Cold common 119

Implanted to hold the bones in place while they heal. The pin can be seen between the big and second toes. Following surgery, plaster long leg casts are applied to hold the foot in place as it heals. The usual hospital stay is three to five days. The first cast may be changed 10 days after surgery, and the cast and pin are removed usually three to six weeks after surgery. Short leg casts will continue to be used for at least three more months to continue to hold the foot in place and allow the...

Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD) A nonprofit organization founded in 1987 in response to the frustration and sense of isolation experienced by parents and their children with ADHD. At that time, there were very few places for support or information, and people misunderstood ADHD. Many clinicians and educators knew little about the disability, and individuals with ADHD were often mistakenly labeled a behavior problem, unmotivated, or unintelligent. From...

Treatment

Treatment depends on the cause of delayed growth and development. Delayed growth due to nutri tional factors can be resolved by educating the parents and planning a well-balanced diet. Parental attitudes and behavior may contribute to a child's problems and need to be examined. In many cases, a child may need to be hospitalized to focus on implementing a comprehensive medical, behavioral, and psychosocial treatment plan. If the period of failure to thrive has been short and the cause is...

Child Welfare League of America CWLA A

Nonprofit association of more than 1,100 public and private nonprofit agencies that help more than 3.5 million abused and neglected children and their families each year. The League is the nation's oldest and largest membership-based child welfare organization. Working with and through its member agencies, the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) is committed to activities such as developing practice standards for high-quality services that protect children and youths and strengthen families...

Attention Disorders

Nearly four million school-age children have learning disabilities of these, at least 20 percent have a type of disorder that leaves them unable to focus their attention. Some children who have attention disorders are easily distracted or appear to daydream constantly. Children with this problem may have a number of learning difficulties. in a large proportion of affected children (mostly boys) the attention deficit is accompanied by hyperactivity, running into traffic or toppling desks....

Chlamydial Pneumonia

This type of pneumonia is caused by a newly recognized strain of chlamydia. Chlamydial pneumonia is the second leading cause of pneumonia in children over age five, after mycoplasma pneumonia. Most infections in children are mild, and recovery is slow but complete the cough may last two or more weeks. Patients are infectious as long as they cough, and antibiotics do not reduce the infectious period. While one attack conveys a short-term immunity, it is possible to get chlamy-dial pneumonia more...

Alcoholism

The brain of a human fetus grows rapidly from the 10th to 18th week of pregnancy, so it is important for the mother to eat nutritious foods during this time. The brain also grows rapidly just before and for about two years after birth. Malnutrition during these periods of rapid brain growth may have devastating effects on the nervous system and can affect not only neurons but also glial cell development and growth, which can affect myelin development. Babies born to mothers who had poor diets...

Cause

Scientists do not really know why some children become phobic, but experts suspect it may be genetic. For example, a child with a social phobia may have a parent with a similar fear. Sometimes a traumatic event in a child's life, such as the death of a parent or a divorce, can trigger a phobia. About five out of every 100 Americans have at least one phobia. Most social phobias appear in adolescence, although any phobia can begin when children are much younger. If the phobias persist and...

Chlamydial pneumonia See pneumonia

Cholera An infection of the small intestine characterized by profuse, painless, watery diarrhea. If untreated, severe cases can cause rapid dehydration and death within a few hours. There has been a dramatic increase in cholera in the United States and its territories, and many cases may go undetected by physicians who are not familiar with the disease, according to the National Center for Infectious Diseases. The disease thrives in places without running water or treated sewage disposal. This...

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD

A condition that may occur in both children and adults who consistently display inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. People who are inattentive may have trouble keeping their minds focused and may get bored with a task after just a few minutes. Those who are hyperactive seem to feel restless and are constantly in motion, finding it hard to sit still. People who are impulsive have a problem with curbing their immediate reactions and tend to act before they think. Other symptoms may...

Eczema

There is no evidence that the life span for a person diagnosed with one of the common ectodermal dysplasias is shorter than average, but a few rare syndromes may lead to a shortened life span. eczema An allergic skin disorder (also called atopic dermatitis) that usually appears in babies or very young children and may last until the child reaches adolescence or adulthood. Eczema causes the skin to itch, scale, and flake. parents with eczema are more likely to have children with eczema. About 60...

Colds vs Flu and Allergies

A cold is not the same thing as influenza. The common cold is usually limited to the head, whereas the flu will affect the entire body. A cold usually begins slowly, with slight sore throat, mild chills or aches, and mild fever not usually over 100 F. The common cold causes a scratchy throat, runny nose, and itchy eyes. The flu, on the other hand, strikes fast and hard, with much more severe symptoms, including nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, high fever (from 101 F to 104 F), body aches, severe...

Diarrhea

The infant's bottom need not be cleaned after urination only patted or air dried. If cloth diapers are used, one ounce of vinegar should be added to one gallon of water during the final rinse water to help match the cloth's pH to the baby's skin. The cloth diapers should then be well rinsed. Diaper rash enzymes are most active in an environment with high pH, often found in cloth diapers after washing. Cloth diapers provided by diaper services are usually very close to a baby's pH level and are...

Candlelighters Childhood Cancer Foundation

A nonprofit foundation that offers a voice for pediatric cancer families and survivors to the general public, the medical community, government, schools, employers, and the media. Candlelighter's Childhood Cancer Foundation (CCCF) was founded in 1970 by concerned parents of children with cancer. The current 43,000 members include parents of children who are being treated or have been treated for cancer children with cancer survivors of childhood cancer immediate or extended family members...

Complications

Left untreated, allergic rhinitis also can lead to other serious conditions, including asthma, recurrent middle ear infections, sinusitis, sleep disorders, and chronic cough. Appropriate management of rhinitis is an important part of effectively managing these coexisting or complicating respiratory conditions. allergies Overreactions of the immune system toward substances that are typically harmless to most people. In someone with an allergy, the body's immune system treats the substance...

Genital herpes See herpes genital genitourinary tract infections See urinary tract

German measles The common name for rubella, this viral infection is not very similar to measles, although it also causes a rash on the face, trunk, and limbs. Rubella, which causes a mild illness in children, is really serious only when contracted by pregnant women in the early months of gestation. During this time, there is a chance the virus will infect the fetus, which can lead to a range of serious birth defects known as rubella syndrome. Although rubella was once found throughout the...

Diagnosis

A lab test to confirm rubella is important, since the symptoms can be so mild they may be overlooked or mistaken for something else. Blood tests are available that reveal rubella immunity or an active rubella infection. If a person has been vaccinated, the blood test will show that the person is immune. There is no specific treatment for rubella, although acetaminophen may reduce the fever. Congenital rubella is the most serious complication of rubella infection, since it can cause fetal death...

Kawasaki Disease Foundation

Onset of fever, which lasts for at least five days but averages 11 days without treatment. Often one symptom appears as another disappears, making the diagnosis challenging, especially for children who see different doctors during the early days of their illness. Arthritis in fingers and toes appears in about a third of patients. Although unusual, cardiac rhythm (electrical) disturbances may occur. The subacute phase begins as the fever drops. During this stage, the skin of the palms and soles...

Hepatitis A

The most common type of hepatitis in children, hepatitis A is spread by eating food or drinking water contaminated with the hepatitis A virus that is shed in the stool. Formerly known as infectious hepatitis, hepatitis A tends to occur in cycles. In the United States, cases peaked from 1961 to 1971, declined, and then peaked again from 1983 to 1991 numbers dropped again after 1992. Food has been implicated in more than 30 outbreaks since 1983. It was implicated in 2004 in a large out break at a...

Human immunodeficiency virus HIV

Retrovirus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) via transmission through contact with infected person's blood, semen, cervical secretions, or cerebrospinal fluid. AIDS is a condition in which an acquired immune deficiency, which lowers the body's resistance to disease, results in infections, some forms of cancer, and the degeneration of the nervous system. It is possible to be infected with HIV and not have AIDS some children are infected for years before they get sick. HIV...

Drug Interactions

Dexedrine and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors together can cause serious or fatal interactions at least 14 days must pass after taking one of these before taking the other. Acidifying agents such as guanethidine, reserpine, and fruit juices can lower the absorption of Dexedrine, and drugs such as Diamox (acetazolamide) increase absorption of amphetamines. The effects of tricyclic anti-depressants and norepinephrine may become more concentrated when taken with Dexedrine. Thorazine...

Dyslexia 157

Term associated with brain dysfunction that is presumably present at birth. Many students identified as having a specific learning disability or attention disorder may have associated problems with learning or applying mathematical concepts, functions, and procedures. it also may relate to a variety of more basic disorders such as confusion or deficits in perception, spatial skills, sequencing, and so on. It is sometimes referred to as acalculia, which is technically a total inability to do...

Hearing Disorders

Hearing disorders may be caused by a wide variety of problems either at birth or any time thereafter. Profound hearing loss from birth or an early age makes the acquisition of spoken language very difficult. However, deaf infants and children all go through the same developmental speech stages in acquiring gestural language such as American Sign Language. Hearing loss acquired through disease, injury, or noise may be more subtle, but if not treated it may interfere with a child's ability to...

Otitis media 379

Medication While not considered effective in treating ODD, medication may be used if other symptoms or disorders are present and responsive to medication. orthopedic surgeon A physician who specializes in orthopedic surgery and who understands the musculoskeletal system. Orthopedists may diagnose a condition, identify and treat an injury, and provide rehabilitation. The orthopedist may have completed up to 14 years of formal education. After becoming licensed to practice medicine, the...

Kidney problems

Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) are two common blood level tests that doctors use to monitor kidney function. Blood pressure growth Two other important diagnostic tools a doctor may use during an initial physical exam are blood pressure and growth measurements. The heart is not the only important organ in regulating blood pressure the kidneys also play a vital role. High blood pressure in a child, which is quite unusual, is an important sign that the...

Minimal brain dysfunction

Since increased exertion leads to sweating, which greatly worsens miliaria, patients should limit activity (especially in hot weather) until the miliaria is cured. Patients with miliaria profunda are at particularly high risk for heat exhaustion during exertion in hot weather, since they have trouble dissipating heat via evaporation of sweat. minimal brain dysfunction (MBD) A general term used to describe a young child who shows behavioral, cognitive, and affective signs of brain injury. The...

Immunization 267

Such as measles as a child is immune from the disease if ever exposed again. Vaccines work by the same principle. Vaccines are made from tiny amounts of bacteria or viruses (antigens) that are weakened or killed so that they are harmless to the body. When they are introduced into the body, the immune system still makes antibodies against the vaccine's altered germs so when the body later encounters the actual invading germ, it can fight off the disease. This is why a child who received a...

Prader Willi Syndrome Association

Early diagnosis of Prader-Willi syndrome gives parents an opportunity to manage their child's diet and avoid obesity and its related problems from the start. Since infants and young children with PWS typically have developmental delays in all areas, diagnosis may facilitate a family's access to critical early intervention services and help identify areas of need or risk. Diagnosis also makes it possible for families to get information and support from professionals and other families who are...

Other Factors

If a mother has Rh-negative blood and she gives birth to a child with Rh-positive, the resulting Rh-factor incompatibility can led to deafness in subsequent fetuses. The cells from the first baby trigger the development of antibodies to the Rh-positive blood in the mother while this will not harm the first baby, subsequent pregnancies carry a risk of damaging the hearing mechanism of the fetus when the antibodies attack the red blood cells of any Rh-positive fetus. This incompatibility can...

Newborn screening tests

Healthy children with NF1 are usually examined every six or 12 months. The only treatments available for the tumors of NF2 are surgery and radiation therapy. Most people with NF2 require at least one operation during their lifetime. Since the tumors of NF2 lie on nerves near the brain and spinal cord, their surgical removal can be risky and may further injure nerves, causing neurological problems. For these reasons, the risk of surgical damage should always be carefully weighed against the...

Hepatitis D Virus HDV

An uncommon version of the hepatitis virus in the United States, it infects about 15 million people around the world. In the United States, hepatitis D infection occurs more often among adults than children. However, children from underdeveloped countries where hepatitis D is endemic are more likely to contract the virus through breaks in the skin. Cause The virus requires the presence of hepatitis B virus to produce infection, so the frequency of hepatitis D closely parallels hepatitis B....

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PCV A new

Vaccine approved in 2000 to prevent invasive pneumococcal diseases in infants and toddlers, diseases that can cause brain damage and, in rare cases, death. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is not indicated for use in adults or as a substitute for other approved pneumococcal polysac-charide vaccines approved for high-risk children over age two. The previous pneumococcal vaccine (PPV) was not recommended for use in children under age two, who contract the most serious infections from this...

Prevention

Routine vaccination against the flu is the most important way to control the disease, but in the past experts have not recommended that children be vaccinated. However, the vaccine experts now recommend annually for all children over six months of age especially those who have certain risk factors, including ASTHMA, heart disease, SICKLE-CELL DISEASE, HIV, MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY, cystic fibrosis, or diabetes. Children under age nine who are receiving the vaccine for the first time should receive...

P

Papilloma virus, human (HPV) A very common and extremely contagious virus that can cause abnormal tissue growth on the feet, hands, vocal cords, mouth, and genital organs. More than 60 types of human papilloma virus (HPV) have been identified each type infects certain parts of the body. Some cause warts, including plantar warts on the feet, common hand warts, juvenile warts, and genital warts (see warts, genital). They also cause other invisible genital HPV infections. A wide variety of benign...

Severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS A

Severe respiratory illness that was first reported in 2002 in China, and quickly spread throughout Asia, North America, and Europe. Most of the U.S. cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred among travelers returning to the United States from other parts of the world with SARS. There have been very few cases as a result of spread to close contacts such as family members and health-care workers. Currently, there is no evidence that SARS is spreading more widely in the United...

Reportable disease

The main symptoms include persistent heartburn and acid regurgitation, although some children do not experience heartburn. Instead, they may have pain in the chest or stomach a frequent sour taste of acid, especially when lying down a hoarse throat a feeling of burping acid trouble swallowing a feeling that food is stuck in their throat choking feeling dry cough or bad breath. Although a certain amount of reflux is normal in most people, it is sometimes overlooked in infants and children. Acid...

Risk Factors

Pyloric stenosis affects about four times as many firstborn male infants as females. There is a hereditary component if a parent had pyloric stenosis, an infant has up to a 20 percent risk of developing the same condition. Pyloric stenosis also occurs more commonly in Caucasian infants and in those babies with blood type B or o, usually between two weeks and two months of age. Experts suspect that the problem is not congenital, but that infants develop a progressive thickening of the pylorus...

Problem Foods

Many dentists say that plain chocolate is fine as a special treat, since the child's saliva washes away much of the chocolate afterward. It is much less likely to cause decay than a cookie or a cracker that gets chewed into the teeth, where it can remain for a long time. depression A mood disorder characterized by sadness, hopelessness, low self-esteem, fatigue, or agitation. As many as one in every 33 children (and one in five adolescents) may have clinical depression. Recent studies have...

Sixth disease See roseola

Skin, care of Skin must be cleansed daily to remove the dirt and grease, bacteria, and odor. Soaps are the products used for these purposes. There are differences in the types of soaps that may be used on the skin, and they differ in outward appearance, fragrance, cost, and composition. For example, superfatted soaps contain excess fatty material and leave an oil residue on the skin, which is designed to improve mildness. Transparent soaps contain glycerin and varied amounts of vegetable fats....

Ritalin 433

The infection usually begins as a small pimple that gets larger and larger, leaving scaly patches of temporary baldness infected hair is brittle and breaks off easily. Sometimes there is a yellow cuplike crusty area. The infection usually appears 10 to 14 days after contact. Ringworm of the scalp (tinea capitis) involves scaly, temporary bad patches with dandruff-like white scales. The hair may be dull, and the infection may affect only one part of the scalp or may spread over the entire head....

Sensory integration dysfunction 447

Pencil, playing with toys, or taking care of personal tasks, such as getting dressed. Some children with this problem are so afraid of movement that ordinary swings, slides, or jungle gyms trigger fear and insecurity. on the other hand, some children whose problems lie at the opposite extreme are uninhibited and overly active, often falling and running headlong into dangerous situations. In each of these cases, a sensory integrative problem may be an underlying factor. Its far-reaching effects...

Shingles

Shingles A painful red blistering viral infection of the nerves that supply certain areas of the skin, caused by reactivation of the chicken pox virus (varicella-zoster virus). After causing chicken pox, the virus stays dormant in the child's body. in some children it can become reactivated and cause shingles. The main symptom of shingles is a rash on one side of the body that begins as a cluster of red bumps, eventually changing into small blisters that crust over. The child may also feel...

Sunscreen Allergies

Some people are allergic to the chemicals contained in sunscreens and can develop a skin rash (especially when using those products containing PABA). But people may also be allergic to other ingredients, such as benzophenone and cinnamate. Children who break out when wearing a sunscreen should consult a dermatologist, who will do a patch test to determine what ingredient is to blame for the rash. Children, in particular, are extremely sensitive to PABA and should use special sunscreens designed...

Strep throat 469

Medication, children will not experience this. Instead, parents should watch for behavior patterns to help assess how Strattera works, such as sitting through dinner time, settling at bedtime, getting off to school in the morning, or participating in group activities. Side effects of the drug include decreased appetite, upset stomach, nausea or vomiting, and fatigue. strawberry birthmark Also called strawberry nevus, this is a bright red birthmark that usually appears shortly after birth, when...

Teenagers

During puberty (age 13 to 19 years) the oil glands function at peak capacity, especially on the scalp, forehead, face, and upper chest. Some degree of acne and an oily complexion are quite common, and routine showering or bathing should become a habit. While frequent washing may appear to decrease oiliness, it will not alleviate acne by itself. skin infections Skin infections can range from a local superficial problem, such as impetigo, to a widespread and more serious infection. Examples of...

Social Phobia

Social phobia usually emerges in the mid-teens and typically does not affect young children. Children and adolescents with this disorder have a constant fear of social or performance situations, like speaking in class or eating in public. They are always afraid of being embarrassed in these situations. This fear is often accompanied by physical symptoms, such as sweating, blushing, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, or muscle tenseness. Young people with this disorder typically respond to...

Scaling disorders of infancy 441

Tinue for up to two weeks longer, but this is not necessarily a failure of treatment or a reinfestation. All members of the family should be treated at the same time. Those with symptoms should be treated with a second course of lotion seven to 10 days later, followed by a cleansing bath eight hours after application, and a change of clothing. Scabies can be prevented by avoiding physical contact with an infested person or contaminated belongings. scalded skin syndrome First recognized as a...

Treatment and Prognosis

There is no specific treatment for viral ence-phalomyelitis, although high doses of corticos-teroids can often quickly improve symptoms, with an excellent prognosis. Overall, the outlook is good where the diagnosis is made early and the appropriate therapy is instituted without delay, but the prognosis for children with ADE varies. Some youngsters experience a complete or nearly complete recovery, but permanent complications are common in infants and children who survive the initial infection....

Spinal tap 465

Most children born with spina bifida live well into adulthood as a result of today's sophisticated medical techniques. Some children with spina bifida also experience learning problems. They may have difficulty with paying attention, expressing or understanding language, organizing, sequencing, and grasping reading and math. Other conditions associated with spina bifida include latex allergy, tendonitis, obesity, skin breakdown, stomach problems, depression, and social and sexual issues....

Weakness and fatigue

A child should see the doctor if the pain is severe and coming from one particular spot the doctor may want to do a bone scan to rule out a bone infection or tumor. If the child cannot put weight on a red, swollen limb and there is a fever, the child could have an infection or a fracture. A blood test will reveal any infection and an X ray will diagnose a potential fractured bone. If the child's pain is in a joint and it cannot be easily moved, or the joint is swollen, there is a slight chance...

Borderline intellectual functioning An IQ

Between 70 and 85 in the absence of functional or adaptive problems, sometimes considered in the slow learner educational category. Earlier classifications referred to this IQ range as borderline mental retardation. Neither term is linked to borderline personality disorder. borderline personality disorder A pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships and self-image, with marked impulsivity, beginning by early adulthood. Because the impulsivity and inappropriate behavior of...

International Academy for Child Brain Development

Goddard and revised several times, but it was not until 1916 that the test was standardized with the revision by Lewis M. Terman in the form still known as the Stanford-Binet test. In 1911 William Stern developed the idea of relating mental age to chronological age with his formulation of Intelligence Quotient. This simple formulation of IQ MA CA x 100 gave a number that would stand for the performance of the child. This allowed the IQ to be manipulated within statistical...

Rheumatoid arthritis juvenile See arthritis

Rickets A bone disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin D, or by an inherited problem in metabolizing the vitamin. Because sunlight is important in converting a substance in the skin to vitamin D, lack of sun exposure can also lead to rickets. Rickets is rare in the United States because it is usually easy to prevent. Infants who are born prematurely or who have dark skin, and babies who are breast-fed by poorly nourished mothers or who are unexposed to the sun, are all at higher risk for...

Learning Disabilities Association

Have a learning disability if these are the primary factors in the learning problems. Both the discrepancy formulation for learning disabilities, and the role that exclusion of other conditions plays, have become subjects for increasing debate in recent years. Many researchers have proposed redefining the concept of learning disabilities to focus on specific language and thought processing problems that may be identified by appropriate testing, without necessarily involving the question of...

Autism Society of America Foundation ASAF

A fund-raising organization founded in 1996 by the autism society of america, the largest and oldest organization representing people with autism. The ASAF was established to raise and allocate funds for research to address the many unanswered questions about autism. The ASAF has implemented action on several autism research priorities, such as developing up-to-date statistics developing a national registry of individuals and families with autism who are willing to participate in research...

Cytomegalovirus

Not practical when dealing with a virus as common as CMV. Scientists are presently researching a preventive vaccine. Children who need organ transplants are tested for antibodies to CMV those who do not have the antibodies will be matched to donors without antibodies as well. Because a match is not always possible, the recipient faces a risk of serious CMV infection from the transplanted organ later. To prevent this complication, a patient will receive an injection of CMV antibody. CMV-negative...

Third Degree Burns

This is the most serious type of burn, which destroys all the layers of the skin and may expose muscles and bones. The affected area will look white or charred, and even if the burned area is small, it will require special treatment and skin grafts to help prevent serious scarring. There is no pain in this type of burn because the pain receptors have been destroyed along with the rest of the skin and blood vessels, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles. Fluid loss and metabolic...

Pylori vs Campylobacter Pylori

H. pylori was once grouped with the campylobacter species of bacteria, Campylobacter pylori. Medical researchers have now placed H. pylori in its own category, noting its role in causing gastritis, stomach ulcers, and possibly two types of stomach cancer. In industrialized countries, the infection is rare in children, although risk of infection is higher for persons who live in overcrowded or unsanitary conditions. Doctors can make the diagnosis of an H. pylori infection by using many different...

Allergy Skin Tests

An allergist can determine the cause of an allergy by using skin tests for the most common environmental and food allergens. In the test, a drop of a purified liquid form of the allergen is placed on the skin, or injected just under the skin. After about 15 minutes, if a reddened swelling appears at the injection site, the test is positive. Skin tests are less expensive and more accurate than blood tests for allergies, but blood tests may be required in children with skin conditions or those...

Southern tickassociated rash illness STARI

An infection causing a rash similar to that produced by lyme disease affecting residents in southeastern and south central United States. Southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI) is associated with the bite of the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum). These ticks are found through the southeast and south central states. Even though spirochetes have been seen in A. americanum ticks, attempts to culture them in the laboratory have consistently failed. However, a spirochete has been detected...

Phenylketonuria 391

Cat breeds can become infected with the parasite cats become infected by killing and eating small rodents. Most children contract the disease not from cats, however, but from raw meat. The meat becomes infected because sheep and cattle graze in pastures contaminated by cats. The disease, which rarely causes symptoms, can be treated with antibacterial drugs. pharyngitis An acute inflammation of the part of the throat between the tonsils and the larynx (the pharynx). Especially sore throats...

Apparent Life Threatening Events

In addition to the above types of apnea, the cessation of breathing also can occur in connection with Apparent Life-Threatening Events (ALTEs). An ALTE itself is not a sleep disorder but an event that is a combination of apnea, change in color, change in muscle tone, choking, or gagging. Most ALTEs can be frightening to see, but they usually are uncomplicated and do not recur. However, some ALTEs (especially in young infants) are associated with medical conditions such as gastroesophageal...

Respiratory syncytial virus 427

Care center, it is not unusual to see every child come down with an RSV infection. The first infection is the worst, but it does not confer immunity RSV can also cause serious colds in children who have repeated infections. The RSV is spread via contact with droplets from the nose and throat of infected patients when they cough and sneeze. RSV can spread through direct respiratory secretions on sheets, towels, and other items. This infection is a big problem for hospitalized children, who can...

Symptoms

The symptoms of low blood sugar range from mild to severe. Mild symptoms include hunger, sweating, headache, rapid heartbeat, and pallor. Moderate signs include irritability, poor coordination, lethargy, and confusion. Severe signs include losing consciousness or having seizures. while severe symptoms are easy to spot, mild to moderate low blood sugar is not always easy to recognize. Some of the same symptoms might simply indicate a tired or sick child. The only way to tell for sure is to check...

ADHD and Other Disorders

ADHD can coexist with a number of psychological conditions, including conduct disorders, mood disorders (such as depression), anxiety disorders, and impulse control disorders (such as eating disorders and alcohol abuse). Some children may be depressed as a result of having ADHD, whereas others may have a mood disorder that exists independently of ADHD. Nearly half of all children with ADHD also have oppositional defiant disorder characterized by stubbornness, outbursts of temper, and defiance....

Asperger syndrome Aspergers disorder A

Condition characterized by sustained problems with social interactions and social relatedness, and the development of restricted, repetitive patterns of interests, activities, and behaviors. The disorder is named after Hans Asperger, a Viennese pediatrician who first documented this cluster of characteristics in the 1940s. One type of autism spectrum disorder, Asperger's is a milder form of autism but without the delays in cognitive or language development. In 1994 Asperger's was first...

Academic Skills Disorders

Students with academic skills disorders often lag far behind their classmates in developing reading, writing, or arithmetic skills. The diagnoses in this category include developmental reading disorder developmental writing disorder developmental arithmetic disorder Developmental reading disorder (also known as dyslexia) is quite widespread, affecting between 2 percent and 8 percent of elementary school children. The ability to read requires a rich, intact network of nerve cells that connect...

Adverse Effects

While most parents believe that children's acetaminophen is perfectly safe because it is a nonpre-scription medication, it does pose a special risk in children. An overdose or even a normal dose combined with other medications, or when a child has not eaten can overwhelm the child's liver. In extreme cases, the liver may be damaged beyond repair. An overdose typically causes nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite, all of which usually disappear in a day or two. However, it is during this time...

After the NICU

After leaving the NICU, infants who were born too soon occasionally still need attention at a high-risk newborn clinic or early intervention program. in addition to the regular well-child visits and immunizations that all infants receive, premature infants also get periodic hearing and eye examinations. Careful attention is paid to the development of the nervous system, including the achievement of motor skills like smiling, sitting, and walking, as well as the positioning and tone of the...

Ages Four to

Children in this age group fear damage to their bodies, so parents need to be careful when explaining what will take place, avoiding phrases that a child may misconstrue. For example, parents should never describe anesthesia as being put to sleep, especially if a child may associate being put to sleep with an experience with a pet, assuming it means death. instead, parents should tell children that the doctors will help a child take a nap for a few hours. When talking about surgery, parents...

Airborne Allergens

Those who react to airborne allergens usually have allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis. Airborne allergens include dust mites, cockroach parts, pollens, and molds Dust mites These microscopic creatures are one of the most common causes of allergies and are present year-round in most parts of the country, although they do not live at high altitudes. Dust mites live in bedding, upholstery, and carpets. Cockroaches The body parts and waste products of these insects are also a major...

Bacterial Pneumonia

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia, occurring most often in winter and spring, when upper respiratory tract infections are most common. In addition to S. pneu-moniae, other bacteria that can cause pneumonia include Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilius influenzae, Legionella pneumophilia, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Symptoms Classic bacterial pneumonia usually begins with a sudden onset of shaking chills, a rapid...

Bacterial pneumonia See pneumonia

Bed-wetting Known medically as nocturnal enuresis, this is the inability of a child to control urinating at night. Some children do not attain nighttime control for several years after they have been completely potty trained during the day. In fact, bed-wetting is not considered abnormal until after age five, and even then the situation eventually improves on its own. Bed-wetting occurs in 15 to 20 percent of all five-year-old children, for an estimated 5 to 6 million children. About 15 percent...

Body Lice

Body lice live and lay eggs on clothing next to the skin, visiting the body only to feed. Body lice affect those who rarely change their clothes and are not a serious problem for American children. Body lice can be killed by placing infested clothing in a hot drier for five minutes, by washing clothes in very hot water, or by burning. listeriosis A food-borne illness that may cause no symptoms in healthy children but is especially dangerous to newborns and very young children. Lis-teriosis...

California encephalitis See encephalitis California

Campylobacteriosis A form of food-borne illness first recognized in the 1970s that causes gastroenteritis or traveler's diarrhea. Much more common than either salmonella poisoning or shigellosis, campylobacteriosis is responsible for between 5 and 14 percent of all diarrheal infections in the world. It may affect between two and four million Americans each year. The Campylobacter organism is actually a group of spiral-shaped bacteria. Most human illness is caused by one species, called...

Call the Doctor

hiccups last longer than 20 to 30 minutes hiccups occur in association with a prolonged cough, muscle weakness on one side of the body, or severe vomiting high blood pressure While high blood pressure is primarily a problem among older Americans, it can occur in children even newborns. About 1 percent of American children have high blood pressure. Blood pressure is the measure of two forces the force as the heart pumps blood into the arteries and through the circulation system, and the force...

Cerebrospinal fluid analysis See spinal tap

Cereus A type of food poisoning caused by the Bacillus cereus bacteria, which multiplies in raw foods at room temperature. The B. cereus bacteria produces toxins most often found in steamed or refried rice. It is believed that poisoning with B. cereus is underreported because its symptoms are so similar to other types of food poisoning (especially staphylococcal and Clostridium perfringens poisoning). A wide variety of foods including meats, milk, vegetables, and fish have been associated with...

Children and Suicide

Most people do not realize that children under age 12 are capable of killing themselves. over the last few decades, the suicide rate among young children has risen dramatically. Between 1980 and 1996 the suicide rate among children 10 to 15 has skyrocketed by 100 percent. Most suicides among children between ages five and 14 are among the older children it is fairly rare (although not unheard of) for children under age 10 to take their own lives. The reason why suicide is rare before puberty is...

Choosing a Seat

When choosing any car seat, there are important general guidelines to follow in order to ensure the child's safety. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the best car seat is the one that best fits a child's weight, size, and age, as well as the car. Once a seat has been chosen, it should be tried out, since store displays and illustrations might not show correct the usage. it is up to the adult to learn how to install a car safety seat properly and strap in the child. parents...

Cleft Lip andor Palate

This type of craniofacial condition may lead to a separation of the parts or segments of the lip or roof of the mouth that are usually joined together during the early weeks in fetal development. A cleft lip is a separation of the two sides of the lip and often includes the bones of the maxilla and or the upper gum. A cleft palate is an opening in the roof of the mouth that occurs when the two sides of the palate do not fuse as the unborn baby develops. For a full discussion of this condition,...

Cold common

Around the tonsils and adenoids can trap these germs, where they are then destroyed by the immune system. If a child is not so healthy, the mucous membranes in the nose will either be too thick (causing a stuffy nose and congested throat) or too thin (causing a runny nose). The germs then will not be cleared away. Once the viruses enter the nose, they attach themselves to the cells found there. In response, the body's immune system swings into action. Injured cells in the nose and throat...

Coma

More subtle signs of head injury may also appear gradually, and may include long- and short-term memory problems communication problems (oral or written) poor planning and sequencing changes in mood or personality Sometimes, certain behavior may appear long after the traumatic brain injury occurs. These behaviors may include overeating or drinking, excessive talking, restlessness, disorientation, or seizure disorders. In the past, diagnostic tests were not sensitive enough to detect the subtle...

Contraindications

Ritalin should not be used in children with anxiety, tension, agitation, irregular heart rhythms, severe angina pectoris, or glaucoma, or in anyone with motor tics or a family history or diagnosis of tourette's syndrome. Although a relationship has not been established, suppression of growth (such as weight gain and or height) has been reported with the long-term use of stimulants in children. Therefore, patients who need long-term therapy should be carefully monitored it may be a good idea to...

Convulsion See seizures

Coxsackievirus Any of 30 different enteroviruses associated with a variety of symptoms, primarily affecting children during warm weather. The virus resembles the germ responsible for polio (especially in size). Among the diseases associated with these viruses are herpangina hand, foot, and mouth disease myocarditis and meningitis. Coxsackieviruses are separated into group A and group B viruses, with group B causing more serious infections. These viruses infect a child primarily via the...

Coxsackievirus 125

Cially in the presence of inconsistent rules and harsh discipline, lack of enough supervision or guidance, frequent change in caregivers, poverty, neglect or abuse, and a delinquent peer group. Because antisocial behavior in children and adolescents is very hard to change after it has become ingrained, the earlier the problem is identified and treated the better. Some recent studies have focused on promising ways to prevent conduct disorder among children and adolescents who are at risk for...

Cradle cap

Coxsackievirus A24 and enterovirus 70 with acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (pinkeye) Coxsackieviruses B1-B5 with myocarditis (inflammatory heart disease) Treatment is usually aimed at easing symptoms. Because these viruses spread chiefly by contact with fecal excretions, scrupulous hand washing is always the best defense against spread of these infections. Otherwise, there is no known way to prevent infection with these viruses other than isolating the affected patient. cradle cap A harmless,...

Cylert

Bowel, patients continue to lose weight even after the diarrhea stops because they cannot absorb nutrients. The organism does not appear to be halted by iodine or chlorine and can even elude filtration systems. The only thing that kills it is boiling the water in which it lives. About a week after ingestion, the disease begins with severe diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, and vomiting. It then progresses to weeks of mild fever, debilitating fatigue, and loss of appetite patients can lose 15 to...

D

Dacryocystitis Inflammation of the lacrimal sac at the corner of the eye, caused by obstruction of the duct that causes tearing and discharge from the eye. In the acute phase, the sac becomes inflamed and painful. The disorder almost always occurs only on one side and is usually seen in infants. Systemic treatment of antibiotics will usually cure the problem. deafness and hearing disorders Federal government projections have estimated that there are about 50,000 deaf and 325,000 hard-of-hearing...

Dehydration 139

After it was developed by the United States Army in 1946, DEET was registered for use by the general public in 1957. More than 230 products containing DEET are currently registered with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA recently issued a Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) for the chemical DEET, concluding that as long as consumers follow label directions and take proper precautions, insect repellents containing the substance do not present a health concern. Based on...

Dyscalculia

Originally believed to be a variation of achondroplasia, researchers now recognize it as a distinct condition with its own characteristics. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias This is a very large group of skeletal conditions causing short-trunk dwarfism characterized by abnormal growth in the spine and long bones of the body. In one form (spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda), the lack of growth in the trunk may not become obvious until the child is between five...

Educable mentally handicapped EMH

Ehrlichia A genus of bacteria that includes several well-known species infecting domestic animals. Ehrlichiae are small, gram-negative bacteria that primarily invade white blood cells, the same cells that fight disease by destroying invading microorganisms. Ehrlichiae typically appear as minute, round bacteria ranging from 1 to 3 micrometers in diameter. The genus is in the same family (Rickettsia) as the bacterium that causes another tick-borne human disease, rocky mountain spotted fever. The...

Ehrlichiosis human monocytic

Its flu-like symptoms are far more severe than those associated with Lyme disease. Severe symptoms of the disease may include prolonged fever, kidney failure, meningoencephalitis, seizures, or coma. Between 2 percent and 3 percent of patients may die from the infection. While many of the symptoms overlap with Lyme, the HGE symptoms tend to peak very quickly, moving from health to severe debilitation in a few hours. Preliminary evidence suggests that infection caused by the E. chaffeensis...

Electrical Burns

Electrical accidents can cause several different types of burns, including flame burns caused by ignited clothing, electrical current injury, or electrothermal burns from arcing current. Sometimes all three types will be found on the same child. Nearly two-thirds of electrical burn injuries among children aged 12 and under are associated with household electrical cords and extension cords. Wall outlets are associated with an additional 14 percent of these injuries. Among children aged 14 and...

Emotional Abuse

Any attitude or behavior that interferes with a child's mental health or social development can be considered emotional abuse, including yelling, name-calling, shaming, negative comparisons to others, labeling as bad or worthless. Emotional abuse also includes the failure to provide the affection and support necessary for the development of a child's emotional, social, physical, and intellectual well-being. This includes ignoring, lack of appropriate physical affection, not saying I love you,...

Encephalitis 169

Symptoms are similar to human granulocytic ehrli-chiosis (ehrlichiosis, human granulocytic), including fever, headache, chills, malaise, sweating, muscle aches, nausea, and vomiting. The infection may range from a mild illness to a severe, life-threatening disease. It may cause leukopenia (reduction of white blood cells), thrombocytopenia (reduction in blood platelets), anemia, or abnormal liver function. Antibiotics are effective if begun early enough in the disease. emergency room information...

Encephalitis California

A virus transmitted to humans via mosquito bite, causing St. Louis encephalitis. More and more cases are related to infection with HIV, the organism responsible for AIDS. Occasionally, encephalitis is a complication of other viral infections such as MEASLES or MUMPS. Usually, symptoms begin with headache, fever, and prostration, leading to hallucinations, confusion, paralysis of one side of the body, and disturbed behavior, speech memory, and eye movement. There is a gradual loss of...

Encephalitis eastern equine 171

When an infected mosquito bites a child, the virus passes into the blood and then travels to the brain and spinal cord. It multiplies in the central nervous system, inflaming and damaging nerve cells, interfering with signals sent from the brain to other parts of the body. Only a small percentage of children with the disease exhibit any symptoms, beginning with fever, irritability, drowsiness, headache, and nausea vomiting. This can lead to convulsions or seizures. Most people recover...

Encephalomyelitis acute disseminated ADE

A neurological disorder characterized by inflammation of the brain and spinal cord caused by damage to the myelin sheath covering the nerves. The myelin sheath is the fatty covering that acts as an insulator on nerve fibers in the brain. ADE appears more often in children and typically follows vaccination or infection. A variety of terminologies is used to describe it, including post infectious, parainfectious, or post-vaccinial ence-phalomyelitis. ADE predominantly affects the white matter of...

Escherichia coli 0157H7 179

Annually the CDC estimates that E. coli alone is responsible for 20,000 cases of food poisoning, although these estimates may not be accurate since physicians are not required to report these poisonings. A study by the Western States Meats Association found that E. coli was present in 1.5 percent of ground pork and also in poultry, and 3.7 percent in beef. In the past, people got E. coli food poisoning by drinking tap water in foreign countries. In the wake of the mass poisonings and deaths...

Exanthem subitem See roseola

Expressive language disorders Impairments in the ability to express ideas through language characterized by problems with vocabulary, grammatical structures, word order, and overall language development. Expressive language disorders may have a severe impact on an individual's ability to generate spoken language and may be associated with other language-based learning disorders, such as reading disability or written expression disorder. Three to 10 percent of all school-age children have an...