Concerta

Friendship and understanding to bereaved parents, grandparents, and siblings. There is no religious affiliation and there are no membership dues or fees. The mission of the Compassionate Friends is to help families toward the positive resolution of grief following the death of a child of any age and to provide information to help others be supportive. As seasoned grievers reach out to the newly bereaved, energy that has been directed inward begins to flow outward and both are helped to heal....

Rett Syndrome Research Foundation RSRF A

Nonprofit foundation created in 1999 by six parents of girls with rett syndrome. It is dedicated to finding a treatment and cure. (For contact information, see Appendix I.) Reye's syndrome A rare, potentially life-threatening condition that often follows a viral illness. Reye's syndrome appears in only about 0.1 case per 100,000 population and is still not well understood. It predominantly affects children between ages four and 16 and occurs more often when viral diseases are epidemic, such as...

Herpes genital 253

Herpes simplex virus type II causes 85 percent of genital herpes cases. Type I, which causes most herpes infections above the waist, is responsible for the other 15 percent. The infection is spread by contact with the genital secretions of a person with an active lesion. It is possible, however, for a person with no active lesion to shed virus and infect a sex partner. The virus can infect any skin or mucous membrane surface on the body. For example, a person with a cold sore who engages in...

Hemophilia 245

Hemangioma A benign tumor or birthmark caused by an abnormal number of blood vessels in the skin. Hemangiomas may be either superficial, superficial and deep, or deep. Superficial hemangiomas, known as strawberry birthmarks, are bright red protrusions that develop shortly after birth. At about the age of six months the tumor begins to subside and the red color slowly fades by age seven, the hemangioma completely disappears. Deep hemangiomas are blue and never clear up by themselves. These are...

Sudden infant death syndrome 475

Stuttering Foundation of America The first and largest nonprofit organization in the world working toward the prevention and improved treatment of stuttering, reaching more than one million people annually. The foundation offers extensive educational programs for professionals and provides free online resources, services, and support to those who stutter and their families, as well as support for research into the causes of stuttering. stye A small pus-filed abscess near the eyelashes caused by...

Child care centers and infectious disease since

Young children are often vulnerable targets for infectious disease due to their immature immune systems, grouping many infants and preschoolers together in day-care centers contributes to the spread of infectious disease. The problem is exacerbated by the fact that young children are not particularly concerned with good hygiene, and many day-care centers care for children who are not yet toilet trained. still, there are ways to lessen the risk. in fact, recent research indicates that after the...

Sports injuries

Emergency room or in an experienced pediatrician's office. A spinal tap must be done whenever there is a suspicion of meningitis. sports injuries Football, basketball, baseball, soccer, hockey, gymnastics, and volleyball are the top six sports that cause the most injuries in children. Although these activities help develop muscles and coordination, they can also result in injury, especially in children, whose bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments are still growing. An estimated 3.5 million...

Bacillary dysentery See shigellosis

Backpacks The popularity of carrying books in a backpack is almost universal in American schools, but overloading the packs can be harmful. Some studies have shown that as many as half of all teenagers suffer from back pain, which may be caused by the improper use of backpacks. While many factors may cause back pain, such as increased level of competition in sports, poor posture while sitting, and long periods of inactivity, far too many children are also carrying backpacks that exceed 15...

Jock itch

May be more general symptoms, including headache, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps, diarrhea, convulsions, and breathing problems. The wound site becomes red and blistered and can leave permanent scars. One or two weeks after the sting, the child may experience a recurrence of the lesions at the site. The sting of the Portuguese man-of-war is rarely fatal but causes hives, numbness, and severe chest, abdominal, and extremity pain. Death is usually the result of panic and drowning. Because...

Adoption Resource Exchange for Single Parents

Inc. (ARESP) A nonprofit organization founded in 1994 to help single people adopt special needs children. ARESP provides direct services to the Washington area but also serves single adults nationwide, and is a member of the North American Council on Adoptable Children, Adoption Exchange Association, Adoptive Families of America, and Families Adopting Children Everywhere. The group advocates and promotes the adoption of older and special needs children in the foster care system while supporting...

Gingivitis See gum disease

Gluten sensitivity A mixture of two proteins found in wheat and rye that is important for baking properties when mixed with water, it becomes sticky and helps trap air in the dough. Sensitivity to gluten leads to celiac disease in children. gonorrhea The most commonly reported communicable disease in the United States, most often affecting the genitourinary tract and sometimes the pharynx, eyes, or rectum. Sexual abuse should be strongly considered when a gonorrheal infection is diagnosed in a...

Attention Deficit Information Network Inc A

Nonprofit volunteer organization offering information to families of children and adults with ADD, and professionals, through a network of Attention Deficit Information Network (AD-IN) chapters. AD-IN was founded in 1988 by several parent support group leaders. Today it acts as a community resource for information on training programs and speakers for those who work with individuals with ADD. The organization also presents conferences and workshops for parents and professionals on current...

Chemical Burns

A burn caused by a chemical can be just as destructive as an injury caused by an open flame. If a chemical burns the skin, the chemical should be flushed off the skin surface with cool, running water for 20 minutes or more. if the burning chemical is a powderlike substance such as lime, it should be brushed off the skin before flushing. clothing or jewelry contaminated by the chemical should be removed. A lotion, such as one containing aloe vera, may be used to prevent drying and to make the...

Middle Ear Barotrauma

Another kind of earache can occur when a child is in a descending airplane. Called middle ear baro-trauma, it is related to abnormal pressure changes in the air space behind the eardrum. Even in a pressurized aircraft cabin, there is a drop in the cabin air pressure as the plane climbs. As the plane descends, air pressure rises. When a plane descends and the pressure in the cabin increases, the air pressure in the middle ear must be equalized. If it is not, the increased cabin air pressure...

Scoliosis 443

It is an uncommon psychiatric illness in children under age 12, and it is hard to recognize in its early phases in children. Schizophrenia is far more common in adolescence, when it occurs in about three out of every 1,000 teens. The behavior of children and teens with schizophrenia may differ from that of adults with this illness. Most schizophrenic children show delays in language and other functions long before their symptoms of hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking...

Helmet Standards

It is imperative that every child wear a safety helmet when riding a bike. Seventeen states and more than 55 localities in the United States have mandatory helmet laws, as do parts of Canada. As long as they are fitted securely and buckled during a crash, a helmet can prevent up to 88 percent of cyclists' brain injuries. When buying a helmet, consumers should check for safety approval, since helmet standards test for things that cannot be judged in a store, like impact performance and strap...

Dermatitis seborrheic

Two cups of colloidal oatmeal or aveeno bath or baking soda can be added to the water. In severe cases of weeping sores, cold milk compresses or baking soda baths may help soothe the itch. dermatitis, seborrheic An extremely common form of eczema that causes scaling around the nose, ears, scalp, mid-chest, and along the eyebrows. There may be psoriasis-like plaques and secondary infection as a result of scratching. It is often misdiagnosed by non-physicians as simply dry...

Open Water Safety

Adult swimmers should know the local weather conditions and forecast before swimming or boating, because sudden thunderstorms and strong winds can be extremely dangerous to swimmers and boaters. Water activities should be restricted to designated swimming areas, which are usually marked by buoys. When boating, everyone should use U.S. Coast Guard-approved personal flotation devices (life jackets), regardless of distance to be traveled, size of boat, or swimming ability of boaters. Open water...

Lockjaw See tetanus

Low birth weight See birth rate, low. lower respiratory tract infections See respiratory TRACT INFECTIONS. lupus An autoimmune disease in which a person's immune system mistakenly works against the body's own tissues. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the most common type of lupus, typically develops during the 20s, 30s, or 40s mbut about 15 percent to 17 percent of people with systemic lupus first notice symptoms during childhood or adolescence. Most of these are children 10 years or older...

Treatment

Ciguatera has been successfully treated with IV mannitol, which appears to abbreviate (if not stop) the symptoms of ciguatera fish poisoning. Preliminary evidence suggests that the earlier a victim is diagnosed and treated with IV mannitol, the more likely the success. Mannitol has been shown to be safe and effective in children as young as four years of age. Untreated, ciguatera is usually a self-limited disease lasting one to two months, but symptoms can persist for months to years....

Sturge Weber syndrome

Usually done only if less invasive scans have not provided answers. For this test a child is given general anesthesia. A fine tube is inserted into a blood vessel at the top of the leg and dye is injected through this into the brain X-ray pictures are then taken of the blood vessels in the brain. There are several treatments for children who have had a stroke, depending on the different needs of the individual child. Medications include aspirin, heparin, or warfarin, all of which thin the blood...

Post Polio Syndrome

Patients who had polio in childhood have a one in five chance of experiencing new health problems decades later. Called post-polio syndrome, the symptoms include joint and muscle pain, tiredness, and weakness. While experts are not sure what causes the problem, they do not think it represents a reactivation of the old virus. Some experts suspect the syndrome may be related to chronic overuse of muscles and joints that had appeared to be undamaged by the initial infection. There is no known cure...

Herpes genital

To a generalized systemic infection or a localized infection of the central nervous system. Neonatal meningitis is extremely rare. Most children are eventually infected with HSV1. While the first infection with this virus may cause no symptoms at all, there may be a flu-like illness in addition to ulcers on the skin around the mouth afterward, the virus remains in the nerve cells of the face. Many people experience recurrent reactivations of the virus, suffering with repeated attacks of cold...

Methylphenidate See ritalin

Middle ear barotrauma A type of earache related to abnormal pressure changes in the air space behind the eardrum (the middle ear) that usually occurs during an airplane flight. Even in a pressurized aircraft cabin, there is a decrease in the cabin air pressure as the plane climbs as the plane descends, the air pressure increases again. It is during descent when children are most likely to experience the discomfort of middle ear barotrauma. When a plane descends and the pressure in the cabin...

Enuresis See bedwetting

Ependymoma A common slow-growing childhood brain tumor that may be either benign or malignant. This type of tumor may alter the flow of cerebrospinal fluid, causing buildup of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus). The third most common brain tumor in children, up to 30 percent of ependymomas occur in children younger than three. Half of all ependymomas occur in the first two decades of life. Ependymomas do not usually grow rapidly, they are not invasive and usually do not spread. In unusual...

Stimulant medications 467

The injured part, or if the injured part moves in an unnatural way or is very painful. First aid for sprains and strains includes rest, ice, compression, and elevation (known as RICE). As the injured part of the body is rested, ice packs or cold compresses should be applied for up to 10 or 15 minutes at a time every few hours for the first two days to prevent swelling. Wearing an elastic compression bandage (such as an ACE bandage) for at least two days also will help reduce swelling. Keeping...

Shaken baby syndrome 451

All STDs occur in people younger than age 25. The incidence of STDs is rising in part because in the last few decades, young people have become sexually active younger but are marrying later. As a result, sexually active teenagers today are more likely to have multiple sex partners. STDs include gonorrhea, syphilis, chancroid, scabies, herpes, genital warts, pubic lice, trichomoniasis, genital candidiasis, hepatitis B, nonspecific URETHRITIS, CHLAMYDIA, CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, and AIDS. Most of the...

Pervasive developmental disorder PDD A

Wide spectrum of neurobiological disorders (also known as autistic spectrum disorders) characterized by delayed development of communication and social skills. The most noticeable feature of a pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) is a problem with communication, including using and understanding language. Children with these disorders can also have trouble relating to others and may play in an unusual way with toys flicking, shaking, spinning, or lining up toys. Children with a PDD also may...

Norwalk agent virus infection 371

During late elementary school, the child will begin to not complete or turn in written assignments. The child produces limited written output and the process is always slow and laborious. By the time the problem is revealed, the child may have already shut down in response to impossible academic pressures and performance demands. Parents and the school should not underestimate the gravity of this disability. The main problem in the painstaking approach to teaching the child is the...

Mixed receptiveexpressive language disorder

A language disability causing problems in both understanding and expressing language. The condition was formerly called developmental receptive language disorder. Today it is generally understood that receptive language deficits do not occur all by themselves but appear together with problems expressing language as well. Three to five percent of all children have both receptive and expressive language disorder. The cause of this disorder is unknown, but problems with receptive skills begins...

Ampicillin Amcill Omnipen Polycillin Principen

A penicillin-type semisynthetic antibiotic used to treat conditions caused by a broad spectrum of gram-negative and gram-positive organisms in the urinary, respiratory, and intestinal tracts. some of these conditions include cystitis, bronchitis, gonorrhea, and ear and eye infections. It is inactivated by penicillinase and therefore cannot be used against bacteria that produce this enzyme. Ampicillin may cause nausea and vomiting, fever, or diarrhea. Allergic reactions may include symptoms of...

Plantar warts 395

The human pinworm lives only in the intestine. While not technically a worm, it looks like one. The female pinworm is white, about a third of an inch long. Pinworms lay eggs in the skin around the anus. When a child scratches the area, the eggs are transferred directly by the fingers to the mouth, causing reinfestation. The eggs also may be carried on toys or blankets to other children. once swallowed, the eggs hatch in the intestines, where they grow and reach maturity in about six...

Cold sore

The term fever blister comes from the fact that such blisters often appeared during the high fevers of infectious illnesses before the invention of antibiotics. Cold sores are harmless in healthy children and adults, although they are painful to the touch and can be unattractive. They are similar, but not identical, to canker sores, which also appear on the mouth. Both usually cause small sores to develop in the mouth that heal within two weeks. However, canker...

Strabismus See lazy eye

Strattera (atomoxetine) The first nonstimulant medication approved for the treatment of ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) in children, adolescents, and adults. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Strattera, November 26, 2002, judging it safe and effective for the treatment of ADHD. Strattera is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor a class of drugs that works differently from the other ADHD medications available. Strattera works by selectively blocking the...

Head lice See lice

Hearing, normal development Because normal hearing is so crucial to the development of language, it is important to understand whether an infant can hear correctly. At the age of birth to three months, a baby should look startled if there is a sudden loud noise stir in sleep, wake up, or cry if someone makes a noise recognize the sound of a parent's voice, usually quieting down and becoming calm when the voice is heard At the age of three to six months, a baby should respond to a parent's voice...

Bronchopneumonia See pneumonia

Bulimia A destructive pattern of overeating followed by vomiting or other purging behaviors in order to control weight. Unlike girls with anorexia, those with bulimia eat large amounts of food and then get rid of the excess calories by vomiting, abusing laxatives or diuretics, taking enemas, or exercising obsessively. Some use a combination of all of these. Because many girls with bulimia binge and purge in secret and maintain normal or above-normal body weight, they often can successfully hide...

Scarlatina

However, excessive scaling may indicate one of a group of disorders known as ichthyoses, featuring dry, rough, and scaly skin. These are caused by a defect in the process by which skin cells move upward toward the outer layer of skin (keratiniza-tion). The ichthyosis disorders are caused by a genetic defect causing the skin's natural shedding process to slow down (in some forms of ichthyosis, the production of skin cells is too fast). There are at least 20 varieties of ichthyosis. Of the four...

Cri du chat syndrome 129

Or missing fingers), poor muscle tone, and swallowing or breathing problems. Although a child with Moebius syndrome may crawl or walk later than other children, he or she eventually catches up. Moebius syndrome does not get worse over time. Hand, foot, or jaw deformities, and crossed eyes, can be surgically treated. It is sometimes possible through surgery to counteract the facial paralysis by transferring nerves and muscles to the corners of the mouth. A special feeding device or feeding tube...

Neurocutaneous syndromes

Women must make sure that they are receiving enough folic acid before they become pregnant, because the neural tube closes during the period about a week after the first missed menstrual period. This is why mothers cannot wait to start taking folic acid when they first realize they are pregnant. For this reason, it is recommended that women of reproductive age take folic acid throughout their reproductive years. Folic acid is found naturally in green, leafy vegetables and in orange juice. In...

Dwarfism 155

Diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough are all serious childhood diseases that can be fatal. Since the organisms that cause them are still widely present in the community, continued vaccinations and regular booster shots are highly recommended. The DTaP vaccine is recommended as a five-dose series three doses given to infants at two, four, and six months of age, followed by two additional booster doses at 12 to 18 months and at four to six years. Tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) is...

La Crosse encephalitis See encephalitis la crosse

Lactose intolerance The inability to digest milk sugar (lactose) because of a lack of the digestive enzyme lactase normally produced in the cells lining the small intestine. Lactase breaks down milk sugar into simpler forms that can then be absorbed into the bloodstream. When there is not enough lactase to digest the amount of lactose consumed, the results are gas, bloating, and abdominal pain. It is more common in African Americans than Caucasians. While not all children deficient in lactase...

Leukemia and Lymphoma Society

For this reason, doctors use the lowest possible doses of radiation and give this treatment only to children who cannot be treated successfully with chemotherapy alone. Radiation to the testicles is likely to affect both fertility and hormone production, and most boys who have this form of treatment are not able to have children later on. Some may need to take hormones. Children who have a bone marrow transplant face an increased risk of infection, bleeding, and other side effects of the large...

Blood poisoning See septicemia

Blood transfusions The injection of blood from a healthy person into the circulation of a child whose blood is deficient in quality or quantity. Several different components of blood can be transfused into a child, but red blood cells are the most common type of blood product transfusion. There are several reasons why a child may require a blood transfusion, including a sudden loss of blood low hemoglobin count before, during, or after surgery severe heart or lung disease bone marrow failure or...

Seizures 445

Children younger than five not use them at all. The AAP also reminds parents never to let their kids hitch a ride onto the back of a car while riding a skateboard. Whenever possible, children should ride in community skateboard parks, which are more likely to have safer surfaces and ramps. seborrhea A condition in which excess sebum is secreted, causing increased facial oiliness and a greasy scalp. While the exact cause of this excess production is not understood, male sex hormones (androgens)...

Impetigo

Benefits of newly developed vaccines, monitor the safety and effectiveness of existing vaccines, and track cases of vaccine-preventable diseases. The topic of vaccine safety became prominent during the mid-1970s as lawsuits were filed on behalf of those presumably injured by the diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (DPT) vaccine. In order to reduce liability and respond to public health concerns, Congress passed the NATIONAL CHILDHOOD vaccine injury act (NCVIA) in 1986. Designed for citizens injured...

Infectious parotitis See mumps

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) The general name for diseases that cause inflammation of the bowels, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Although these two diseases are similar, there are also some important distinctions. Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disease of the inner lining of the large intestine, which becomes inflamed and ulcerates. Ulcerative colitis is often most severe in the rectal area and can cause frequent bloody diarrhea. Crohn's disease, on the other hand,...

Ebv

Appetite, and digestion may be imbalanced. The exact meaning and implications of these imbalances are unclear. While eating disorders are complex conditions that can be triggered by a variety of potential causes, they can create a self-perpetuating cycle of physical and emotional destruction that can be hard to stop. All eating disorders require professional help. Daughters born to mothers with past or present eating disorders may be at high risk of developing an eating disorder themselves....

Viral Meningitis

Viral meningitis is a fairly common and less severe version that is rarely fatal, although infections involving arbovirus, herpesviruses, or polio may be more severe. Causes Viral meningitis is usually caused by an enterovirus, a type of virus that infects only humans and is spread by the fecal-oral route. Enteroviruses live in human intestines the two most common are echoviruses and coxsackievirus. The virus is spread by direct contact with infected feces, or nose or throat secretions. Most...

Camps For Kids With Cancer

Children's Oncology Camping Association International A listing of approximately 65 camps in the United States and other organizations elsewhere in the world that have camps for cancer kids. Email info campqualityusa.com http www. campqualityusa.org A summer camping experience and year-round support program for children with cancer. 565 Ashford Center Road Ashford, CT 06278 (860) 429-3444 E-mail ashford holeinthewallgang.org http www.holeinthewallgang.org A camp in Northeast Connecticut,...

Sun sensitivity 483

Or delay damage to skin cells by screening out some of the premature-aging effects of sunlight while allowing the triggering of vitamin D, but many dermatologists are skeptical. Because the wavelength of light that triggers vitamin D production is UVB, experts believe it is best to block all the UVB light. Since it takes only 15 minutes two or three times a week to spur vitamin D synthesis in the skin, very few people have to worry about not getting enough sun exposure. The Skin Cancer...

Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf

This private, nonprofit organization serves as an information center, publisher, and advocate of effective ways of teaching deaf and hard of hearing people improve their abilities to speak, speechread (lipread), use residual hearing, and process spoken and written language. it also works to empower children with hearing problems to function independently. Although it began in 1890 as an active proponent of speech for deaf people, the organization has gradually expanded its interests to include...

Clostridium perfringens infection 117

In some children with clefts, the jaws are not in good alignment. In these cases, surgery can be done to align the bite. Complications In cleft lip surgery, the most common problem is asymmetry, when one side of the mouth and nose does not match the other side. The goal of cleft lip surgery is to close the separation in the first operation. occasionally, a second operation may be needed. Most children with clefts do not have other birth defects or any problems...

Pseudomonas aeruginosa P pyocyanea A

Species of gram-negative bacteria that has been isolated from wounds, burns, and infections of the urinary tract and that is noted for resistance to disinfectants and antibiotics. The bacilli cause a range of human diseases from meningitis to hospital-acquired wound infections and can cause life-threatening lung infections in children with cystic fibrosis. Also, this is a very common cause of osteomyelitis of the foot when a child steps on a nail while wearing tennis shoes. psoriasis A chronic...

Childrens Hospitals In The United States

Little Rock, AR http www.archildrens.org Provides information about the hospital and health care for children, parents, professionals, and the community. Health and safety information for parents of infants, children, and teens care tips for childhood illnesses and injuries pediatric medical specialty clinics kids' page and consumer health library. Children's Hospital and Health Center A full-service pediatric health center. Includes a heart institute, cancer and blood diseases, and research...

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Acyclovir (Zovirax) An antiviral drug introduced in 1982 that is used to treat viruses causing chicken pox, shingles, or herpes simplex infection. It is officially approved for the acute management of chicken pox in children, for which it can slightly decrease the severity and duration of the infection. To be effective, therapy must be started within 24 hours of the onset of the rash. Its effect on the subsequent development of shingles is not known When acyclovir is given in time, it decreases...

Skull fracture See head injury sleep apnea See apnea

Smallpox A highly infectious, serious viral disease causing a skin rash and flu-like symptoms that has been totally eradicated throughout the world since 1980. The last naturally acquired case of smallpox occurred in Somalia in 1977, and the last cases of smallpox from lab exposure occurred in 1978. In May 1980 the World Health Assembly certified that the world was free of naturally occurring smallpox. However, the threat of smallpox has reemerged as a potential terroristic threat since the...

Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs NSAIDs

A type of painkiller and fever reducer that reduces inflammation in the body. Examples of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs include ibuprofen such as Motrin or Advil and naproxen Aleve . Ibuprofen is available without prescription to treat fever in children over a year old. Nonaspirin NSAIDs are given to children to lower fever and treat pain instead of aspirin, which has been associated with the development of reye's syndrome. nonverbal learning disabilities NLD A form of learning...

Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate Plaquenil

Travelers to malaria-risk areas in Mexico, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and certain countries in Central America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe should take hydroxychloroquine sulfate or chloro-quine as their antimalarial drug. The first dose of hydroxychloroquine sulfate should be taken one week before arrival in the malaria-risk area. It should then be taken once a week, on the same day of the week, while in the malaria-risk area, and once a week for four weeks after leaving the...

Hand foot and mouth disease

Hand, foot, and mouth disease A common viral disease of toddlers that produces blistering of palms, soles, and the inside or the mouth. The condition often sweeps through day-care centers in the summer. There is no connection to the cattle disease known as hoof-and-mouth disease. The child is infectious wherever the rash or sores appear the virus will be present in stool and digestive tract for several weeks. Infected children do not need to be isolated, however, because most adults are immune...

Kinesthetic Learners

Children with this style learn best through touch, movement, and space, and they learn skills by imitation and practice. Kinesthetic learners can appear slow, because information is usually not presented in a style that suits their learning methods. Kines-thetic learners make up around 5 percent of the population. left-handedness A child's preference for using the left hand for writing and other activities requiring coordination. Whether a child prefers the right or left hand called handedness...