The Physical Activity Pyramid

Just as the nutrition guidelines are outlined in the Food Guide Pyramid (Chapter 3), the guidelines for physical activity are diagrammed in the Physical Activity Pyramid (Figure 4-2). This pyramid was designed to help people live an active lifestyle, reap the fitness and performance benefits of routine exercise, reduce the health risks associated with inactivity, and reduce the injury risks associated with too much activity. Figure 4-2. The Physical Activity Pyramid Figure 4-2. The Physical...

Basal Metabolic Rate

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy required to maintain life such as breathing, beating of the heart, and maintaining body temperature. This accounts for the majority ( 70 ) of the total daily kcals expended. BMR can be estimated by using the equations in Worksheet 1-1. Find the equation that is appropriate for you and calculate your BMR. Equations to Calculate BMR (kcal day)

Muscle Fiber Types

Before discussing strength training exercises and guidelines, here is a quick review of muscle physiology. To generate force, muscles contract. This action requires ATP (see Chapter 4, page 31). Muscle fibers are classified according to which energy system they use to make ATP. The three types of skeletal muscle fibers are Slow Twitch Oxidative (Type I) fibers are mostly involved in endurance activities. They rely on ATP from aerobic energy metabolism (see page 31) and are generally resistant...

Target Heart Rate Zone

Measuring increases in heart rate is a quick and easy method to gauge the intensity of your workout. It is important to note, however, that the increase in heart rate is not the training stimulus it is only indicative of the oxygen consumption required during the exercise. If an increase in heart rate was all that was needed to increase aerobic capacity, then watching a thrilling movie while sitting on your favorite couch would provide an aerobic training benefit To measure your heart rate...

Dietary Guidelines for Americans

The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) prepared Dietary Guidelines for all Americans 2 years of age and older. (http www.nal.usda.gov fnic dga). The seven guidelines are 2. Balance the food you eat with physical activity -- maintain or improve your weight. 3. Choose a diet with plenty of grain products, vegetables, and fruits. 4. Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. 5. Choose a diet moderate in sugars. 6. Choose a diet...

Appendix C Strength Exercises

Place barbell across shoulders on upper back, not directly on neck. Keep head up, back straight, feet slightly wider than shoulder-width apart, and point toes out. Keep back perpendicular to deck. Count 1 Squat in a controlled motion until knees are over toes, but no lower than having your thighs parallel to deck. Inhale squatting down. Count 2 Return to start position, exhaling while standing up. Variation 3 4 Squat - Squat until knees are at a 120 angle (half of the normal squat). Return to...

Cardiorespiratory Physiology

The heart is a muscle that is required to contract continuously throughout your life to deliver oxygen to all organs in the body. Your lungs breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. Blood vessels connect the heart and lungs so that carbon dioxide can be removed from the blood and oxygen can be added to the blood. The heart then pumps this blood throughout the body. During exercise your heart must pump more often and more strongly to supply oxygen to your exercising muscles to make...

Determinants of Muscle Size

Apart from muscle fiber type, various factors influence muscle size (see Figure 7-1). Although some factors cannot be controlled, two factors that we can control are exercise and nutrition habits (Chapters 3, 4, and 11). Adapted from WD McArdle, FI Katch, and VL Katch. Exercise Physiology, 4th ed. Baltimore Williams & Wilkins, 1996. Men generally have more muscle mass than women, mainly because men produce more testosterone than women. Strength training may increase muscle mass slightly in...

Total Daily Estimated Energy Requirement

To calculate your total daily estimated energy requirements (EER), you multiply the kcals needed for your BMR and digestion (Worksheet 1-1), by your physical activity factor (Table 1-1). Worksheet 1-2. Calculate Your Estimated Energy BMR 'Activity Factor Your Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) _kcal day. *Your BMR is calculated in Worksheet 1-1. The Activity Factor is from Table 1-1. This EER is the amount of kcals you need to eat daily to have an energy balance of zero and maintain your...

Altitude

Ascent to altitude can cause a variety of physiologic disturbances due to the drops in temperature and humidity, and the lack of oxygen. Some major concerns are weight loss, disturbances in digestion, and vitamin, mineral and fluid needs. Physical performance can suffer dramatically with changes in altitude. The lower oxygen concentrations at altitude can reduce aerobic capacity by 1-2 every 100 meters (328 feet) above 1,500 meters (4,918 feet). Many adaptations occur during extended exposure...