ADHD and Other Disorders

ADHD can coexist with a number of psychological conditions, including conduct disorders, mood disorders (such as depression), anxiety disorders, and impulse control disorders (such as eating disorders and alcohol abuse). Some children may be depressed as a result of having ADHD, whereas others may have a mood disorder that exists independently of ADHD. Nearly half of all children with ADHD also have oppositional defiant disorder characterized by stubbornness, outbursts of temper, and defiance....

Treatment

HPV is a persistent and hard-to-cure organism, so treatment must usually be repeated. Moreover, an infected woman should be monitored throughout her life for recurrence or development of precan-cerous changes, whether or not warts are apparent. Because the virus remains in the lesions it creates, treatment for HPV consists of controlling infection by removing visible warts or precancer-ous lesions. They can be removed by surgery, by freezing, or by locally applied chemicals. The method depends...

Asperger syndrome Aspergers disorder A

Condition characterized by sustained problems with social interactions and social relatedness, and the development of restricted, repetitive patterns of interests, activities, and behaviors. The disorder is named after Hans Asperger, a Viennese pediatrician who first documented this cluster of characteristics in the 1940s. One type of autism spectrum disorder, Asperger's is a milder form of autism but without the delays in cognitive or language development. In 1994 Asperger's was first...

Adverse Effects

While most parents believe that children's acetaminophen is perfectly safe because it is a nonpre-scription medication, it does pose a special risk in children. An overdose or even a normal dose combined with other medications, or when a child has not eaten can overwhelm the child's liver. In extreme cases, the liver may be damaged beyond repair. An overdose typically causes nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite, all of which usually disappear in a day or two. However, it is during this time...

After the NICU

After leaving the NICU, infants who were born too soon occasionally still need attention at a high-risk newborn clinic or early intervention program. in addition to the regular well-child visits and immunizations that all infants receive, premature infants also get periodic hearing and eye examinations. Careful attention is paid to the development of the nervous system, including the achievement of motor skills like smiling, sitting, and walking, as well as the positioning and tone of the...

Airborne Allergens

Those who react to airborne allergens usually have allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis. Airborne allergens include dust mites, cockroach parts, pollens, and molds Dust mites These microscopic creatures are one of the most common causes of allergies and are present year-round in most parts of the country, although they do not live at high altitudes. Dust mites live in bedding, upholstery, and carpets. Cockroaches The body parts and waste products of these insects are also a major...

Apnea of Infancy AOI

Persistent apnea of unknown origin is called apnea of infancy, and occurs in children younger than age one who were born after a full-term pregnancy. Infants with this condition can be observed at home with a special monitor prescribed by a sleep specialist that records chest movements and heart rate, relaying readings to a hospital apnea program for future examination. The apnea usually goes away on its own if it does not cause any problems (such as low blood oxygen), it may be considered part...

Appendix

The U.S. poison emergency phone number is (800) 222-1222, and anyone who calls this number 24 hours a day, seven days a week will be connected to a poison expert. Anyone experiencing a poison emergency or who has a question about a poison or about poison prevention should call right away. The U.S. nationwide poison control number is connected to a network of 62 poison centers around the United States, and callers are connected automatically to a local poison center expert in their area,...

Bacterial Pneumonia

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia, occurring most often in winter and spring, when upper respiratory tract infections are most common. In addition to S. pneu-moniae, other bacteria that can cause pneumonia include Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilius influenzae, Legionella pneumophilia, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Symptoms Classic bacterial pneumonia usually begins with a sudden onset of shaking chills, a rapid...

Bacterial pneumonia See pneumonia

Bed-wetting Known medically as nocturnal enuresis, this is the inability of a child to control urinating at night. Some children do not attain nighttime control for several years after they have been completely potty trained during the day. In fact, bed-wetting is not considered abnormal until after age five, and even then the situation eventually improves on its own. Bed-wetting occurs in 15 to 20 percent of all five-year-old children, for an estimated 5 to 6 million children. About 15 percent...

Bodily Kinesthetic

One of the most controversial of Gardner's intelligences is the idea of body kinesthetic intelligence. In Gardner's theory, each person possesses a certain control of movements, balance, agility, and grace. For some extraordinary athletes, strength in bodily kinesthetic intelligence appeared even before they began formal training. Super athletes all seem to have a natural sense of how their bodies should act and react in a demanding physical situation. However some people, argue that physical...

Body Lice

Body lice live and lay eggs on clothing next to the skin, visiting the body only to feed. Body lice affect those who rarely change their clothes and are not a serious problem for American children. Body lice can be killed by placing infested clothing in a hot drier for five minutes, by washing clothes in very hot water, or by burning. listeriosis A food-borne illness that may cause no symptoms in healthy children but is especially dangerous to newborns and very young children. Lis-teriosis...

California encephalitis See encephalitis California

Campylobacteriosis A form of food-borne illness first recognized in the 1970s that causes gastroenteritis or traveler's diarrhea. Much more common than either salmonella poisoning or shigellosis, campylobacteriosis is responsible for between 5 and 14 percent of all diarrheal infections in the world. It may affect between two and four million Americans each year. The Campylobacter organism is actually a group of spiral-shaped bacteria. Most human illness is caused by one species, called...

Call the Doctor

Call a doctor immediately if a child exhibits symptoms. intussusception is a medical emergency, but with early treatment most infants recover completely. in many cases, early diagnosis means surgery can be avoided. ipecac, syrup of An emetic derived from the dried roots of a poisonous shrub found in Europe and the Americas, used to treat accidental poisoning. However, ipecac syrup should no longer be used routinely as a poison treatment intervention in the home, according to new guidelines...

Cause

The bacteria are found in milk and dairy products, poultry, and mixed salads, although they can develop in any moist food that is not thoroughly cooked. The bacteria multiply rapidly at or above room temperature. A person gets sick after ingesting bacteria, and it only takes a few organisms to cause illness. The bacteria also may be found in contaminated bodies of water, or in food that has been left out in the open where flies can contaminate it. Dogs who eat infected human feces can spread...

Cerebrospinal fluid analysis See spinal tap

Cereus A type of food poisoning caused by the Bacillus cereus bacteria, which multiplies in raw foods at room temperature. The B. cereus bacteria produces toxins most often found in steamed or refried rice. It is believed that poisoning with B. cereus is underreported because its symptoms are so similar to other types of food poisoning (especially staphylococcal and Clostridium perfringens poisoning). A wide variety of foods including meats, milk, vegetables, and fish have been associated with...

Children and Suicide

Most people do not realize that children under age 12 are capable of killing themselves. over the last few decades, the suicide rate among young children has risen dramatically. Between 1980 and 1996 the suicide rate among children 10 to 15 has skyrocketed by 100 percent. Most suicides among children between ages five and 14 are among the older children it is fairly rare (although not unheard of) for children under age 10 to take their own lives. The reason why suicide is rare before puberty is...

Cold common

Around the tonsils and adenoids can trap these germs, where they are then destroyed by the immune system. If a child is not so healthy, the mucous membranes in the nose will either be too thick (causing a stuffy nose and congested throat) or too thin (causing a runny nose). The germs then will not be cleared away. Once the viruses enter the nose, they attach themselves to the cells found there. In response, the body's immune system swings into action. Injured cells in the nose and throat...

Cold sore 121

headache and stiff neck (could be a sign of meningitis) headache and sore throat (could be a sign of strep throat) A cold usually lasts for about 10 days, although it can range from three days to several weeks. A doctor should be consulted if the child still feels sick after 10 days, or if the child's face starts to swell or the teeth become extremely sensitive. These symptoms can signal a bacterial infection in the sinuses or middle ear. When the sinuses become clogged with nasal secretions,...

Complications

Children who develop pneumonia from adenovirus may develop chronic lung disease. Very rarely, this strain of the virus has a 10 percent mortality rate. Children with weakened immune systems are at risk for developing a more severe infection from adenoviruses. A severe complication of intestinal adenovirus is intussusception, an intestinal blockage that occurs when one part of the intestine slides over another section like a telescope. This is a medical emergency and most often occurs in infants...

Contraindications

Ritalin should not be used in children with anxiety, tension, agitation, irregular heart rhythms, severe angina pectoris, or glaucoma, or in anyone with motor tics or a family history or diagnosis of tourette's syndrome. Although a relationship has not been established, suppression of growth (such as weight gain and or height) has been reported with the long-term use of stimulants in children. Therefore, patients who need long-term therapy should be carefully monitored it may be a good idea to...

Convulsion See seizures

Coxsackievirus Any of 30 different enteroviruses associated with a variety of symptoms, primarily affecting children during warm weather. The virus resembles the germ responsible for polio (especially in size). Among the diseases associated with these viruses are herpangina hand, foot, and mouth disease myocarditis and meningitis. Coxsackieviruses are separated into group A and group B viruses, with group B causing more serious infections. These viruses infect a child primarily via the...

Coxsackievirus 125

Cially in the presence of inconsistent rules and harsh discipline, lack of enough supervision or guidance, frequent change in caregivers, poverty, neglect or abuse, and a delinquent peer group. Because antisocial behavior in children and adolescents is very hard to change after it has become ingrained, the earlier the problem is identified and treated the better. Some recent studies have focused on promising ways to prevent conduct disorder among children and adolescents who are at risk for...

Cradle cap

Coxsackievirus A24 and enterovirus 70 with acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (pinkeye) Coxsackieviruses B1-B5 with myocarditis (inflammatory heart disease) Treatment is usually aimed at easing symptoms. Because these viruses spread chiefly by contact with fecal excretions, scrupulous hand washing is always the best defense against spread of these infections. Otherwise, there is no known way to prevent infection with these viruses other than isolating the affected patient. cradle cap A harmless,...

Cyclospora cayetanensis infection 131

If the child has a tendency toward developing croup, there are some ways to prevent the disease from occurring keep a cool-mist vaporizer in the room during sleep give clear fluids to a baby with a cold help calm an overexcited baby with a cold until sleep cryptosporidiosis One of the more recently discovered types of food poisoning caused by a protozoan Cryptosporidium, which means hidden spore in Greek. The tiny invisible microbe infects cells lining the intestinal tract and was identified as...

Cylert

Bowel, patients continue to lose weight even after the diarrhea stops because they cannot absorb nutrients. The organism does not appear to be halted by iodine or chlorine and can even elude filtration systems. The only thing that kills it is boiling the water in which it lives. About a week after ingestion, the disease begins with severe diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, and vomiting. It then progresses to weeks of mild fever, debilitating fatigue, and loss of appetite patients can lose 15 to...

Cystic fibrosis 133

The disease may not show up until adolescence or young adulthood. infants or young children should be tested for CF if they have persistent diarrhea, bulky foul-smelling and greasy stools, frequent wheezing or pneumonia, a chronic cough with thick mucus, salty-tasting skin, or poor growth. Babies born with an intestinal blockage (meconium ileus) also may have CF and should be tested. CF affects different children in different ways and to varying degrees, although the underlying problem is the...

D

Dacryocystitis Inflammation of the lacrimal sac at the corner of the eye, caused by obstruction of the duct that causes tearing and discharge from the eye. In the acute phase, the sac becomes inflamed and painful. The disorder almost always occurs only on one side and is usually seen in infants. Systemic treatment of antibiotics will usually cure the problem. deafness and hearing disorders Federal government projections have estimated that there are about 50,000 deaf and 325,000 hard-of-hearing...

Dehydration 139

After it was developed by the United States Army in 1946, DEET was registered for use by the general public in 1957. More than 230 products containing DEET are currently registered with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA recently issued a Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) for the chemical DEET, concluding that as long as consumers follow label directions and take proper precautions, insect repellents containing the substance do not present a health concern. Based on...

Dermatitis

Four out of five teens who attempt suicide have given clear warnings. Warning signs that should always be taken seriously include suicide threats (direct and indirect) poems, essays, and drawings that refer to death dramatic change in personality or appearance irrational, bizarre behavior overwhelming sense of guilt, shame, or rejection different eating or sleeping patterns severe drop in school performance Experts believe there are many causes of depression. It is likely that a combination of...

Diagnosis

Parents often are able to diagnose hay fever. While a common cold or upper respiratory infection can be confused with allergic rhinitis, parents should suspect rhinitis if the child has irritated eyes and no fever. Food allergies can also cause rhinitis symptoms in 70 percent of infants and young children, but with food allergies there are often other symptoms of skin or stomach irritation as well. A careful history usually reveals the seasonal nature of the complaint and the suspected role of...

Diphtheria skin

Not yet invaded cells but is still circulating in the blood. Antibiotics (penicillin or erythromycin) can help destroy the bacteria and decrease infectious-ness in the respiratory secretions. Patients are kept isolated and in bed for 10 days to two weeks and are fed a liquid or soft diet. Secretions in nose and throat must be suctioned tube feeding may be necessary if swallowing is impossible. A tracheotomy may be necessary if the breathing muscles are paralyzed. A person is infectious from two...

Drug Interactions

Adderall should not be taken with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAoI), because serious (even fatal) interactions can occur. At least 14 days must pass between taking MAoIs and Adderall. Acidifying agents such as guanethidine, reserpine, and fruit juices can interfere with the absorption of Adderall, whereas substances such as Diamox (acetazolamide) increase absorption. Tricyclic antidepressants such as Tofranil become more potent when taken with Adderall. Thorazine (chlorpro-mazine), lithium,...

TaP vaccine

Supervision Whenever young children are swimming, playing, or bathing in water, an adult should constantly watch them. This means that the supervising adult should not read, play cards, talk on the phone, mow the lawn, or do any other distracting activity while watching children. Buddy up Children should never swim alone or in unsupervised places but should always swim with a buddy. Beware of buckets Small children can easily drown in a bucket containing liquid five-gallon industrial...

Dyspraxia

problems with the order of letters in words difficulty with pronouncing words delay in learning the alphabet, numbers, days of the week, months, colors, shapes, and other basic information difficulty understanding subtleties of language such as jokes or slang Modern experts believe dyslexia may be caused by differences in brain structure and function present since birth, with a strong genetic component. A number of studies have indicated a strong heri-tability for dyslexia, predominantly among...

Educable mentally handicapped EMH

Ehrlichia A genus of bacteria that includes several well-known species infecting domestic animals. Ehrlichiae are small, gram-negative bacteria that primarily invade white blood cells, the same cells that fight disease by destroying invading microorganisms. Ehrlichiae typically appear as minute, round bacteria ranging from 1 to 3 micrometers in diameter. The genus is in the same family (Rickettsia) as the bacterium that causes another tick-borne human disease, rocky mountain spotted fever. The...

Ehrlichiosis human monocytic

Its flu-like symptoms are far more severe than those associated with Lyme disease. Severe symptoms of the disease may include prolonged fever, kidney failure, meningoencephalitis, seizures, or coma. Between 2 percent and 3 percent of patients may die from the infection. While many of the symptoms overlap with Lyme, the HGE symptoms tend to peak very quickly, moving from health to severe debilitation in a few hours. Preliminary evidence suggests that infection caused by the E. chaffeensis...

Encephalitis 169

Symptoms are similar to human granulocytic ehrli-chiosis (ehrlichiosis, human granulocytic), including fever, headache, chills, malaise, sweating, muscle aches, nausea, and vomiting. The infection may range from a mild illness to a severe, life-threatening disease. It may cause leukopenia (reduction of white blood cells), thrombocytopenia (reduction in blood platelets), anemia, or abnormal liver function. Antibiotics are effective if begun early enough in the disease. emergency room information...

Encephalitis California

A virus transmitted to humans via mosquito bite, causing St. Louis encephalitis. More and more cases are related to infection with HIV, the organism responsible for AIDS. Occasionally, encephalitis is a complication of other viral infections such as MEASLES or MUMPS. Usually, symptoms begin with headache, fever, and prostration, leading to hallucinations, confusion, paralysis of one side of the body, and disturbed behavior, speech memory, and eye movement. There is a gradual loss of...

Encephalitis eastern equine 171

When an infected mosquito bites a child, the virus passes into the blood and then travels to the brain and spinal cord. It multiplies in the central nervous system, inflaming and damaging nerve cells, interfering with signals sent from the brain to other parts of the body. Only a small percentage of children with the disease exhibit any symptoms, beginning with fever, irritability, drowsiness, headache, and nausea vomiting. This can lead to convulsions or seizures. Most people recover...

Encephalomyelitis acute disseminated ADE

A neurological disorder characterized by inflammation of the brain and spinal cord caused by damage to the myelin sheath covering the nerves. The myelin sheath is the fatty covering that acts as an insulator on nerve fibers in the brain. ADE appears more often in children and typically follows vaccination or infection. A variety of terminologies is used to describe it, including post infectious, parainfectious, or post-vaccinial ence-phalomyelitis. ADE predominantly affects the white matter of...

Escherichia coli 0157H7 179

Annually the CDC estimates that E. coli alone is responsible for 20,000 cases of food poisoning, although these estimates may not be accurate since physicians are not required to report these poisonings. A study by the Western States Meats Association found that E. coli was present in 1.5 percent of ground pork and also in poultry, and 3.7 percent in beef. In the past, people got E. coli food poisoning by drinking tap water in foreign countries. In the wake of the mass poisonings and deaths...

F

Failure to thrive A description applied to a child whose weight or rate of weight gain is significantly below others of similar age and sex. Failure to thrive can be caused by a wide variety of problems, such as genetic, physical, psychological, or social factors. Although it is not unusual for newborns to lose a little weight in the first few days, some infants fail to pick up on expected weight gain and growth. Usually caused by inadequate nutrition or a feeding problem, failure to thrive is...

Federation for Children with Special Needs A

Center for parents and parent organizations to work together on behalf of children with special needs and their families. Organized in 1975 as a coalition of parent groups representing children with a variety of disabilities, the federation operates a Parent Center in Massachusetts that offers a variety of services to parents, parent groups, and others who are concerned with children with special needs. The federation tries to provide information, support, and assistance to parents of children...

Fluoride

Fluoride prevents tooth decay, according to the American Academy for pediatric Dentistry (AAPD). Most children drink fluoridated water from municipal supplies, but if water isn't fluoridated, the child needs a supplement. Fluoridated toothpaste alone does not provide enough fluoride. Most dentists agree that mouthwash or a fluoride rinse is not really necessary for children, especially because of the risk that they may swallow the product. This is a concern especially if the mouthwash contains...

Frontonasal Dysplasia

Also known as median cleft face syndrome, this condition results in a flat, wide nose and wide-set eyes. There is a groove down the middle of the face, and in some cases, the tip of the nose is missing. A gap with extra folds of skin covering it may appear on the front of the head. Treatment of this disorder depends on the severity of the child's physical characteristics. Surgery may correct the divided nose, cleft lip, and other facial deformities. In some cases, more surgery may be needed as...

Glossary

Adrenal glands A pair of small glands, one located on top of each kidney, that produce steroid hormones, adrenaline, and noradrena-line to help control heart rate, blood pressure, and other important body functions. antibody A protein that is manufactured by white blood cells to identify, neutralize, or destroy bacteria, viruses, and other harmful microorganisms. antigen A substance that can trigger an immune response, causing the production of an antibody as part of the body's defense against...

Governmental Overview

Governmental overview began in 1906 with the passage of the pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat inspection Act, designed to make American food as safe as possible. in addition, two different governmental agencies are responsible for regulating and monitoring the safety of the U.S. food supply. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for ensuring the safety and whole-someness of all food except meat, poultry, and eggs. The Department of Agriculture monitors the safety of...

Group B strep See streptococcal infections

Group B Strep Association A nonprofit organization formed in June 1990 by parents whose babies were victims of group B strep (GBS) infections. The association hopes to increase public awareness of the importance of prenatal screening and prevention of GBS disease and regularly lobbies government agencies. The association has provided information about group B strep, counseling, and support to more than 100,000 families nationwide. (For contact information, see Appendix I.) growing pains...

Hair Entanglements

There have been 49 incidents and 13 deaths since 1978 caused by having a person's hair sucked into the suction fitting of a spa, hot tub, or whirlpool, holding the victim's head under water. Hair entanglement occurs when a bather's hair becomes entangled in a drain cover as the water and hair are drawn through the drain. In some incidents, children were playing a hold your breath the longest game, which allowed their long hair to be sucked into the drain. The CPSC helped develop a voluntary...

Heat Exhaustion

Heat exhaustion is a more severe heat illness than heat cramps. It can occur when a child in a hot climate or environment has not been drinking enough fluids. A child can lose up to a quart of sweat during a two-hour sports game, and children are more susceptible to dehydration and heat exhaustion than adults active children who do not drink enough are most at risk. Symptoms Symptoms can include dehydration, fatigue, weakness, clammy skin, headache, nausea and or vomiting, rapid breathing, or...

Heat rash

High temperatures, high humidity, or vigorous exercise in hot weather, this natural cooling system may begin to fail, allowing internal heat to build up to dangerous levels. The result may be heat illness, which can be in the form of heat cramps, heat exhaustion, or heatstroke. These brief, severe cramps in the muscles of the leg, arm, or abdomen may occur during or after vigorous exercise in extreme heat they are painful but not serious. Children are particularly susceptible to heat cramps...

Heatstroke See heat illnesses

Heimlich maneuver The Heimlich maneuver is a series of abdominal thrusts designed to create an artificial cough, which forces a foreign object out of the airway. More than 2,600 children die from accidental choking each year in this country, according to the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP). These accidents are usually attributed to food, liquid, balloons, marbles, or other foreign objects that lodge in the airway and result in suffocation. Children are more susceptible to...

Height and Weight

Because it is important to know a child's height and weight when calculating medication doses, this information should be kept updated constantly. medication, giving Parents are often called upon to administer medication to their children at home. When obtaining a prescription or buying over-the-counter medicine, parents should know the child's exact weight. Most over-the-counter medicines list a chart on the bottle or package that outlines how much medicine should be given, according to...

Heimlich Maneuver on a Baby

The Heimlich maneuver should not be performed on a baby if the baby can cough strongly and breathe, cry, or make a normal voice sound. If the baby cannot do any of these things, there may be a serious airway blockage. No one should try to attempt to retrieve the object blocking the airway unless it is visible in the mouth. If visible, the object can be swept out with a finger. By attempting to retrieve an object that is not visible, a helper risks pushing it farther down the baby's windpipe....

Herpes zoster See shingles

Hiccups Hiccups happen when the muscles of the diaphragm tighten. The diaphragm lies on top of the stomach, a thin shelf-like muscle separating the lungs and heart from the stomach and intestines. The intercostal muscles controlling the diaphragm lie between the ribs. When these muscles function normally, they help a child breathe, speak, sing, and cough. But sometimes the nerves controlling these muscles do not work right, usually in a younger child. Hiccups can be quite common in infants and...

Homosexuality

It has been widely reported in the media that gay and lesbian youth are at higher risk to complete suicide than other youth and that a significant percent of all attempted or completed youth suicides are related to issues of sexual identity. However, there are no national statistics for suicide completion rates among gay, lesbian, or bisexual persons, and in the few studies examining risk factors for suicide completion where an attempt was made to assess sexual orientation, the risk for gay or...

Hordeolum See stye

Hospice, children's A system of comprehensive services for children that provides coordinated home care and inpatient care through an interdisciplinary team coordinated by a physician and nurse. The team provides medical, nursing, psychosocial, and spiritual care as core services, along with trained volunteer and other services as appropriate. Hospice care for children is also attentive to needs related to loss and grieving for all concerned both prior to and following a death. Nursing services...

Hot dry skin

temperature of 105 F or higher Treatment A child with any of the above symptoms should be moved indoors or into the shade, undressed, and sponged or doused with cool (not cold) water. heat rash An irritating skin rash also known as prickly heat that is associated with obstruction of the sweat glands and accompanied by prickly feelings on the skin. The medical term for prickly heat is miliaria rubra, the Latin term for red millet seeds, which refers to the appearance of the rash. A milder form...

Hot tub safety

Admission in words the child can understand. How parents describe the event can affect a child's attitude during the hospital stay. parent and child can pack together for the hospital stay and include a favorite toy the entire family should be included in a pre-hospital discussion. It is a good idea for parents to borrow a library book that describes a hospital stay and read it with the child. A child's questions should always be answered simply and honestly. When to bring up the subject of...

How It Works

Once law enforcement has been notified about an abducted child, it must first determine if the case meets the criteria for triggering an alert. Local and state programs establish specific criteria however, the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children suggests that before an alert is activated, law-enforcement officers should confirm a child has been abducted and believe that the circumstances surrounding the abduction indicate that the child is in danger of serious bodily harm or...

How to Apply

The higher the concentration of Retin-A, the faster and more significant the results. However, it is often irritating, and for this reason many doctors start patients with the milder forms (0.025 percent to 0.05 percent cream every other night, slowly increasing the strength and frequency of application). Higher concentrations of the product work best (0.1 percent), but these are more irritating to the skin. Teens should first wash the skin thoroughly with a gentle cleanser, pat dry, and wait...

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis HGE

Human Growth Foundation A nonprofit, volunteer organization dedicated to helping children and adults with disorders of growth and growth hormone through research, education, support, and advocacy. The Human Growth Foundation (HGF) includes concerned parents and friends of children with growth problems and interested health professionals. The foundation was established in 1965 by five families of children with growth disorders. Their primary purpose was to identify other parents and children...

Humidifiers

Treatment regimen that combines reverse tran-scriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors to treat patients who are newly infected with HIv. However, researchers have shown that HAART cannot eradicate HIv entirely from the body. There are a number of drugs to help treat opportunistic infections to which children with HIv are especially prone, including foscarnet and ganci-clovir to treat cytomegalovirus eye infections, fluconazole to treat yeast and other fungal infections, and trimethoprim...

Infant Feeding Problems

A breast-fed baby under six months of age who is always restless and failing to gain weight even when emptying the breast may not be getting enough calories. A pediatrician should examine the baby and make recommendations for possible changes in diet or feeding methods. A bottle-fed baby who turns away from the bottle, or who vomits after most feedings, may in fact be getting too much food. Babies who avoid the bottle usually are full persisting in trying to feed is not effective. However, if...

Influenza

However, this virus does not affect people and was different from a 1997 strain that killed six people. What worried authorities was the fact that the 2001 infection was a new and highly virulent strain of avian flu that killed almost 800 chickens in cages in three separate markets during its first 24 hours. To prevent a possible jump to humans, all the chickens, ducks, geese, and quail in the territory's markets, along with all mature poultry on its farms, were slaughtered. The...

Influenza 273

However, an accurate diagnosis of ulcerative colitis may require an examination of the colon by inserting a colonoscope, which allows doctors to see the degree of damage. A biopsy of the colon may help confirm the diagnosis. To diagnose Crohn's disease, barium X rays can reveal characteristic signs of inflammation in the lining of the intestine. An upper gastrointestinal endo-scopy and colonoscopy may be performed to check for evidence of bowel damage caused by inflammation. Medication is the...

Intelligence quotient 277

Auditory Memory There are two kinds of auditory memory Long-term auditory memory is the ability to recall something heard long ago, whereas short-term auditory memory is the ability to remember something heard very recently. Children with problems in this area may find it difficult to remember people's names, memorize and recall telephone numbers, follow multistep spoken directions, recall stories they have been told, or remember lines from songs. There are things that can be done to help a...

International Academy for Child Brain

Development A group of professionals from a variety of disciplines including physicians, psy chologists, and anthropologists who are interested in the physical and psychological processes involved in child brain development. The group seeks to gain recognition of the study of child brain development and establish criteria for child brain developmentalists. The group conducts research, offers courses in child brain development, and bestows awards. Founded in 1985, the group sponsors an annual...

Ipecac syrup of 279

Between five months and nine months. it affects between one and four infants out of 1,000 and is two to three times more common in boys. in infants the causes of intussusception are unknown. Some experts believe that the problem is caused by the aftereffects of a viral intestinal infection. Viral infections can cause swelling of the infection-fighting lymph tissue that normally lines the intestine. Because intussusception is seen most often in spring and fall, this seems to suggest a possible...

Iron

Vomiting when children ingest something poisonous. The antidote, made from roots of the tropical ipecac plant, induces vomiting. In the past, recommendations for using ipecac had been based more on intuition rather on than any hard evidence that home use is effective. Although earlier recommendations advised parents to call a doctor or poison control center before using the syrup, parents have not always heeded that advice. Too often, parents used ipecac inappropriately. Scientific advisers to...

Is often on the go

often blurts out answers before questions have been completed often has difficulty awaiting turn often interrupts or intrudes on others The American Academy of Pediatrics recently developed new guidelines for the diagnosis of ADHD with input from a panel of medical, mental health, and educational experts. The new guidelines, designed for primary care physicians diagnosing ADHD in children aged six to 12 years, include the following recommendations ADHD evaluations should be performed by the...

Itching

Said depression is common among acne patients, whether or not they take isotretinoin. It appears that patients who are prone to depression may be at higher risk for developing depression while taking isotretinoin. other side effects may include thinning hair, itching, dry and flaky skin, occasional aching muscles, and, rarely, liver damage. itching That familiar tickling sensation on the skin is the most prominent symptom in many skin diseases and allergies. Skin that is too dry and scaly...

Knockknees 291

The advice of a child's doctor or a dietitian may be valuable in learning about the sodium content of various foods. A child's nephrologist can discuss an appropriate diet that meets a child's need for calories and nutrients while minimizing damage to kidneys and avoiding other complications. knock-knees Many children show a moderate tendency toward knock-knees between the ages of four and six as the body goes through a natural shift of alignment during the first years of life. After...

Lactose intolerance

Common symptoms include nausea, cramps, bloating, gas, and diarrhea, which begin about 30 minutes to two hours after eating or drinking foods containing lactose. The severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of lactose each child can tolerate. In rare cases, children are born without the ability to produce lactase. For most children, however, lactase deficiency is a condition that develops naturally over time. After about the age of two, the body begins to produce less lactase, but...

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus LCMV A

Virus carried by hamsters and wild or lab mice that is not harmful to adults, but that can cause birth defects in unborn children whose mothers contract the virus. LCMV was first identified in 1933 in a woman who was thought to have a form of encephalitis. In 1955 it was first recognized in the United Kingdom as a virus that could cause congenital disease. Since then, individual cases of congenital LCMV infection have been identified in Germany, France, Lithuania, and across the United States....

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Mainstreaming The placement of disabled students in the regular education classroom. Mainstreaming was introduced in the 1970s as a result of Public Law 94-142, which mandated that special needs children be placed in the least restrictive environment. Until the approval of P.L. 94-142 in 1975, most special needs children (from mildly to severely disabled), were educated in self-contained settings. The philosophy of mainstreaming disabled children into the regular classroom comes from the idea...

Maternal Diagnosis

Pregnant women have access to both screening and diagnostic tests to find out if an unborn child has Down syndrome. screening tests estimate the risk of the fetus having Down syndrome, whereas diagnostic tests tell whether or not the fetus actually has the condition. screening tests are typically offered between 8 and 20 weeks of gestation, but they can accurately detect about 60 percent of cases. Many women who undergo these tests will be given false-positive readings, and some women will be...

Microtia Atresia

Microtia is the medical term for an incompletely formed ear that may range from an ear that is smaller than normal to just a bit of tissue at the location where the ear would normally be. Atresia is the absence of an ear canal in the middle ear. Microtia and atresia can occur alone or together, and they can also be associated with hemifacial microsomia. If both ears are affected, Treacher Collins syndrome may be involved. There are several treatment options for a child with this condition,...

Middle ear infection See ear infection

Miliaria A common disorder of the sweat glands that often occurs during hot, humid weather and is believed to result from blocked sweat ducts, so that sweat leaks into the skin. The three types of miliaria are classified according to the level at which obstruction of the sweat duct occurs miliaria crystallina In this case, ductal obstruction is least severe, producing tiny, fragile, clear blisters. miliaria rubra (prickly heat) In this case, obstruction occurs deeper within the epidermis,...

Muscular Dystrophy Association

Introduced into a genetically engineered virus that would then bind to afflicted muscle cells, where it would transfer normal dystrophin gene to the weakened muscles. Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA) A voluntary health agency dedicated to conquering neuromuscular diseases that affect more than a million Americans. The Muscular Dystrophy Association combats neuromuscular diseases through programs of worldwide research, comprehensive medical and community services, and professional and public...

Mycoplasma pneumonia 353

Lowing list outlines what to do if a child accidentally ingests a toxic mushroom 1. An adult should collect the mushrooms the child was eating if possible, a few should be dug up so that even the underground parts can be saved for identification. If there are several kinds of mushrooms around the child, all of the different kinds that the child might have eaten should be collected. 2. An adult should check with the child's doctor, the local poison control center, or the hospital emergency room....

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Nail biting A common habit that is not related to any underlying medical problem. While many children bite their nails in their early years, most grow out of the habit, although it can continue as a nervous mannerism into adulthood. National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) The nation's largest and most influential organization of early childhood educators dedicated to improving the quality of programs for children from birth through third grade. Founded in 1926, the...

National Association for the Visually Handicapped

The only nonprofit health agency in the world solely dedicated to providing assistance to those with partial vision loss (the hard of seeing). The association works with millions of people worldwide coping with difficulties of vision impairment and providing anything from large-print books to the latest information on a particular condition. The association does not receive federal subsidies or United Way funds but rather relies upon the contributions of members and friends. (For contact...

National Center for Missing and Exploited Children

(NCMEC) A private, nonprofit center that provides assistance to parents, children, law enforcement, schools, and the community in recovering missing children and raising public awareness about ways to help prevent child abduction, molestation, and sexual exploitation. It was founded in 1984 by John Walsh, whose six-year-old son Adam was abducted in Florida in 1981. The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC) has worked on more than 85,500 cases of missing and exploited...

National Federation of the Blind NFB

Nation's largest membership organization of blind persons, founded in 1940. With 50,000 members, the National Federation of the Blind (NFB) has affiliates in all 50 states plus Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico, and more than 700 local chapters. The National Federation of the Blind provides information and referral services, scholarships, literature and publications about blindness, aids and appliances and other adaptive equipment for the blind, advocacy services, development and evaluation of...

National Hydrocephalus Foundation

Over the past 25 years NHSA's mission has changed from simply defending Head Start in Congress to actively expanding and improving the program. From planning massive annual training conferences to publishing a vast array of publications, the National Head Start Association continually strives to improve the quality of Head Start's comprehensive services for America's children and families. National Hydrocephalus Foundation A nonprofit organization founded in 1980 to familiarize the public with...

National Parent Network on Disabilities NPND

A nonprofit organization dedicated to empowering parents of children with disabilities. Located in Washington, D.C., the National Parent Network on Disabilities (NPND) provides up-to-date information on the activities of all three branches of government that affect individuals with disabilities and their families. The NPND's primary activities include advocating for and supporting the development and implementation of legislation that will improve the lives and protect the rights of children,...

National Tay Sachs and Allied Diseases Association

Screening programs, treatment methods, pain management, and patient care. The group aims to promote public awareness, provide reliable information, foster ongoing research, and educate and nurture those affected by scoliosis. It also provides comprehensive education and support for patients and health-care professionals through videos, books, brochures, local chapters, conferences, and postural screening training sessions. National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association, Inc. (NTSAD)...

Necrotizing enterocolitis

Who are nearsighted, the eyeball is too long from front to back so that the rays converge in front of the retina. This causes blurring of objects more than a few feet away from the affected child, and the farther away the objects are, the more indistinct they are. Often young nearsighted children do not realize that they have a visual problem. Symptoms include squinting, holding the head at an unusual angle, eye rubbing, sitting too close to the Tv, and clumsiness. Many parents do not notice...

Neurofibromatosis 365

Common genetic disorder, occurring in about one in 4,000 babies born in the United States. When diagnosing NF1 (also called von Recklinghausen disease), doctors will take a thorough medical history because children with NF1 often have a parent with the disease. Neurofibromatosis type 2 is less common, occurring in about one in 140,000 births. Also known as bilateral acoustic NF, it is characterized by multiple tumors on the cranial and spinal nerves, and by other lesions of the brain and spinal...

Newborn Infection

A much greater concern is herpes simplex virus infection in newborn infants. The virus is most frequently transmitted to an infant from the mother during vaginal delivery or, sometimes, via ascending infection. Transmission is much more likely to occur during a vaginal birth in a mother who is having a first episode of genital herpes. In such cases, the rate of transmission may be 33 to 50 percent. Unfortunately, in most cases, infected neonates are born to women in whom neither the history nor...

Night terrors

After a nightmare, the child may wake up and seek comfort from parents usually, the child can relate what happened in the dream and why it was scary. Children may have trouble going back to sleep after a nightmare and may have the same dream again on other nights. Nightmares decrease in frequency as children get older, and often stop completely in adolescence, although some especially those who are imaginative and creative may continue to have nightmares into adulthood. Experts usually suggest...

Nightmares 367

May cause seizures, poor muscle control, immune system impairment, hearing loss, mental retardation, coma, and even death. If the deficiency is detected in time, however, problems can be prevented by giving the baby extra biotin. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia This group of disorders involves a deficiency of certain hormones produced by the adrenal gland that can affect genital development and may cause a fatal loss of salt from the kidneys. Lifelong supplementation of the missing hormones...

Nurse practitioner NP A registered nurse RN with additional education and training in a specialty

Area such as family practice or pediatrics. Also called advanced practice nurses (APNs), nurse practitioners have a master's degree in nursing (MS or MSN) in the specialty area of their interest. For example, a pediatric NP has advanced education, skills, and training in caring for infants, children, and teens. If accredited through the national board exam, the APN will have an additional credential such as Certified Pediatric Nurse Practitioner (CPNP) or Certified Family Nurse Practitioner...

Obsessive Compulsive Foundation

However, most physicians prefer to use medication the FDA has specifically approved for use in children. Because OCD is a chronic condition that medications do not typically cure, a child may need to take medication indefinitely. Typically, when medication is withdrawn, the OCD symptoms return to their pre-drug level. Many physicians recommend that if the medication is working well, it should continue for at least a year. After a year, the dose can be slowly lowered to see if it is...

Obsessive Compulsive Foundation OCF An

International nonprofit organization of more than 10,000 members with obsessive-compulsive disORDER (OCD) and related disorders, their families, friends, professionals, and other concerned individuals. Founded by a group of individuals with OCD in 1986, the mission of the OCF is to educate the public and professional communities about OCD and related disorders to help people with OCD and related disorders, their family and friends and to support research into the causes and effective treatments...

Older Children

Companies across the United States have responded to the problem of older children who do not fit well in seat belts by designing add-on devices that try to make the shoulder portion of the safety belt fit correctly. These products vary in design, yet all claim to solve the problem of poorly fitting shoulder harnesses. However, some of these products actually seem to interfere with proper lap and shoulder harness fit by positioning the lap belt too high on the abdomen and the shoulder harness...

Other Causes of Growth Disorders

Diseases of the kidneys, heart, gastrointestinal tract, or lungs also may lead to growth disorders, which may be the first sign of a problem in some of these conditions. Endocrine diseases involving too little or too many hormones can cause growth failure during childhood and adolescence. Growth hormone deficiency is a disorder that involves the pituitary gland, which may not produce enough hormones for normal growth. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland fails to make enough...

Parasomnia 383

Applying spermicides with nonoxynol-9 to affected or treated areas may be helpful in reducing transmission of the virus. Everyone with genital lesions, and all partners of persons with genital lesions, should alert new sexual partners about HPV infection risk and take precautions to limit spread of HPV. parabens, sensitivity to The parabens (methyl-, propyl-, and butyl-) are the most common preservatives used in foods, drugs, and cosmetics, but they can cause a severe redness, swelling,...