ADHD and Other Disorders

ADHD can coexist with a number of psychological conditions, including conduct disorders, mood disorders (such as depression), anxiety disorders, and impulse control disorders (such as eating disorders and alcohol abuse). Some children may be depressed as a result of having ADHD, whereas others may have a mood disorder that exists independently of ADHD. Nearly half of all children with ADHD also have oppositional defiant disorder characterized by stubbornness, outbursts of temper, and defiance....

Treatment

HPV is a persistent and hard-to-cure organism, so treatment must usually be repeated. Moreover, an infected woman should be monitored throughout her life for recurrence or development of precan-cerous changes, whether or not warts are apparent. Because the virus remains in the lesions it creates, treatment for HPV consists of controlling infection by removing visible warts or precancer-ous lesions. They can be removed by surgery, by freezing, or by locally applied chemicals. The method depends...

Asperger syndrome Aspergers disorder A

Condition characterized by sustained problems with social interactions and social relatedness, and the development of restricted, repetitive patterns of interests, activities, and behaviors. The disorder is named after Hans Asperger, a Viennese pediatrician who first documented this cluster of characteristics in the 1940s. One type of autism spectrum disorder, Asperger's is a milder form of autism but without the delays in cognitive or language development. In 1994 Asperger's was first...

Adverse Effects

While most parents believe that children's acetaminophen is perfectly safe because it is a nonpre-scription medication, it does pose a special risk in children. An overdose or even a normal dose combined with other medications, or when a child has not eaten can overwhelm the child's liver. In extreme cases, the liver may be damaged beyond repair. An overdose typically causes nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite, all of which usually disappear in a day or two. However, it is during this time...

After the NICU

After leaving the NICU, infants who were born too soon occasionally still need attention at a high-risk newborn clinic or early intervention program. in addition to the regular well-child visits and immunizations that all infants receive, premature infants also get periodic hearing and eye examinations. Careful attention is paid to the development of the nervous system, including the achievement of motor skills like smiling, sitting, and walking, as well as the positioning and tone of the...

Body Lice

Body lice live and lay eggs on clothing next to the skin, visiting the body only to feed. Body lice affect those who rarely change their clothes and are not a serious problem for American children. Body lice can be killed by placing infested clothing in a hot drier for five minutes, by washing clothes in very hot water, or by burning. listeriosis A food-borne illness that may cause no symptoms in healthy children but is especially dangerous to newborns and very young children. Lis-teriosis...

California encephalitis See encephalitis California

Campylobacteriosis A form of food-borne illness first recognized in the 1970s that causes gastroenteritis or traveler's diarrhea. Much more common than either salmonella poisoning or shigellosis, campylobacteriosis is responsible for between 5 and 14 percent of all diarrheal infections in the world. It may affect between two and four million Americans each year. The Campylobacter organism is actually a group of spiral-shaped bacteria. Most human illness is caused by one species, called...

Cause

Hib disease is caused by the Haemophilus influenzae type B bacteria, which has several different strains, each with a different capsule around the bacterium. Type B was the most common cause of meningitis in children before the vaccine the other types are rare. One strain (non-typeable) is a common cause of ear infections in children. Other illnesses caused by H. influenzae type B bacteria include epiglottitis, septic arthritis, cellulitis, bac-teremia, and pneumonia. The bacteria enters a...

Cerebrospinal fluid analysis See spinal tap

Cereus A type of food poisoning caused by the Bacillus cereus bacteria, which multiplies in raw foods at room temperature. The B. cereus bacteria produces toxins most often found in steamed or refried rice. It is believed that poisoning with B. cereus is underreported because its symptoms are so similar to other types of food poisoning (especially staphylococcal and Clostridium perfringens poisoning). A wide variety of foods including meats, milk, vegetables, and fish have been associated with...

Cold common

Around the tonsils and adenoids can trap these germs, where they are then destroyed by the immune system. If a child is not so healthy, the mucous membranes in the nose will either be too thick (causing a stuffy nose and congested throat) or too thin (causing a runny nose). The germs then will not be cleared away. Once the viruses enter the nose, they attach themselves to the cells found there. In response, the body's immune system swings into action. Injured cells in the nose and throat...

Complications

Increased pressure on the brain from fluid buildup is a serious complication signs of this include changes in head measurement, activity, vision, breathing, pupils' response to light, or decrease in urine. The most common long-lasting complication is hearing impairment. Recent studies suggest that children over six weeks of age who received dex-amethasone immediately had less hearing loss than those who did not receive the steroid. Other, less common complications include blindness,...

Contraindications

Ritalin should not be used in children with anxiety, tension, agitation, irregular heart rhythms, severe angina pectoris, or glaucoma, or in anyone with motor tics or a family history or diagnosis of tourette's syndrome. Although a relationship has not been established, suppression of growth (such as weight gain and or height) has been reported with the long-term use of stimulants in children. Therefore, patients who need long-term therapy should be carefully monitored it may be a good idea to...

Cylert

Bowel, patients continue to lose weight even after the diarrhea stops because they cannot absorb nutrients. The organism does not appear to be halted by iodine or chlorine and can even elude filtration systems. The only thing that kills it is boiling the water in which it lives. About a week after ingestion, the disease begins with severe diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, and vomiting. It then progresses to weeks of mild fever, debilitating fatigue, and loss of appetite patients can lose 15 to...

D

Dacryocystitis Inflammation of the lacrimal sac at the corner of the eye, caused by obstruction of the duct that causes tearing and discharge from the eye. In the acute phase, the sac becomes inflamed and painful. The disorder almost always occurs only on one side and is usually seen in infants. Systemic treatment of antibiotics will usually cure the problem. deafness and hearing disorders Federal government projections have estimated that there are about 50,000 deaf and 325,000 hard-of-hearing...

Diagnosis

A food allergy is diagnosed following a detailed food history, physical exam, and pertinent tests skin testing may help identify cases of food allergy in cases of acute itching. Skin testing is not usually helpful in diagnosing chronic itching due to food allergy. For these cases, a food diary and trial elimination of suspect foods may be effective in pinpointing the problem. A child with a suspected food allergy should keep a food diary for one to two weeks detailing all ingested food and...

Drug Interactions

Adderall should not be taken with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAoI), because serious (even fatal) interactions can occur. At least 14 days must pass between taking MAoIs and Adderall. Acidifying agents such as guanethidine, reserpine, and fruit juices can interfere with the absorption of Adderall, whereas substances such as Diamox (acetazolamide) increase absorption. Tricyclic antidepressants such as Tofranil become more potent when taken with Adderall. Thorazine (chlorpro-mazine), lithium,...

Dyscalculia

Originally believed to be a variation of achondroplasia, researchers now recognize it as a distinct condition with its own characteristics. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias This is a very large group of skeletal conditions causing short-trunk dwarfism characterized by abnormal growth in the spine and long bones of the body. In one form (spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda), the lack of growth in the trunk may not become obvious until the child is between five...

Ehrlichiosis human monocytic

Its flu-like symptoms are far more severe than those associated with Lyme disease. Severe symptoms of the disease may include prolonged fever, kidney failure, meningoencephalitis, seizures, or coma. Between 2 percent and 3 percent of patients may die from the infection. While many of the symptoms overlap with Lyme, the HGE symptoms tend to peak very quickly, moving from health to severe debilitation in a few hours. Preliminary evidence suggests that infection caused by the E. chaffeensis...

Electrical Burns

Electrical accidents can cause several different types of burns, including flame burns caused by ignited clothing, electrical current injury, or electrothermal burns from arcing current. Sometimes all three types will be found on the same child. Nearly two-thirds of electrical burn injuries among children aged 12 and under are associated with household electrical cords and extension cords. Wall outlets are associated with an additional 14 percent of these injuries. Among children aged 14 and...

Encephalitis 169

Symptoms are similar to human granulocytic ehrli-chiosis (ehrlichiosis, human granulocytic), including fever, headache, chills, malaise, sweating, muscle aches, nausea, and vomiting. The infection may range from a mild illness to a severe, life-threatening disease. It may cause leukopenia (reduction of white blood cells), thrombocytopenia (reduction in blood platelets), anemia, or abnormal liver function. Antibiotics are effective if begun early enough in the disease. emergency room information...

Encephalitis California

A virus transmitted to humans via mosquito bite, causing St. Louis encephalitis. More and more cases are related to infection with HIV, the organism responsible for AIDS. Occasionally, encephalitis is a complication of other viral infections such as MEASLES or MUMPS. Usually, symptoms begin with headache, fever, and prostration, leading to hallucinations, confusion, paralysis of one side of the body, and disturbed behavior, speech memory, and eye movement. There is a gradual loss of...

Encephalitis eastern equine 171

When an infected mosquito bites a child, the virus passes into the blood and then travels to the brain and spinal cord. It multiplies in the central nervous system, inflaming and damaging nerve cells, interfering with signals sent from the brain to other parts of the body. Only a small percentage of children with the disease exhibit any symptoms, beginning with fever, irritability, drowsiness, headache, and nausea vomiting. This can lead to convulsions or seizures. Most people recover...

Encephalomyelitis acute disseminated ADE

A neurological disorder characterized by inflammation of the brain and spinal cord caused by damage to the myelin sheath covering the nerves. The myelin sheath is the fatty covering that acts as an insulator on nerve fibers in the brain. ADE appears more often in children and typically follows vaccination or infection. A variety of terminologies is used to describe it, including post infectious, parainfectious, or post-vaccinial ence-phalomyelitis. ADE predominantly affects the white matter of...

Escherichia coli 0157H7 179

Annually the CDC estimates that E. coli alone is responsible for 20,000 cases of food poisoning, although these estimates may not be accurate since physicians are not required to report these poisonings. A study by the Western States Meats Association found that E. coli was present in 1.5 percent of ground pork and also in poultry, and 3.7 percent in beef. In the past, people got E. coli food poisoning by drinking tap water in foreign countries. In the wake of the mass poisonings and deaths...

F

Failure to thrive A description applied to a child whose weight or rate of weight gain is significantly below others of similar age and sex. Failure to thrive can be caused by a wide variety of problems, such as genetic, physical, psychological, or social factors. Although it is not unusual for newborns to lose a little weight in the first few days, some infants fail to pick up on expected weight gain and growth. Usually caused by inadequate nutrition or a feeding problem, failure to thrive is...

Glossary

Adrenal glands A pair of small glands, one located on top of each kidney, that produce steroid hormones, adrenaline, and noradrena-line to help control heart rate, blood pressure, and other important body functions. antibody A protein that is manufactured by white blood cells to identify, neutralize, or destroy bacteria, viruses, and other harmful microorganisms. antigen A substance that can trigger an immune response, causing the production of an antibody as part of the body's defense against...

Governmental Overview

Governmental overview began in 1906 with the passage of the pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat inspection Act, designed to make American food as safe as possible. in addition, two different governmental agencies are responsible for regulating and monitoring the safety of the U.S. food supply. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for ensuring the safety and whole-someness of all food except meat, poultry, and eggs. The Department of Agriculture monitors the safety of...

Hair Entanglements

There have been 49 incidents and 13 deaths since 1978 caused by having a person's hair sucked into the suction fitting of a spa, hot tub, or whirlpool, holding the victim's head under water. Hair entanglement occurs when a bather's hair becomes entangled in a drain cover as the water and hair are drawn through the drain. In some incidents, children were playing a hold your breath the longest game, which allowed their long hair to be sucked into the drain. The CPSC helped develop a voluntary...

Heat Exhaustion

Heat exhaustion is a more severe heat illness than heat cramps. It can occur when a child in a hot climate or environment has not been drinking enough fluids. A child can lose up to a quart of sweat during a two-hour sports game, and children are more susceptible to dehydration and heat exhaustion than adults active children who do not drink enough are most at risk. Symptoms Symptoms can include dehydration, fatigue, weakness, clammy skin, headache, nausea and or vomiting, rapid breathing, or...

Height and Weight

Because it is important to know a child's height and weight when calculating medication doses, this information should be kept updated constantly. medication, giving Parents are often called upon to administer medication to their children at home. When obtaining a prescription or buying over-the-counter medicine, parents should know the child's exact weight. Most over-the-counter medicines list a chart on the bottle or package that outlines how much medicine should be given, according to...

Herpes zoster See shingles

Hiccups Hiccups happen when the muscles of the diaphragm tighten. The diaphragm lies on top of the stomach, a thin shelf-like muscle separating the lungs and heart from the stomach and intestines. The intercostal muscles controlling the diaphragm lie between the ribs. When these muscles function normally, they help a child breathe, speak, sing, and cough. But sometimes the nerves controlling these muscles do not work right, usually in a younger child. Hiccups can be quite common in infants and...

Hordeolum See stye

Hospice, children's A system of comprehensive services for children that provides coordinated home care and inpatient care through an interdisciplinary team coordinated by a physician and nurse. The team provides medical, nursing, psychosocial, and spiritual care as core services, along with trained volunteer and other services as appropriate. Hospice care for children is also attentive to needs related to loss and grieving for all concerned both prior to and following a death. Nursing services...

Hot tub safety

Admission in words the child can understand. How parents describe the event can affect a child's attitude during the hospital stay. parent and child can pack together for the hospital stay and include a favorite toy the entire family should be included in a pre-hospital discussion. It is a good idea for parents to borrow a library book that describes a hospital stay and read it with the child. A child's questions should always be answered simply and honestly. When to bring up the subject of...

How It Works

Once law enforcement has been notified about an abducted child, it must first determine if the case meets the criteria for triggering an alert. Local and state programs establish specific criteria however, the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children suggests that before an alert is activated, law-enforcement officers should confirm a child has been abducted and believe that the circumstances surrounding the abduction indicate that the child is in danger of serious bodily harm or...

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis HGE

Human Growth Foundation A nonprofit, volunteer organization dedicated to helping children and adults with disorders of growth and growth hormone through research, education, support, and advocacy. The Human Growth Foundation (HGF) includes concerned parents and friends of children with growth problems and interested health professionals. The foundation was established in 1965 by five families of children with growth disorders. Their primary purpose was to identify other parents and children...

Infant Feeding Problems

A breast-fed baby under six months of age who is always restless and failing to gain weight even when emptying the breast may not be getting enough calories. A pediatrician should examine the baby and make recommendations for possible changes in diet or feeding methods. A bottle-fed baby who turns away from the bottle, or who vomits after most feedings, may in fact be getting too much food. Babies who avoid the bottle usually are full persisting in trying to feed is not effective. However, if...

Influenza

However, this virus does not affect people and was different from a 1997 strain that killed six people. What worried authorities was the fact that the 2001 infection was a new and highly virulent strain of avian flu that killed almost 800 chickens in cages in three separate markets during its first 24 hours. To prevent a possible jump to humans, all the chickens, ducks, geese, and quail in the territory's markets, along with all mature poultry on its farms, were slaughtered. The...

Influenza 273

However, an accurate diagnosis of ulcerative colitis may require an examination of the colon by inserting a colonoscope, which allows doctors to see the degree of damage. A biopsy of the colon may help confirm the diagnosis. To diagnose Crohn's disease, barium X rays can reveal characteristic signs of inflammation in the lining of the intestine. An upper gastrointestinal endo-scopy and colonoscopy may be performed to check for evidence of bowel damage caused by inflammation. Medication is the...

Intelligence quotient 277

Auditory Memory There are two kinds of auditory memory Long-term auditory memory is the ability to recall something heard long ago, whereas short-term auditory memory is the ability to remember something heard very recently. Children with problems in this area may find it difficult to remember people's names, memorize and recall telephone numbers, follow multistep spoken directions, recall stories they have been told, or remember lines from songs. There are things that can be done to help a...

International Academy for Child Brain

Development A group of professionals from a variety of disciplines including physicians, psy chologists, and anthropologists who are interested in the physical and psychological processes involved in child brain development. The group seeks to gain recognition of the study of child brain development and establish criteria for child brain developmentalists. The group conducts research, offers courses in child brain development, and bestows awards. Founded in 1985, the group sponsors an annual...

Ipecac syrup of 279

Between five months and nine months. it affects between one and four infants out of 1,000 and is two to three times more common in boys. in infants the causes of intussusception are unknown. Some experts believe that the problem is caused by the aftereffects of a viral intestinal infection. Viral infections can cause swelling of the infection-fighting lymph tissue that normally lines the intestine. Because intussusception is seen most often in spring and fall, this seems to suggest a possible...

Itching

Said depression is common among acne patients, whether or not they take isotretinoin. It appears that patients who are prone to depression may be at higher risk for developing depression while taking isotretinoin. other side effects may include thinning hair, itching, dry and flaky skin, occasional aching muscles, and, rarely, liver damage. itching That familiar tickling sensation on the skin is the most prominent symptom in many skin diseases and allergies. Skin that is too dry and scaly...

Knockknees 291

The advice of a child's doctor or a dietitian may be valuable in learning about the sodium content of various foods. A child's nephrologist can discuss an appropriate diet that meets a child's need for calories and nutrients while minimizing damage to kidneys and avoiding other complications. knock-knees Many children show a moderate tendency toward knock-knees between the ages of four and six as the body goes through a natural shift of alignment during the first years of life. After...

M

Mainstreaming The placement of disabled students in the regular education classroom. Mainstreaming was introduced in the 1970s as a result of Public Law 94-142, which mandated that special needs children be placed in the least restrictive environment. Until the approval of P.L. 94-142 in 1975, most special needs children (from mildly to severely disabled), were educated in self-contained settings. The philosophy of mainstreaming disabled children into the regular classroom comes from the idea...

Maternal Diagnosis

Pregnant women have access to both screening and diagnostic tests to find out if an unborn child has Down syndrome. screening tests estimate the risk of the fetus having Down syndrome, whereas diagnostic tests tell whether or not the fetus actually has the condition. screening tests are typically offered between 8 and 20 weeks of gestation, but they can accurately detect about 60 percent of cases. Many women who undergo these tests will be given false-positive readings, and some women will be...

Microtia Atresia

Microtia is the medical term for an incompletely formed ear that may range from an ear that is smaller than normal to just a bit of tissue at the location where the ear would normally be. Atresia is the absence of an ear canal in the middle ear. Microtia and atresia can occur alone or together, and they can also be associated with hemifacial microsomia. If both ears are affected, Treacher Collins syndrome may be involved. There are several treatment options for a child with this condition,...

Muscular Dystrophy Association

Introduced into a genetically engineered virus that would then bind to afflicted muscle cells, where it would transfer normal dystrophin gene to the weakened muscles. Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA) A voluntary health agency dedicated to conquering neuromuscular diseases that affect more than a million Americans. The Muscular Dystrophy Association combats neuromuscular diseases through programs of worldwide research, comprehensive medical and community services, and professional and public...

Mycoplasma pneumonia 353

Lowing list outlines what to do if a child accidentally ingests a toxic mushroom 1. An adult should collect the mushrooms the child was eating if possible, a few should be dug up so that even the underground parts can be saved for identification. If there are several kinds of mushrooms around the child, all of the different kinds that the child might have eaten should be collected. 2. An adult should check with the child's doctor, the local poison control center, or the hospital emergency room....

National Center for Missing and Exploited Children

(NCMEC) A private, nonprofit center that provides assistance to parents, children, law enforcement, schools, and the community in recovering missing children and raising public awareness about ways to help prevent child abduction, molestation, and sexual exploitation. It was founded in 1984 by John Walsh, whose six-year-old son Adam was abducted in Florida in 1981. The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC) has worked on more than 85,500 cases of missing and exploited...

National Hydrocephalus Foundation

Over the past 25 years NHSA's mission has changed from simply defending Head Start in Congress to actively expanding and improving the program. From planning massive annual training conferences to publishing a vast array of publications, the National Head Start Association continually strives to improve the quality of Head Start's comprehensive services for America's children and families. National Hydrocephalus Foundation A nonprofit organization founded in 1980 to familiarize the public with...

National Parent Network on Disabilities NPND

A nonprofit organization dedicated to empowering parents of children with disabilities. Located in Washington, D.C., the National Parent Network on Disabilities (NPND) provides up-to-date information on the activities of all three branches of government that affect individuals with disabilities and their families. The NPND's primary activities include advocating for and supporting the development and implementation of legislation that will improve the lives and protect the rights of children,...

National Tay Sachs and Allied Diseases Association

Screening programs, treatment methods, pain management, and patient care. The group aims to promote public awareness, provide reliable information, foster ongoing research, and educate and nurture those affected by scoliosis. It also provides comprehensive education and support for patients and health-care professionals through videos, books, brochures, local chapters, conferences, and postural screening training sessions. National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association, Inc. (NTSAD)...

Neurofibromatosis 365

Common genetic disorder, occurring in about one in 4,000 babies born in the United States. When diagnosing NF1 (also called von Recklinghausen disease), doctors will take a thorough medical history because children with NF1 often have a parent with the disease. Neurofibromatosis type 2 is less common, occurring in about one in 140,000 births. Also known as bilateral acoustic NF, it is characterized by multiple tumors on the cranial and spinal nerves, and by other lesions of the brain and spinal...

Newborn Infection

A much greater concern is herpes simplex virus infection in newborn infants. The virus is most frequently transmitted to an infant from the mother during vaginal delivery or, sometimes, via ascending infection. Transmission is much more likely to occur during a vaginal birth in a mother who is having a first episode of genital herpes. In such cases, the rate of transmission may be 33 to 50 percent. Unfortunately, in most cases, infected neonates are born to women in whom neither the history nor...

Nightmares 367

May cause seizures, poor muscle control, immune system impairment, hearing loss, mental retardation, coma, and even death. If the deficiency is detected in time, however, problems can be prevented by giving the baby extra biotin. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia This group of disorders involves a deficiency of certain hormones produced by the adrenal gland that can affect genital development and may cause a fatal loss of salt from the kidneys. Lifelong supplementation of the missing hormones...

Obsessive Compulsive Foundation OCF An

International nonprofit organization of more than 10,000 members with obsessive-compulsive disORDER (OCD) and related disorders, their families, friends, professionals, and other concerned individuals. Founded by a group of individuals with OCD in 1986, the mission of the OCF is to educate the public and professional communities about OCD and related disorders to help people with OCD and related disorders, their family and friends and to support research into the causes and effective treatments...

Other Causes of Growth Disorders

Diseases of the kidneys, heart, gastrointestinal tract, or lungs also may lead to growth disorders, which may be the first sign of a problem in some of these conditions. Endocrine diseases involving too little or too many hormones can cause growth failure during childhood and adolescence. Growth hormone deficiency is a disorder that involves the pituitary gland, which may not produce enough hormones for normal growth. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland fails to make enough...

Paratyphoid fever

Sleep or from one stage of sleep to another. There is no known cause for this type of disorder, but medical or psychological problems are rarely associated with it. Children who experience rhythmic disorders may have morning headaches, nasal problems, and ear infections. Another rhythmic disorder is restless legs syndrome (RLS), a sensory and motor abnormality that seems to have a genetic basis. In RLS the child's legs move repeatedly. Many people who have RLS also have periodic leg movement...

Pelvic inflammatory disease 385

Ing, funding, and conducting pediatric HIV AIDS research. The foundation's mission is to identify, fund, and conduct critical pediatric research that will lead to better treatments and prevention of HIV infection in infants and children, to reduce and prevent HIV transmission from mother to child, and to accelerate the discovery of new treatments for other serious and life-threatening pediatric diseases. The Pediatric AIDS Foundation was cofounded in 1988 by Elizabeth Glaser, Susan DeLaurentis,...

Penicillin

While it may not have an obvious cause, PID often occurs from an untreated sexually transmitted disease such as gonorrhea or chlamydia. It also may occur after childbirth, abortion, or miscarriage. Young, sexually active girls and those who use the intrauterine birth control device are at higher risk. The bacteria travel from the cervix to the fallopian tubes and ovaries, leading to permanent scarring of the tubes. The more times a girl contracts PID, the higher the chance she will become...

Perinatal Stroke

Perinatal (or prenatal) stroke includes strokes that occur between the 28 weeks of gestation and the 28 days after birth. Stroke occurs more frequently in the perinatal and prenatal age group than in older children. Some perinatal strokes are caused by inherited clotting disorders or coagulation abnormalities that make the infant more likely to have a blood clot. Congenital heart disease and sickle-cell disease are common causes of stroke in children. No cause can be detected in about a fifth...

Photoallergy

Today, most schools use a combination of both approaches. A growing body of research suggests that contextual cues cannot replace word-recognition. Good readers do not skip words or rely on context but read virtually every word and see all letters. In fact, studies demonstrate that only poor readers rely on contextual cues for word identification. Teaching children to guess the meaning of words by context actually decreases the odds that they will learn to read well. Children who do not...

Poison ivy Toxicodendron radicans One of

The most common plants in the United States that is poisonous to touch, causing a contact dermatitis in most people. The leaves of the poison ivy plant are glossy green, may be notched or smooth, and almost always grow in groups of three. However, according to some experts, there are exceptions leaves may sometimes appear in fives, sevens, or even nines. in early fall, the leaves may turn bright red. Although it usually grows as a long, hairy vine (often wrapping itself around trees), it also...

Poison oak Toxicodendron diversilobum A

Plant that is poisonous to touch, closely related to poison ivy. The leaves of poison oak occur in groups of three and are very similar to oak leaves, from which the plant gets its name. The underside of the leaves is much lighter green because of the thousands of tiny fine hairs that cover them. Berries may be green or white, although not all plants bear fruit. Poison oak usually grows as a low shrub on the west coast, from Mexico to British Columbia. (See poison ivy for details on treatment...

Poison sumac Toxicodendron vernix [L Kuntzel [Rhus vernix L This poisonous tree a relative of poison ivy and poison oak

To 13 long narrow leaves growing in pairs with a single leaf at the end of the stem. In the spring the leaves are bright orange and look something like velvet as the season progresses, they become dark green and glossy on the upper surface and light green on the underside. In the fall the leaves turn red or orange. Poison sumac can be differentiated from nonpoisonous sumacs by its drooping clusters of green berries nonpoisonous sumacs have red, upright clusters of berries. Poison sumac can grow...

Positional plagiocephaly 409

Ommended that caregivers change a child often and make frequent trips to the toilet. Swim diapers or pants are not a substitute for frequent diaper changing. Caregivers should wash child thoroughly (especially the anal area) with soap and water before swimming. invisible amounts of fecal matter in the anal area can end up in the pool. (See also port-wine stains A permanent purple-red birthmark that is present at birth and is usually found on the face. The birthmarks are usually sharply outlined...

Positional plagiocephaly flattened head A

Newborn's head is often slightly misshapen during the few days or weeks after birth, because the passage through the birth canal often temporarily elongates a baby's soft skull bones. However, a persistent flat spot either in the back or on one side of his head can result from being put to sleep on his back or by problems with the baby's neck muscles. Fortunately, this condition will correct itself by the time the child is one year old. Because infants' heads are soft to allow for incredible...

Prader Willi syndrome 411

an unwillingness to discuss the trauma persistent, intense fear and anxiety feelings of numbness or detachment no longer finding pleasure in previously enjoyable activities preoccupation with the event physical symptoms (headache, stomach distress, or dizziness) suicidal thoughts, plans, or gestures Some children can recover from PTSD without treatment, with symptoms fading away within six months. Otherwise, cognitive-behavioral therapy can help, particularly if the trauma was unusually severe...

Premature babies 413

With age (by 50 postconceptional weeks, apnea is rare). All premature babies are monitored for apnea if it occurs, the baby is gently stimulated to restart breathing. If apnea occurs frequently, the infant may require medication (most commonly caffeine or theophylline) and a special nasal device that blows a steady stream of air into the airways to keep them open. Anemia Many premature babies do not have enough red blood cells to carry sufficient oxygen throughout the body. This is easily...

Prevention

Strict hand-washing is important to prevent the spread of adenoviruses to other infants, children, and adults. There are vaccines for adenovirus serotypes 4 and 7, but these are available only to prevent infection among military recruits. Strict infection control practices are effective at stopping outbreaks of adenovirus-associated disease in hospitals adequately chlorinating pools can prevent swimming pool-associated outbreaks of adenovirus conjunctivitis. ADHD See attention deficit...

Prozac 415

The general signs include dwarfism, baldness, a pinched nose, small face and jaw relative to head size, delayed tooth formation, aged skin, stiff joints, hip dislocations, generalized atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular problems. The children have a remarkably similar appearance despite racial background, and they tend to have above-average intelligence. The condition is caused by a single misplaced DNA molecule within the human genome that contains some three billion DNA units. The gene was...

R

Rabies An acute viral disease of the central nervous system that is usually transmitted to humans by a bite from an infected warm-blooded animal. Untreated, the disease is a swift, deadly killer, and there is no cure the only hope lies in giving a vaccine immediately after a bite from a rabid animal. Although most people tend to associate rabies with dogs, in fact rabies today is more likely to be found in cats. Together with dogs and cattle, these animals make up nearly 90 percent of rabies...

Recommended Childhood and Adolescent Immunization Schedule United States January June 2004

Vaccines below this line are for selected populations This schedule indicates the recommended ages for routine administration of currently licensed childhood vaccines, as of December 1, 2003, for children through age 18 years. Any dose not given at the recommended age should be given at any subsequent visit when indicated and feasible. t M Indicates age groups that warrant special effort to administer those vaccines not previously given. Additional vaccines may be licensed and recommended...

Rett Syndrome Association International

Test might allow doctors to forestall the drastic consequences of the disease. The condition is most often misdiagnosed as autism, cerebral palsy, or nonspecific developmental delay. While many health professionals may not be familiar with Rett syndrome, it is a relatively frequent cause of neurological dysfunction in females. There is no cure for Rett syndrome however, there are several treatment options, including treatments for the learning disabilities and seizures that may occur. some...

Rheumatic fever 431

And maintains a healthy cardiorespiratory system. A respirator may be necessary if breathing becomes too slow the body may be cooled and barbiturates given to slow metabolism and lower intracranial pressure. Small quantities of insulin may be given to increase glucose metabolism, cor-ticosteroids to reduce brain swelling, and diuretics to increase fluid loss. over the years the prognosis for children with Reye's syndrome has improved early diagnosis and better treatment have reduced the...

Risk Factors

Childhood stroke deaths are poorly understood, since it is not possible to take the risk factors important for strokes in adults (such as high blood pressure, poor diet, or diabetes) and apply them to children. Experts suspect an unknown genetic predisposition may play a role in these deaths. Hormonal differences may be a factor in the higher stroke rates in boys. Known risk factors for childhood strokes caused by bleeding include brain tumors or vascular malformations, hemophilia, cancer, and...

Roseola 435

Diagnosis may be difficult because the disease resembles several other infections. The diagnosis can be confirmed by taking at least two different blood samples several weeks apart and identifying antibodies against the infection. Because it usually takes many days for these tests to show positive results, treatment generally begins before test results are available. Mild fever, loss of appetite, and slight headache may develop slowly about a week after a tick bite. However, sometimes symptoms...

Sexually transmitted diseases

Researchers at Chinese University in Hong Kong have released preliminary findings that suggest SARS is much milder in children and teens than in adults. Scientists found that while teens had symptoms similar to those of adults (muscle aches and chills) younger children tended to have milder symptoms, such as coughs and runny noses, and recovered sooner. The first case of SARS was diagnosed in November 2002 in southern China's Guangdong province, and within one month the province reported 300...

Sicklecell disease 455

If the family clearly forbids physical aggression and name-calling and instead spends time together in enjoyable activities. Research also shows that exposure to violent TV and movie images increases the risk of aggressive behavior among children, and that children's shows that portray significant sibling conflict and disrespect can increase sibling rivalry at home. This is why it is important for parents to teach critical viewing skills and to help their children understand the consequences of...

Side Effects

Retin-A is a powerful drug, and side effects can include burning eyes and peeling or reddening of the skin that lasts for weeks. This reaction is most common in teens who sunburn easily and who normally have very sensitive skin. Ironically, Retin-A makes the skin more vulnerable to ultraviolet light, causing patients to sunburn more easily. Incorrect use of Retin-A can lead to extreme irritation. Rett syndrome A progressive neurological disorder in which children exhibit learning disabilities,...

Skeletal Dysplasias

The most common causes of dwarfism are the skeletal dysplasias, including achondroplasia, dias-trophic dysplasia (diastrophic dwarfism), and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias (SED). Achondroplasia This is a form of short-limb dwarfism caused by a single autosomal dominant gene, which means that a spontaneous mutation in the gene can produce the condition, or a child can inherit the gene from a parent with achondroplasia. Children with achondroplasia have a relatively long trunk and shorter upper...

Spanish flu See influenza

Spatial-material organizational disorder A problem with organizing materials so that the child constantly struggles for survival within an ordered environment. A child with this problem has a hard time organizing information on paper. Margins are missing, spacings between words and letters are incorrect, centering is difficult, and the overall appearance of the work is messy. Teachers often have trouble reading the child's work. A child with this problem often forgets assignments or books...

Spinal meningitis See meningitis

Spinal tap The common name for a lumbar puncture, a procedure in which cerebrospinal fluid is removed by using a hollow needle inserted into the lower back, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae. The fluid is checked for appearance, white blood cells, sugar, and protein in a lab and is also sent for culture, which can help determine what sort of germ is causing symptoms. While some children fear the thought of a spinal tap, in fact the procedure is not terribly painful. It is a...

Spotting an Unsafe Pool

Alert parents or caregivers often can spot unsanitary pool water before their children go in swim ming. Pool water should be clean enough so that objects are clearly visible at the bottom of the pool, and there should be no foaming or bubbling around the sides of the pool. Murky or foamy water may indicate the presence of bacteria or other organic matter. Anyone who spots fecal matter in a pool should immediately notify the pool attendant or lifeguard, who should ask swimmers to leave the water...

Stroke

Each year there are more than 50,000 cases in pregnant women. It is the most common cause of blood infections (sepsis), meningitis, and pneumonia in newborns. About 15,000 to 18,000 infants are infected in the United States each year, and up to 15 percent of these die. Those who survive may have hearing or vision problems or developmental disabilities. While many people carry group B strep in their bodies, most do not get sick. Other common diseases caused by GBS include blood...

Swimmers itch 485

Son dark, thick, oily skin gets fewer wrinkles than badly sun-damaged fair skin. Even with frequent applications of sunscreen, sunbathers may be at risk for developing melanoma (the most serious form of skin cancer). In fact, skin cells can undergo changes not just by exposure to the sun's ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light (rays between 280 and 320 nanometers) but also light with longer wavelengths, including ultravio-let-A (UV-A) light. In the past scientists had linked melanoma to damaged DNA...

Symptoms

In all adjustment disorders, the reaction to the stress seems to be abnormally severe and significantly interferes with friends or school function. There are six subtypes of adjustment disorder based on symptoms adjustment disorder with depressed mood is characterized by depression, crying, and feelings of hopelessness. adjustment disorder with anxiety may cause nervousness, worry, jitteriness, and fear of separation. adjustment disorder with anxiety and depressed mood is a combination of...

Trauma

excessive wear and tear and stress on a joint(s) Exercise Getting plenty of exercise is a very important part of treatment for juvenile arthritis. For children with arthritis, exercise helps to keep joints mobile, keep muscles strong, regain lost motion or strength in a joint or muscle, make everyday activities like walking or dressing easier, and improve general fitness and endurance. While medications reduce pain and inflammation, only therapeutic exercise can restore lost motion in a joint....

Types of Muscular Dystrophy

There are many types of muscular dystrophy of these Duchenne is the most common and most severe. Duchenne This type of MD occurs when muscle fibers develop with abnormal dystrophin. Duchenne affects about one out of every 3,300 boys, who usually begin to show symptoms between ages two and five, with rapid muscle weakness first affecting the pelvic muscles. Most children lose the ability to walk by age 12 and must use a wheelchair, eventually developing muscle weakness in shoulders, back, arms,...

Visual Motor Processing

The kind of thinking needed to use feedback from the eyes to coordinate the movement of other parts of the body is called visual motor processing. For example, eyes and hands need to work together if the child is going to write well with a pen or pencil. Children who have problems in this area may find it hard to write neatly or stay within the margins or on the lines of a page, use scissors, sew, move around without bumping into things, place objects on surfaces so they will not fall off, or...

Watery itchy eyes

ticklish or sore throat from postnasal drip A doctor should be consulted if the child has green or yellow nasal discharge is miserable due to the symptoms has symptoms that become much worse A child with severe allergies should see an allergist to determine the actual substances that cause the allergic reactions. Skin or blood tests may be recommended to determine the specific allergen. An antihistamine can help relieve symptoms by blocking the allergic reaction, and a brief course of...

What Parents Can Do

Parents should be willing to discuss death with the child in a reassuring way. Because it is a child's lack of knowledge that triggers fear, adults should be honest with the child when someone close to the family dies. Many children believe they may have caused the death, especially if they ever had angry thoughts about the person. It is vital that parents explain this is not the case. Many experts feel that a child should be at least five years of age before being exposed to a funeral home or...

Wheezing

Ichthyosis A family of at least 20 rare skin disorders characterized by dry, thickened rough, scaling, darkened skin triggered by too much keratin (the main protein component of skin). This group of genetic diseases ranges from mild generalized dry skin (ichthyosis vulgaris) to severe widespread thickened scaly dry skin (lamellar ichthyosis). The disorder's name is derived from the Greek word ichthus meaning fish because the appearance and condition of the skin resemble fish scales. It affects...

Who Can Adopt

Agencies recognize that many different kinds of people can be loving, effective parents. People considering adoption should be stable, sensitive, and be able to give a child love, understanding, and patience. An adoptive parent may be married or single, childless or already a parent. It is possible to adopt even if a person has been divorced, has had marital problems, received counseling, or has a disability if the person can still care for a child. Agencies usually ask for proof of marriage,...

Who Should Be Screened

If parents have a positive family history of an inherited disorder, have previously given birth to an affected child, or have reason to believe that a child may be at risk for a certain condition, additional testing may be needed. If a hospital cannot or will not provide expanded screening and the child's doctors believe additional testing would be a good idea, an independent laboratory can provide supplemental testing for more than 30 metabolic disorders through a mail-order service available...

Moniliasis See thrush

Monkeypox A milder relative of smallpox that appeared in the United States for the first time when at least a dozen people had contact in 2003 with infected pet prairie dogs. Monkeypox was reported in humans for the first time in 1970, and until the recent outbreak in the United States, it was a disease never before seen in the Western Hemisphere. Rarely fatal, it causes pus-filled blisters, rashes, chills, and fever. Cases of monkeypox first appeared in sick prairie dogs sold by a Milwaukee,...

Severe acute respiratory syndrome 449

Septicemia The medical name for blood poisoning, a potentially lethal blood infection characterized by the rapid multiplication of bacteria and the presence of their toxins. Septicemia is the body's response to severe infection, mediated through the immune system and involving nearly every other system in the body. The condition may produce harmful effects in other organs, leading to very high death rates. Septicemia can occur when certain forms of bacteria enter the bloodstream. These bacteria...

St Louis encephalitis

Treatment with stimulants for ADHD is a long-term therapy the government estimates that 80 percent of those who need medication for ADHD in childhood will still need drugs as teenagers, and 50 percent will be helped by stimulants as adults. The most common side effects include weight loss and appetite loss, together with problems in falling asleep, although these problems may fade away as a student becomes used to the drug. Some studies have found that a child's growth begins to lag, although...

Childrens Craniofacial Association CCA A

National nonprofit organization dedicated to improving the quality of life for children with facial differences and their families. Headquartered in Dallas, the Children's Cranio-facial Association (CCA) addresses the medical, financial, psychosocial, emotional, and educational concerns relating to craniofacial conditions. CCA's mission is to empower and give hope to facially disfigured children and their families. (For contact information, see Appendix i.) Children's Defense Fund A national...

Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America A

Patient organization dedicated to improving the quality of life for children with asthma and allergies through education, advocacy, and research. The Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA) a not-for-profit organization founded in 1953, provides practical information, community-based services, support, and referrals through a national network of chapters and educational support groups. AAFA also sponsors research toward better treatments and a cure for asthma and allergic diseases. (For...