guidelines for the diagnosis of ADHD with input from a panel of medical, mental health, and educational experts. The new guidelines, designed for primary care physicians diagnosing ADHD in children aged six to 12 years, include the following recommendations ADHD evaluations should be performed by the...

Itching

Said depression is common among acne patients, whether or not they take isotretinoin. It appears that patients who are prone to depression may be at higher risk for developing depression while taking isotretinoin. other side effects may include thinning hair, itching, dry and flaky skin, occasional aching muscles, and, rarely, liver damage. itching That familiar tickling sensation on the skin is the most prominent symptom in many skin diseases and allergies. Skin that is too dry and scaly...

J

Jaundice Yellow discoloration of the skin caused by the accumulation in the blood of the yellow-brown bile pigment called bilirubin. Jaundice is a primary symptom of many different disorders of the liver and biliary systems. Bilirubin is formed from hemoglobin as old red blood cells break down. The pigment is absorbed from the blood by the liver, where it is dissolved in water and excreted in bile. The process can be disrupted in one of three ways, causing one of the three types of jaundice...

Kidney problems 289

Posterior urethral valve obstruction A narrowing or obstruction of the urethra Fetal hydronephrosis Dilatation or enlargement of one or both of the fetal kidneys due to a problem in the developing urinary tract Hydronephrosis Swelling of parts of the kidney that can occur in infancy or childhood due to a blocked urinary tract or vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), which is caused by a problem in the function of the mechanism that prevents urine from backing up from the bladder to the kidneys. Cystic...

Knockknees 291

The advice of a child's doctor or a dietitian may be valuable in learning about the sodium content of various foods. A child's nephrologist can discuss an appropriate diet that meets a child's need for calories and nutrients while minimizing damage to kidneys and avoiding other complications. knock-knees Many children show a moderate tendency toward knock-knees between the ages of four and six as the body goes through a natural shift of alignment during the first years of life. After...

L

Labial adhesion A very common condition in infant girls in which the labia (the folds of tissues covering the genitals) stick together. Labial adhesions are almost always unnoticed by parents and occasionally by doctors, but between 25 percent to 40 percent of infant girls have some degree of adhesions. The tissue may cover part or all of the hymen (opening to the vagina) and the urethra (the opening to the bladder) and sometimes extend up to the clitoris. This tissue usually breaks apart...

Lactose intolerance

Common symptoms include nausea, cramps, bloating, gas, and diarrhea, which begin about 30 minutes to two hours after eating or drinking foods containing lactose. The severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of lactose each child can tolerate. In rare cases, children are born without the ability to produce lactase. For most children, however, lactase deficiency is a condition that develops naturally over time. After about the age of two, the body begins to produce less lactase, but...

Logical Mathematical

The most easily understood cognitive faculty is logical mathematical intelligence the ability to mentally process logical problems and equations, the type most often found on multiple-choice standardized tests. Logical mathematical intelligence often does not require verbal articulation. Individuals who have good logical mathematical abilities are able to process logical questions at an unusually rapid rate. Before the advent of the theory of multiple intelligences, logical mathematical...

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus LCMV A

Virus carried by hamsters and wild or lab mice that is not harmful to adults, but that can cause birth defects in unborn children whose mothers contract the virus. LCMV was first identified in 1933 in a woman who was thought to have a form of encephalitis. In 1955 it was first recognized in the United Kingdom as a virus that could cause congenital disease. Since then, individual cases of congenital LCMV infection have been identified in Germany, France, Lithuania, and across the United States....

M

Mainstreaming The placement of disabled students in the regular education classroom. Mainstreaming was introduced in the 1970s as a result of Public Law 94-142, which mandated that special needs children be placed in the least restrictive environment. Until the approval of P.L. 94-142 in 1975, most special needs children (from mildly to severely disabled), were educated in self-contained settings. The philosophy of mainstreaming disabled children into the regular classroom comes from the idea...