ADHD and Other Disorders

ADHD can coexist with a number of psychological conditions, including conduct disorders, mood disorders (such as depression), anxiety disorders, and impulse control disorders (such as eating disorders and alcohol abuse). Some children may be depressed as a result of having ADHD, whereas others may have a mood disorder that exists independently of ADHD. Nearly half of all children with ADHD also have oppositional defiant disorder characterized by stubbornness, outbursts of temper, and defiance....

Treatment

HPV is a persistent and hard-to-cure organism, so treatment must usually be repeated. Moreover, an infected woman should be monitored throughout her life for recurrence or development of precan-cerous changes, whether or not warts are apparent. Because the virus remains in the lesions it creates, treatment for HPV consists of controlling infection by removing visible warts or precancer-ous lesions. They can be removed by surgery, by freezing, or by locally applied chemicals. The method depends...

Asperger syndrome Aspergers disorder A

Condition characterized by sustained problems with social interactions and social relatedness, and the development of restricted, repetitive patterns of interests, activities, and behaviors. The disorder is named after Hans Asperger, a Viennese pediatrician who first documented this cluster of characteristics in the 1940s. One type of autism spectrum disorder, Asperger's is a milder form of autism but without the delays in cognitive or language development. In 1994 Asperger's was first...

Adverse Effects

Isotretinoin is an extremely effective anti-acne preparation, but in a small number of patients (less than 1 percent) it may be associated with symptoms of a major depressive episode. In these cases, symptoms resolve rapidly (within two to seven days) after stopping the medicine. After a period off medication, treatment can begin again at a lower dose. In a Dear Doctor letter to 210,000 dermatologists, family doctors, and psychiatrists, the maker of the drug (Roche) wrote that the strengthened...

After the NICU

After leaving the NICU, infants who were born too soon occasionally still need attention at a high-risk newborn clinic or early intervention program. in addition to the regular well-child visits and immunizations that all infants receive, premature infants also get periodic hearing and eye examinations. Careful attention is paid to the development of the nervous system, including the achievement of motor skills like smiling, sitting, and walking, as well as the positioning and tone of the...

Airborne Allergens

Those who react to airborne allergens usually have allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis. Airborne allergens include dust mites, cockroach parts, pollens, and molds Dust mites These microscopic creatures are one of the most common causes of allergies and are present year-round in most parts of the country, although they do not live at high altitudes. Dust mites live in bedding, upholstery, and carpets. Cockroaches The body parts and waste products of these insects are also a major...

Appendix

The U.S. poison emergency phone number is (800) 222-1222, and anyone who calls this number 24 hours a day, seven days a week will be connected to a poison expert. Anyone experiencing a poison emergency or who has a question about a poison or about poison prevention should call right away. The U.S. nationwide poison control number is connected to a network of 62 poison centers around the United States, and callers are connected automatically to a local poison center expert in their area,...

Bacterial Pneumonia

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia, occurring most often in winter and spring, when upper respiratory tract infections are most common. In addition to S. pneu-moniae, other bacteria that can cause pneumonia include Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilius influenzae, Legionella pneumophilia, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Symptoms Classic bacterial pneumonia usually begins with a sudden onset of shaking chills, a rapid...

Bacterial pneumonia See pneumonia

Bed-wetting Known medically as nocturnal enuresis, this is the inability of a child to control urinating at night. Some children do not attain nighttime control for several years after they have been completely potty trained during the day. In fact, bed-wetting is not considered abnormal until after age five, and even then the situation eventually improves on its own. Bed-wetting occurs in 15 to 20 percent of all five-year-old children, for an estimated 5 to 6 million children. About 15 percent...

Body Lice

Body lice live and lay eggs on clothing next to the skin, visiting the body only to feed. Body lice affect those who rarely change their clothes and are not a serious problem for American children. Body lice can be killed by placing infested clothing in a hot drier for five minutes, by washing clothes in very hot water, or by burning. listeriosis A food-borne illness that may cause no symptoms in healthy children but is especially dangerous to newborns and very young children. Lis-teriosis...

California encephalitis See encephalitis California

Campylobacteriosis A form of food-borne illness first recognized in the 1970s that causes gastroenteritis or traveler's diarrhea. Much more common than either salmonella poisoning or shigellosis, campylobacteriosis is responsible for between 5 and 14 percent of all diarrheal infections in the world. It may affect between two and four million Americans each year. The Campylobacter organism is actually a group of spiral-shaped bacteria. Most human illness is caused by one species, called...

Call the Doctor

Call a doctor immediately if a child exhibits symptoms. intussusception is a medical emergency, but with early treatment most infants recover completely. in many cases, early diagnosis means surgery can be avoided. ipecac, syrup of An emetic derived from the dried roots of a poisonous shrub found in Europe and the Americas, used to treat accidental poisoning. However, ipecac syrup should no longer be used routinely as a poison treatment intervention in the home, according to new guidelines...

Cause

A latex allergy occurs when the immune system reacts to proteins found in latex, triggering a defensive reaction that can cause unpleasant and, in some cases, life-threatening symptoms. However, certain children are at greater risk of becoming allergic to latex. Those at higher risk include children who are frequently exposed to latex. As many as 65 percent of children with spina bifida have latex allergy. More than 25 percent of children with spinal injuries are allergic to latex, as are 33...

Cerebrospinal fluid analysis See spinal tap

Cereus A type of food poisoning caused by the Bacillus cereus bacteria, which multiplies in raw foods at room temperature. The B. cereus bacteria produces toxins most often found in steamed or refried rice. It is believed that poisoning with B. cereus is underreported because its symptoms are so similar to other types of food poisoning (especially staphylococcal and Clostridium perfringens poisoning). A wide variety of foods including meats, milk, vegetables, and fish have been associated with...

Children and Suicide

Most people do not realize that children under age 12 are capable of killing themselves. over the last few decades, the suicide rate among young children has risen dramatically. Between 1980 and 1996 the suicide rate among children 10 to 15 has skyrocketed by 100 percent. Most suicides among children between ages five and 14 are among the older children it is fairly rare (although not unheard of) for children under age 10 to take their own lives. The reason why suicide is rare before puberty is...

Cold common

Around the tonsils and adenoids can trap these germs, where they are then destroyed by the immune system. If a child is not so healthy, the mucous membranes in the nose will either be too thick (causing a stuffy nose and congested throat) or too thin (causing a runny nose). The germs then will not be cleared away. Once the viruses enter the nose, they attach themselves to the cells found there. In response, the body's immune system swings into action. Injured cells in the nose and throat...

Complications

Infants and those with serious health problems may become severely ill with measles and die. infants are the most likely patients to have complications, including secondary ear and chest infections that usually occur as the fever returns after the rash appears. There also may be diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Measles pneumonia in children may trigger serious breathing problems. About one in every 1,000 patients goes on to develop encephalitis with headache, drowsiness, and vomiting,...

Contraindications

Ritalin should not be used in children with anxiety, tension, agitation, irregular heart rhythms, severe angina pectoris, or glaucoma, or in anyone with motor tics or a family history or diagnosis of tourette's syndrome. Although a relationship has not been established, suppression of growth (such as weight gain and or height) has been reported with the long-term use of stimulants in children. Therefore, patients who need long-term therapy should be carefully monitored it may be a good idea to...

Coxsackievirus 125

Cially in the presence of inconsistent rules and harsh discipline, lack of enough supervision or guidance, frequent change in caregivers, poverty, neglect or abuse, and a delinquent peer group. Because antisocial behavior in children and adolescents is very hard to change after it has become ingrained, the earlier the problem is identified and treated the better. Some recent studies have focused on promising ways to prevent conduct disorder among children and adolescents who are at risk for...

Cylert

Bowel, patients continue to lose weight even after the diarrhea stops because they cannot absorb nutrients. The organism does not appear to be halted by iodine or chlorine and can even elude filtration systems. The only thing that kills it is boiling the water in which it lives. About a week after ingestion, the disease begins with severe diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, and vomiting. It then progresses to weeks of mild fever, debilitating fatigue, and loss of appetite patients can lose 15 to...

D

Dacryocystitis Inflammation of the lacrimal sac at the corner of the eye, caused by obstruction of the duct that causes tearing and discharge from the eye. In the acute phase, the sac becomes inflamed and painful. The disorder almost always occurs only on one side and is usually seen in infants. Systemic treatment of antibiotics will usually cure the problem. deafness and hearing disorders Federal government projections have estimated that there are about 50,000 deaf and 325,000 hard-of-hearing...

Dehydration 139

After it was developed by the United States Army in 1946, DEET was registered for use by the general public in 1957. More than 230 products containing DEET are currently registered with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA recently issued a Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) for the chemical DEET, concluding that as long as consumers follow label directions and take proper precautions, insect repellents containing the substance do not present a health concern. Based on...

Diagnosis

Parents often are able to diagnose hay fever. While a common cold or upper respiratory infection can be confused with allergic rhinitis, parents should suspect rhinitis if the child has irritated eyes and no fever. Food allergies can also cause rhinitis symptoms in 70 percent of infants and young children, but with food allergies there are often other symptoms of skin or stomach irritation as well. A careful history usually reveals the seasonal nature of the complaint and the suspected role of...

Drug Interactions

Adderall should not be taken with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAoI), because serious (even fatal) interactions can occur. At least 14 days must pass between taking MAoIs and Adderall. Acidifying agents such as guanethidine, reserpine, and fruit juices can interfere with the absorption of Adderall, whereas substances such as Diamox (acetazolamide) increase absorption. Tricyclic antidepressants such as Tofranil become more potent when taken with Adderall. Thorazine (chlorpro-mazine), lithium,...

Ehrlichiosis human monocytic

Its flu-like symptoms are far more severe than those associated with Lyme disease. Severe symptoms of the disease may include prolonged fever, kidney failure, meningoencephalitis, seizures, or coma. Between 2 percent and 3 percent of patients may die from the infection. While many of the symptoms overlap with Lyme, the HGE symptoms tend to peak very quickly, moving from health to severe debilitation in a few hours. Preliminary evidence suggests that infection caused by the E. chaffeensis...

Encephalitis 169

Symptoms are similar to human granulocytic ehrli-chiosis (ehrlichiosis, human granulocytic), including fever, headache, chills, malaise, sweating, muscle aches, nausea, and vomiting. The infection may range from a mild illness to a severe, life-threatening disease. It may cause leukopenia (reduction of white blood cells), thrombocytopenia (reduction in blood platelets), anemia, or abnormal liver function. Antibiotics are effective if begun early enough in the disease. emergency room information...

Encephalitis California

A virus transmitted to humans via mosquito bite, causing St. Louis encephalitis. More and more cases are related to infection with HIV, the organism responsible for AIDS. Occasionally, encephalitis is a complication of other viral infections such as MEASLES or MUMPS. Usually, symptoms begin with headache, fever, and prostration, leading to hallucinations, confusion, paralysis of one side of the body, and disturbed behavior, speech memory, and eye movement. There is a gradual loss of...

Encephalitis eastern equine 171

When an infected mosquito bites a child, the virus passes into the blood and then travels to the brain and spinal cord. It multiplies in the central nervous system, inflaming and damaging nerve cells, interfering with signals sent from the brain to other parts of the body. Only a small percentage of children with the disease exhibit any symptoms, beginning with fever, irritability, drowsiness, headache, and nausea vomiting. This can lead to convulsions or seizures. Most people recover...

Encephalomyelitis acute disseminated ADE

A neurological disorder characterized by inflammation of the brain and spinal cord caused by damage to the myelin sheath covering the nerves. The myelin sheath is the fatty covering that acts as an insulator on nerve fibers in the brain. ADE appears more often in children and typically follows vaccination or infection. A variety of terminologies is used to describe it, including post infectious, parainfectious, or post-vaccinial ence-phalomyelitis. ADE predominantly affects the white matter of...

Escherichia coli 0157H7 179

Annually the CDC estimates that E. coli alone is responsible for 20,000 cases of food poisoning, although these estimates may not be accurate since physicians are not required to report these poisonings. A study by the Western States Meats Association found that E. coli was present in 1.5 percent of ground pork and also in poultry, and 3.7 percent in beef. In the past, people got E. coli food poisoning by drinking tap water in foreign countries. In the wake of the mass poisonings and deaths...

F

Failure to thrive A description applied to a child whose weight or rate of weight gain is significantly below others of similar age and sex. Failure to thrive can be caused by a wide variety of problems, such as genetic, physical, psychological, or social factors. Although it is not unusual for newborns to lose a little weight in the first few days, some infants fail to pick up on expected weight gain and growth. Usually caused by inadequate nutrition or a feeding problem, failure to thrive is...

Fluoride

Fluoride prevents tooth decay, according to the American Academy for pediatric Dentistry (AAPD). Most children drink fluoridated water from municipal supplies, but if water isn't fluoridated, the child needs a supplement. Fluoridated toothpaste alone does not provide enough fluoride. Most dentists agree that mouthwash or a fluoride rinse is not really necessary for children, especially because of the risk that they may swallow the product. This is a concern especially if the mouthwash contains...

Glossary

Adrenal glands A pair of small glands, one located on top of each kidney, that produce steroid hormones, adrenaline, and noradrena-line to help control heart rate, blood pressure, and other important body functions. antibody A protein that is manufactured by white blood cells to identify, neutralize, or destroy bacteria, viruses, and other harmful microorganisms. antigen A substance that can trigger an immune response, causing the production of an antibody as part of the body's defense against...

Governmental Overview

Governmental overview began in 1906 with the passage of the pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat inspection Act, designed to make American food as safe as possible. in addition, two different governmental agencies are responsible for regulating and monitoring the safety of the U.S. food supply. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for ensuring the safety and whole-someness of all food except meat, poultry, and eggs. The Department of Agriculture monitors the safety of...

Group B strep See streptococcal infections

Group B Strep Association A nonprofit organization formed in June 1990 by parents whose babies were victims of group B strep (GBS) infections. The association hopes to increase public awareness of the importance of prenatal screening and prevention of GBS disease and regularly lobbies government agencies. The association has provided information about group B strep, counseling, and support to more than 100,000 families nationwide. (For contact information, see Appendix I.) growing pains...

Hair Entanglements

There have been 49 incidents and 13 deaths since 1978 caused by having a person's hair sucked into the suction fitting of a spa, hot tub, or whirlpool, holding the victim's head under water. Hair entanglement occurs when a bather's hair becomes entangled in a drain cover as the water and hair are drawn through the drain. In some incidents, children were playing a hold your breath the longest game, which allowed their long hair to be sucked into the drain. The CPSC helped develop a voluntary...

Heat Exhaustion

Heat exhaustion is a more severe heat illness than heat cramps. It can occur when a child in a hot climate or environment has not been drinking enough fluids. A child can lose up to a quart of sweat during a two-hour sports game, and children are more susceptible to dehydration and heat exhaustion than adults active children who do not drink enough are most at risk. Symptoms Symptoms can include dehydration, fatigue, weakness, clammy skin, headache, nausea and or vomiting, rapid breathing, or...

Heatstroke See heat illnesses

Heimlich maneuver The Heimlich maneuver is a series of abdominal thrusts designed to create an artificial cough, which forces a foreign object out of the airway. More than 2,600 children die from accidental choking each year in this country, according to the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP). These accidents are usually attributed to food, liquid, balloons, marbles, or other foreign objects that lodge in the airway and result in suffocation. Children are more susceptible to...

Height and Weight

Because it is important to know a child's height and weight when calculating medication doses, this information should be kept updated constantly. medication, giving Parents are often called upon to administer medication to their children at home. When obtaining a prescription or buying over-the-counter medicine, parents should know the child's exact weight. Most over-the-counter medicines list a chart on the bottle or package that outlines how much medicine should be given, according to...

Herpes zoster See shingles

Hiccups Hiccups happen when the muscles of the diaphragm tighten. The diaphragm lies on top of the stomach, a thin shelf-like muscle separating the lungs and heart from the stomach and intestines. The intercostal muscles controlling the diaphragm lie between the ribs. When these muscles function normally, they help a child breathe, speak, sing, and cough. But sometimes the nerves controlling these muscles do not work right, usually in a younger child. Hiccups can be quite common in infants and...

Homosexuality

It has been widely reported in the media that gay and lesbian youth are at higher risk to complete suicide than other youth and that a significant percent of all attempted or completed youth suicides are related to issues of sexual identity. However, there are no national statistics for suicide completion rates among gay, lesbian, or bisexual persons, and in the few studies examining risk factors for suicide completion where an attempt was made to assess sexual orientation, the risk for gay or...

Hordeolum See stye

Hospice, children's A system of comprehensive services for children that provides coordinated home care and inpatient care through an interdisciplinary team coordinated by a physician and nurse. The team provides medical, nursing, psychosocial, and spiritual care as core services, along with trained volunteer and other services as appropriate. Hospice care for children is also attentive to needs related to loss and grieving for all concerned both prior to and following a death. Nursing services...

Hot tub safety

Admission in words the child can understand. How parents describe the event can affect a child's attitude during the hospital stay. parent and child can pack together for the hospital stay and include a favorite toy the entire family should be included in a pre-hospital discussion. It is a good idea for parents to borrow a library book that describes a hospital stay and read it with the child. A child's questions should always be answered simply and honestly. When to bring up the subject of...

How It Works

Once law enforcement has been notified about an abducted child, it must first determine if the case meets the criteria for triggering an alert. Local and state programs establish specific criteria however, the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children suggests that before an alert is activated, law-enforcement officers should confirm a child has been abducted and believe that the circumstances surrounding the abduction indicate that the child is in danger of serious bodily harm or...

How to Apply

The higher the concentration of Retin-A, the faster and more significant the results. However, it is often irritating, and for this reason many doctors start patients with the milder forms (0.025 percent to 0.05 percent cream every other night, slowly increasing the strength and frequency of application). Higher concentrations of the product work best (0.1 percent), but these are more irritating to the skin. Teens should first wash the skin thoroughly with a gentle cleanser, pat dry, and wait...

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis HGE

Human Growth Foundation A nonprofit, volunteer organization dedicated to helping children and adults with disorders of growth and growth hormone through research, education, support, and advocacy. The Human Growth Foundation (HGF) includes concerned parents and friends of children with growth problems and interested health professionals. The foundation was established in 1965 by five families of children with growth disorders. Their primary purpose was to identify other parents and children...

Infant Feeding Problems

A breast-fed baby under six months of age who is always restless and failing to gain weight even when emptying the breast may not be getting enough calories. A pediatrician should examine the baby and make recommendations for possible changes in diet or feeding methods. A bottle-fed baby who turns away from the bottle, or who vomits after most feedings, may in fact be getting too much food. Babies who avoid the bottle usually are full persisting in trying to feed is not effective. However, if...

Influenza

However, this virus does not affect people and was different from a 1997 strain that killed six people. What worried authorities was the fact that the 2001 infection was a new and highly virulent strain of avian flu that killed almost 800 chickens in cages in three separate markets during its first 24 hours. To prevent a possible jump to humans, all the chickens, ducks, geese, and quail in the territory's markets, along with all mature poultry on its farms, were slaughtered. The...

Influenza 273

However, an accurate diagnosis of ulcerative colitis may require an examination of the colon by inserting a colonoscope, which allows doctors to see the degree of damage. A biopsy of the colon may help confirm the diagnosis. To diagnose Crohn's disease, barium X rays can reveal characteristic signs of inflammation in the lining of the intestine. An upper gastrointestinal endo-scopy and colonoscopy may be performed to check for evidence of bowel damage caused by inflammation. Medication is the...

Intelligence quotient 277

Auditory Memory There are two kinds of auditory memory Long-term auditory memory is the ability to recall something heard long ago, whereas short-term auditory memory is the ability to remember something heard very recently. Children with problems in this area may find it difficult to remember people's names, memorize and recall telephone numbers, follow multistep spoken directions, recall stories they have been told, or remember lines from songs. There are things that can be done to help a...

International Academy for Child Brain

Development A group of professionals from a variety of disciplines including physicians, psy chologists, and anthropologists who are interested in the physical and psychological processes involved in child brain development. The group seeks to gain recognition of the study of child brain development and establish criteria for child brain developmentalists. The group conducts research, offers courses in child brain development, and bestows awards. Founded in 1985, the group sponsors an annual...

Ipecac syrup of 279

Between five months and nine months. it affects between one and four infants out of 1,000 and is two to three times more common in boys. in infants the causes of intussusception are unknown. Some experts believe that the problem is caused by the aftereffects of a viral intestinal infection. Viral infections can cause swelling of the infection-fighting lymph tissue that normally lines the intestine. Because intussusception is seen most often in spring and fall, this seems to suggest a possible...

Itching

Said depression is common among acne patients, whether or not they take isotretinoin. It appears that patients who are prone to depression may be at higher risk for developing depression while taking isotretinoin. other side effects may include thinning hair, itching, dry and flaky skin, occasional aching muscles, and, rarely, liver damage. itching That familiar tickling sensation on the skin is the most prominent symptom in many skin diseases and allergies. Skin that is too dry and scaly...

M

Mainstreaming The placement of disabled students in the regular education classroom. Mainstreaming was introduced in the 1970s as a result of Public Law 94-142, which mandated that special needs children be placed in the least restrictive environment. Until the approval of P.L. 94-142 in 1975, most special needs children (from mildly to severely disabled), were educated in self-contained settings. The philosophy of mainstreaming disabled children into the regular classroom comes from the idea...

Maternal Diagnosis

Pregnant women have access to both screening and diagnostic tests to find out if an unborn child has Down syndrome. screening tests estimate the risk of the fetus having Down syndrome, whereas diagnostic tests tell whether or not the fetus actually has the condition. screening tests are typically offered between 8 and 20 weeks of gestation, but they can accurately detect about 60 percent of cases. Many women who undergo these tests will be given false-positive readings, and some women will be...

Microtia Atresia

Microtia is the medical term for an incompletely formed ear that may range from an ear that is smaller than normal to just a bit of tissue at the location where the ear would normally be. Atresia is the absence of an ear canal in the middle ear. Microtia and atresia can occur alone or together, and they can also be associated with hemifacial microsomia. If both ears are affected, Treacher Collins syndrome may be involved. There are several treatment options for a child with this condition,...

Middle ear infection See ear infection

Miliaria A common disorder of the sweat glands that often occurs during hot, humid weather and is believed to result from blocked sweat ducts, so that sweat leaks into the skin. The three types of miliaria are classified according to the level at which obstruction of the sweat duct occurs miliaria crystallina In this case, ductal obstruction is least severe, producing tiny, fragile, clear blisters. miliaria rubra (prickly heat) In this case, obstruction occurs deeper within the epidermis,...

Muscular Dystrophy Association

Introduced into a genetically engineered virus that would then bind to afflicted muscle cells, where it would transfer normal dystrophin gene to the weakened muscles. Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA) A voluntary health agency dedicated to conquering neuromuscular diseases that affect more than a million Americans. The Muscular Dystrophy Association combats neuromuscular diseases through programs of worldwide research, comprehensive medical and community services, and professional and public...

Mycoplasma pneumonia 353

Lowing list outlines what to do if a child accidentally ingests a toxic mushroom 1. An adult should collect the mushrooms the child was eating if possible, a few should be dug up so that even the underground parts can be saved for identification. If there are several kinds of mushrooms around the child, all of the different kinds that the child might have eaten should be collected. 2. An adult should check with the child's doctor, the local poison control center, or the hospital emergency room....

N

Nail biting A common habit that is not related to any underlying medical problem. While many children bite their nails in their early years, most grow out of the habit, although it can continue as a nervous mannerism into adulthood. National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) The nation's largest and most influential organization of early childhood educators dedicated to improving the quality of programs for children from birth through third grade. Founded in 1926, the...

National Center for Missing and Exploited Children

(NCMEC) A private, nonprofit center that provides assistance to parents, children, law enforcement, schools, and the community in recovering missing children and raising public awareness about ways to help prevent child abduction, molestation, and sexual exploitation. It was founded in 1984 by John Walsh, whose six-year-old son Adam was abducted in Florida in 1981. The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC) has worked on more than 85,500 cases of missing and exploited...

National Federation of the Blind NFB

Nation's largest membership organization of blind persons, founded in 1940. With 50,000 members, the National Federation of the Blind (NFB) has affiliates in all 50 states plus Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico, and more than 700 local chapters. The National Federation of the Blind provides information and referral services, scholarships, literature and publications about blindness, aids and appliances and other adaptive equipment for the blind, advocacy services, development and evaluation of...

National Hydrocephalus Foundation

Over the past 25 years NHSA's mission has changed from simply defending Head Start in Congress to actively expanding and improving the program. From planning massive annual training conferences to publishing a vast array of publications, the National Head Start Association continually strives to improve the quality of Head Start's comprehensive services for America's children and families. National Hydrocephalus Foundation A nonprofit organization founded in 1980 to familiarize the public with...

National Parent Network on Disabilities NPND

A nonprofit organization dedicated to empowering parents of children with disabilities. Located in Washington, D.C., the National Parent Network on Disabilities (NPND) provides up-to-date information on the activities of all three branches of government that affect individuals with disabilities and their families. The NPND's primary activities include advocating for and supporting the development and implementation of legislation that will improve the lives and protect the rights of children,...

National Tay Sachs and Allied Diseases Association

Screening programs, treatment methods, pain management, and patient care. The group aims to promote public awareness, provide reliable information, foster ongoing research, and educate and nurture those affected by scoliosis. It also provides comprehensive education and support for patients and health-care professionals through videos, books, brochures, local chapters, conferences, and postural screening training sessions. National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association, Inc. (NTSAD)...

Necrotizing enterocolitis

Who are nearsighted, the eyeball is too long from front to back so that the rays converge in front of the retina. This causes blurring of objects more than a few feet away from the affected child, and the farther away the objects are, the more indistinct they are. Often young nearsighted children do not realize that they have a visual problem. Symptoms include squinting, holding the head at an unusual angle, eye rubbing, sitting too close to the Tv, and clumsiness. Many parents do not notice...

Neurofibromatosis 365

Common genetic disorder, occurring in about one in 4,000 babies born in the United States. When diagnosing NF1 (also called von Recklinghausen disease), doctors will take a thorough medical history because children with NF1 often have a parent with the disease. Neurofibromatosis type 2 is less common, occurring in about one in 140,000 births. Also known as bilateral acoustic NF, it is characterized by multiple tumors on the cranial and spinal nerves, and by other lesions of the brain and spinal...

Newborn Infection

A much greater concern is herpes simplex virus infection in newborn infants. The virus is most frequently transmitted to an infant from the mother during vaginal delivery or, sometimes, via ascending infection. Transmission is much more likely to occur during a vaginal birth in a mother who is having a first episode of genital herpes. In such cases, the rate of transmission may be 33 to 50 percent. Unfortunately, in most cases, infected neonates are born to women in whom neither the history nor...

Night terrors

After a nightmare, the child may wake up and seek comfort from parents usually, the child can relate what happened in the dream and why it was scary. Children may have trouble going back to sleep after a nightmare and may have the same dream again on other nights. Nightmares decrease in frequency as children get older, and often stop completely in adolescence, although some especially those who are imaginative and creative may continue to have nightmares into adulthood. Experts usually suggest...

Nightmares 367

May cause seizures, poor muscle control, immune system impairment, hearing loss, mental retardation, coma, and even death. If the deficiency is detected in time, however, problems can be prevented by giving the baby extra biotin. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia This group of disorders involves a deficiency of certain hormones produced by the adrenal gland that can affect genital development and may cause a fatal loss of salt from the kidneys. Lifelong supplementation of the missing hormones...

Obsessive Compulsive Foundation OCF An

International nonprofit organization of more than 10,000 members with obsessive-compulsive disORDER (OCD) and related disorders, their families, friends, professionals, and other concerned individuals. Founded by a group of individuals with OCD in 1986, the mission of the OCF is to educate the public and professional communities about OCD and related disorders to help people with OCD and related disorders, their family and friends and to support research into the causes and effective treatments...

Other Causes of Growth Disorders

Diseases of the kidneys, heart, gastrointestinal tract, or lungs also may lead to growth disorders, which may be the first sign of a problem in some of these conditions. Endocrine diseases involving too little or too many hormones can cause growth failure during childhood and adolescence. Growth hormone deficiency is a disorder that involves the pituitary gland, which may not produce enough hormones for normal growth. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland fails to make enough...

Parasomnia 383

Applying spermicides with nonoxynol-9 to affected or treated areas may be helpful in reducing transmission of the virus. Everyone with genital lesions, and all partners of persons with genital lesions, should alert new sexual partners about HPV infection risk and take precautions to limit spread of HPV. parabens, sensitivity to The parabens (methyl-, propyl-, and butyl-) are the most common preservatives used in foods, drugs, and cosmetics, but they can cause a severe redness, swelling,...

Paratyphoid fever

Sleep or from one stage of sleep to another. There is no known cause for this type of disorder, but medical or psychological problems are rarely associated with it. Children who experience rhythmic disorders may have morning headaches, nasal problems, and ear infections. Another rhythmic disorder is restless legs syndrome (RLS), a sensory and motor abnormality that seems to have a genetic basis. In RLS the child's legs move repeatedly. Many people who have RLS also have periodic leg movement...

Pelvic inflammatory disease 385

Ing, funding, and conducting pediatric HIV AIDS research. The foundation's mission is to identify, fund, and conduct critical pediatric research that will lead to better treatments and prevention of HIV infection in infants and children, to reduce and prevent HIV transmission from mother to child, and to accelerate the discovery of new treatments for other serious and life-threatening pediatric diseases. The Pediatric AIDS Foundation was cofounded in 1988 by Elizabeth Glaser, Susan DeLaurentis,...

Penicillin

While it may not have an obvious cause, PID often occurs from an untreated sexually transmitted disease such as gonorrhea or chlamydia. It also may occur after childbirth, abortion, or miscarriage. Young, sexually active girls and those who use the intrauterine birth control device are at higher risk. The bacteria travel from the cervix to the fallopian tubes and ovaries, leading to permanent scarring of the tubes. The more times a girl contracts PID, the higher the chance she will become...

Perinatal Stroke

Perinatal (or prenatal) stroke includes strokes that occur between the 28 weeks of gestation and the 28 days after birth. Stroke occurs more frequently in the perinatal and prenatal age group than in older children. Some perinatal strokes are caused by inherited clotting disorders or coagulation abnormalities that make the infant more likely to have a blood clot. Congenital heart disease and sickle-cell disease are common causes of stroke in children. No cause can be detected in about a fifth...

Photoallergy

Today, most schools use a combination of both approaches. A growing body of research suggests that contextual cues cannot replace word-recognition. Good readers do not skip words or rely on context but read virtually every word and see all letters. In fact, studies demonstrate that only poor readers rely on contextual cues for word identification. Teaching children to guess the meaning of words by context actually decreases the odds that they will learn to read well. Children who do not...

Poison ivy Toxicodendron radicans One of

The most common plants in the United States that is poisonous to touch, causing a contact dermatitis in most people. The leaves of the poison ivy plant are glossy green, may be notched or smooth, and almost always grow in groups of three. However, according to some experts, there are exceptions leaves may sometimes appear in fives, sevens, or even nines. in early fall, the leaves may turn bright red. Although it usually grows as a long, hairy vine (often wrapping itself around trees), it also...

Poison oak Toxicodendron diversilobum A

Plant that is poisonous to touch, closely related to poison ivy. The leaves of poison oak occur in groups of three and are very similar to oak leaves, from which the plant gets its name. The underside of the leaves is much lighter green because of the thousands of tiny fine hairs that cover them. Berries may be green or white, although not all plants bear fruit. Poison oak usually grows as a low shrub on the west coast, from Mexico to British Columbia. (See poison ivy for details on treatment...

Poison sumac Toxicodendron vernix [L Kuntzel [Rhus vernix L This poisonous tree a relative of poison ivy and poison oak

To 13 long narrow leaves growing in pairs with a single leaf at the end of the stem. In the spring the leaves are bright orange and look something like velvet as the season progresses, they become dark green and glossy on the upper surface and light green on the underside. In the fall the leaves turn red or orange. Poison sumac can be differentiated from nonpoisonous sumacs by its drooping clusters of green berries nonpoisonous sumacs have red, upright clusters of berries. Poison sumac can grow...

Positional plagiocephaly 409

Ommended that caregivers change a child often and make frequent trips to the toilet. Swim diapers or pants are not a substitute for frequent diaper changing. Caregivers should wash child thoroughly (especially the anal area) with soap and water before swimming. invisible amounts of fecal matter in the anal area can end up in the pool. (See also port-wine stains A permanent purple-red birthmark that is present at birth and is usually found on the face. The birthmarks are usually sharply outlined...

Positional plagiocephaly flattened head A

Newborn's head is often slightly misshapen during the few days or weeks after birth, because the passage through the birth canal often temporarily elongates a baby's soft skull bones. However, a persistent flat spot either in the back or on one side of his head can result from being put to sleep on his back or by problems with the baby's neck muscles. Fortunately, this condition will correct itself by the time the child is one year old. Because infants' heads are soft to allow for incredible...

Premature babies 413

With age (by 50 postconceptional weeks, apnea is rare). All premature babies are monitored for apnea if it occurs, the baby is gently stimulated to restart breathing. If apnea occurs frequently, the infant may require medication (most commonly caffeine or theophylline) and a special nasal device that blows a steady stream of air into the airways to keep them open. Anemia Many premature babies do not have enough red blood cells to carry sufficient oxygen throughout the body. This is easily...

Prevention

Strict hand-washing is important to prevent the spread of adenoviruses to other infants, children, and adults. There are vaccines for adenovirus serotypes 4 and 7, but these are available only to prevent infection among military recruits. Strict infection control practices are effective at stopping outbreaks of adenovirus-associated disease in hospitals adequately chlorinating pools can prevent swimming pool-associated outbreaks of adenovirus conjunctivitis. ADHD See attention deficit...

Prozac 415

The general signs include dwarfism, baldness, a pinched nose, small face and jaw relative to head size, delayed tooth formation, aged skin, stiff joints, hip dislocations, generalized atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular problems. The children have a remarkably similar appearance despite racial background, and they tend to have above-average intelligence. The condition is caused by a single misplaced DNA molecule within the human genome that contains some three billion DNA units. The gene was...

Pubic lice See lice

Pulse, taking a child's A child's pulse rate is a measure of the number of times the heart beats per minute. As the heart pushes blood through the arteries, the arteries expand and contract with the flow of the blood, which can be felt in various points in the body. A child's pulse is a measure not only of the heart rate but also the heart's rhythm, and the strength of the pulse (a weak pulse could indicate heart failure, a fast heartbeat in which some beats are too weak to feel, or a low...

R

Rabies An acute viral disease of the central nervous system that is usually transmitted to humans by a bite from an infected warm-blooded animal. Untreated, the disease is a swift, deadly killer, and there is no cure the only hope lies in giving a vaccine immediately after a bite from a rabid animal. Although most people tend to associate rabies with dogs, in fact rabies today is more likely to be found in cats. Together with dogs and cattle, these animals make up nearly 90 percent of rabies...

Recommended Childhood and Adolescent Immunization Schedule United States January June 2004

Vaccines below this line are for selected populations This schedule indicates the recommended ages for routine administration of currently licensed childhood vaccines, as of December 1, 2003, for children through age 18 years. Any dose not given at the recommended age should be given at any subsequent visit when indicated and feasible. t M Indicates age groups that warrant special effort to administer those vaccines not previously given. Additional vaccines may be licensed and recommended...

Rett Syndrome Association International

Test might allow doctors to forestall the drastic consequences of the disease. The condition is most often misdiagnosed as autism, cerebral palsy, or nonspecific developmental delay. While many health professionals may not be familiar with Rett syndrome, it is a relatively frequent cause of neurological dysfunction in females. There is no cure for Rett syndrome however, there are several treatment options, including treatments for the learning disabilities and seizures that may occur. some...

Rett Syndrome Association International A

Support group for parents of children with rett syndrome founded by parents in early 1984 and dedicated to better understanding the condition. Members include parents, relatives, doctors, therapists, researchers, and friends interested in providing a better future for girls with Rett syndrome. International Rett Syndrome Association (IRSA) supports medical research to determine the cause and find a cure for Rett syndrome, increases public awareness of the condition, and provides information and...

Rheumatic fever 431

And maintains a healthy cardiorespiratory system. A respirator may be necessary if breathing becomes too slow the body may be cooled and barbiturates given to slow metabolism and lower intracranial pressure. Small quantities of insulin may be given to increase glucose metabolism, cor-ticosteroids to reduce brain swelling, and diuretics to increase fluid loss. over the years the prognosis for children with Reye's syndrome has improved early diagnosis and better treatment have reduced the...

Risk Factors

Childhood stroke deaths are poorly understood, since it is not possible to take the risk factors important for strokes in adults (such as high blood pressure, poor diet, or diabetes) and apply them to children. Experts suspect an unknown genetic predisposition may play a role in these deaths. Hormonal differences may be a factor in the higher stroke rates in boys. Known risk factors for childhood strokes caused by bleeding include brain tumors or vascular malformations, hemophilia, cancer, and...

Roseola 435

Diagnosis may be difficult because the disease resembles several other infections. The diagnosis can be confirmed by taking at least two different blood samples several weeks apart and identifying antibodies against the infection. Because it usually takes many days for these tests to show positive results, treatment generally begins before test results are available. Mild fever, loss of appetite, and slight headache may develop slowly about a week after a tick bite. However, sometimes symptoms...

S

Salicylic acid A drug used to treat a variety of skin disorders, including dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis, ichthyosis, acne, and warts. The drug is also sometimes used for fungal infections. For the treatment of warts, salicylic acid pads can be very effective it is important not to cut too large a square to place over the wart at the risk of irritating the surrounding skin. The perimeter of the wart should be lightly coated with petroleum jelly to protect the adjacent skin. This drug may cause...

Separation anxiety disorder

Have fight or flight responses to sensation, a condition called sensory defensiveness. They may respond to being touched with aggression or withdrawal be afraid of, or become sick with, movement and heights be very cautious and unwilling to take risks or try new things be uncomfortable in loud or busy environments such as sports events or malls be very picky eaters or overly sensitive to food smells These children are clumsy and awkward. They have particular problems with new motor skills and...

Sexually transmitted diseases

Researchers at Chinese University in Hong Kong have released preliminary findings that suggest SARS is much milder in children and teens than in adults. Scientists found that while teens had symptoms similar to those of adults (muscle aches and chills) younger children tended to have milder symptoms, such as coughs and runny noses, and recovered sooner. The first case of SARS was diagnosed in November 2002 in southern China's Guangdong province, and within one month the province reported 300...

Sicklecell disease 455

If the family clearly forbids physical aggression and name-calling and instead spends time together in enjoyable activities. Research also shows that exposure to violent TV and movie images increases the risk of aggressive behavior among children, and that children's shows that portray significant sibling conflict and disrespect can increase sibling rivalry at home. This is why it is important for parents to teach critical viewing skills and to help their children understand the consequences of...

Side Effects

Retin-A is a powerful drug, and side effects can include burning eyes and peeling or reddening of the skin that lasts for weeks. This reaction is most common in teens who sunburn easily and who normally have very sensitive skin. Ironically, Retin-A makes the skin more vulnerable to ultraviolet light, causing patients to sunburn more easily. Incorrect use of Retin-A can lead to extreme irritation. Rett syndrome A progressive neurological disorder in which children exhibit learning disabilities,...

Skeletal Dysplasias

The most common causes of dwarfism are the skeletal dysplasias, including achondroplasia, dias-trophic dysplasia (diastrophic dwarfism), and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias (SED). Achondroplasia This is a form of short-limb dwarfism caused by a single autosomal dominant gene, which means that a spontaneous mutation in the gene can produce the condition, or a child can inherit the gene from a parent with achondroplasia. Children with achondroplasia have a relatively long trunk and shorter upper...